Printer Friendly

Urinary Tract Conditions; Key Q&A.

* What conditions could lead to blood in my urine?

The cause may be a serious one, such as bladder or kidney cancer, but more often the cause is relatively benign, such as a urinary tract infection. For example, exercise can cause an episode hematuria--the medical term for blood in the urine. Still, you should check with a health care professional any time you see blood in the urine.

* Why am I having repeated incidences of kidney stones?

A variety of factors can make a person susceptible to stones in the urinary tract. Risk for stones is higher in those with family histories of stones; those who have urinary tract infections, kidney disorders and metabolic disorders such as hyperparathyroidism, cystinuria (too much of an amino acid called cystine) and hyperoxaluria (excess production an oxalate salt); and those with a disease called renal tubular acidosis. Another risk factor is absorptive hypercalciuria, in which the body absorbs too much calcium from food and dumps the excess into the urine. High levels of urinary calcium lead to crystals of calcium oxalate or calcium phosphate, which can grow into painful stones.

Various laboratory tests and a family history should allow your health care professional to determine a likely cause. You can then make dietary changes to prevent future stones.

* My health care professional is concerned because I have protein in my urine, but I feel fine. Should I worry?

Yes. Proteinuria is a sign of glomerulonephritis (inflammation of the glomeruli; see below), also called nephritis (inflammation of the kidney). Diabetes, hypertension and various kidney diseases can cause the inflammation, which can lead to renal failure and, ultimately, end-stage renal disease.

* What is the connection between diabetes and kidney disease?

Diabetes is the number one cause of end-stage renal disease (ESRD). If diabetes is undiagnosed or poorly controlled, excess sugar will circulate in the blood, leading to higher blood flow into the kidney and glomerular scarring. Diabetic nephropathy is the term used for such damage, which can be delayed or prevented by keeping blood sugar levels down.

* What is the connection between high blood pressure and kidney disease?

The number two cause of ESRD is high blood pressure. ACE (angiotensin-converting enzyme) inhibitors are the best medications for controlling the condition and preventing kidney damage. The drugs protect the kidneys more than other blood pressure medicines. Blood pressure should be kept below 125/75 mm Hg in people with proteinuria higher than 1 gram per 24 hours.

* How can I protect my kidneys if I have diabetes?

* Have your glycohemoglobin (hbA1c) checked regularly; the test measures your average blood sugar for the previous one to three months.

* Adhere to your diabetes control regimen, including insulin injections and other medications, diet, exercise and blood sugar monitoring.

* Have your blood pressure checked several times a year and follow any recommendations for reducing it. Ask your health care professional about ACE inhibitors.

* Have your urine checked yearly for protein and microalbumin (a protein component)

* Ask your health care professional whether you need to lower your protein intake.

* How can I prevent recurrence of a cystocele?

In postmenopausal women, hormone replacement therapy, used alone or in combination with other approaches, can help prevent future cystoceles by strengthening pelvic muscles. Hormone replacement therapy, or HRT, typically refers to a combination of estrogen and a synthetic form of the hormone progesterone (progestin). Estrogen replacement therapy, or ERT, refers to the use of estrogen alone.

The safety of HRT and ERT for both short- and long-term use for a variety of menopause-related symptoms is now under close scrutiny by the Federal government as a result of three major studies of HRT published in 2002. In January 2003, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) announced that it would require a new, highlighted and boxed warning on all estrogen products for use by postmenopausal women. Some products currently on the market in the U.S. contain estrogen and progestin, while others contain estrogen alone. The so-called "black box" is the strongest step the FDA can take to warn consumers of potential risks from a medication. The warning highlights the increased risk for heart disease, heart attacks, stroke and breast cancer from supplemental estrogen.

Ask your health care professional for more information about the latest research on ERT and HRT, and how the risks and benefits of using these therapies apply to your personal health needs.

* Is surgery the best option for a painful case of interstitial cystitis (IC)?

The results of the various types of IC surgeries are unpredictable--new ulcers may form after old ones are removed, and IC may afflict bowel tissue used to augment or rebuild the bladder. Even a cystectomy--removal of the bladder--does not guarantee the end of IC symptoms; some patients experience phantom pain. Be sure to explore other options first. Most health care professionals turn to surgery only as last resort.

* What other treatment options are available for IC?

Sometimes eliminating irritating food and beverages from the diet--such as tomatoes, coffee, spices and acidic foods--reduces symptoms of IC. Nonmedicinal approaches to relief include gentle stretching exercises and bladder training. Bladder training involves working with a health care professional to plan specific times at which to urinate and then using relaxation techniques and distractions to stick to the schedule. Patients keep a diary and over time try to extend the time lapse between scheduled urinations.

Transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) is a relatively inexpensive treatment that appears to be most useful in the five to 10 percent of IC patients with Hunner's ulcers, reddened patches with central ridges or scarring that may bleed. The therapy uses mild electric pulses administered through wires on the lower back or above the pubic area, although some devices are inserted into the vagina or rectum (in men).

* What tests can I expect if I am having urinary system symptoms?

Urinalysis and blood testing are standard. Depending on your particular symptoms and history, your health care professional may perform a cystoscopy, in which a view instrument is inserted through the urethra into the bladder; a biopsy, in which tissue is removed for evaluation; an intravenous pyelogram, in which an x-ray is taken of the urinary tract enhanced with a radioactive dye; a urodynamic test, in which the bladder is filled with air or liquid and then emptied in order to measure function; imaging using magnetic resonance imaging or computed tomography techniques.

"faststats A to Z: Kidney Disease." National Center for Health Statistics. U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. http://www.cdc.gov/nchs/fastats/kidbladd.htm. Accessed January 6, 2005.

"Urinary Incontinence in Women." National Kidney and Urologic Diseases Clearinghouse. National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases. National Institutes of Health. NIH Publication No. 04-4132. September 2004. http://kidney.niddk.nih.gov/kudiseases/pubs/uiwomen/index.htm. Accessed January 6, 2005.

"Menopause and Bladder Control." National Kidney and Urologic Diseases Information Clearinghouse. National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases. National Institutes of Health. NIH Publication No. 04-4186. April 2004. http://kidney.niddk.nih.gov/kudiseases/pubs/menopause_ez/index.htm. Accessed January 6, 2005.

"Pregnancy, Childbirth, and Bladder Control." National Kidney and Urologic Diseases Information Clearinghouse. National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases. National Institutes of Health. NIH Publication No. 02-4189. May 2002. http://kidney.niddk.nih.gov/kudiseases/pubs/pregnancy_ez/index.htm. Accessed January 6, 2005."

"Treatments for Urinary Incontinence in Women." National Kidney and Urologic Diseases Information Clearinghouse. National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases. National Institutes of Health. NIH Publication No. 03-5104, June 2003. http://kidney.niddk.nih.gov/kudiseases/pubs/treatmentsuiwomen/index.htm. Accessed January 6, 2005.

"Bladder Control for Women." National Kidney and Urologic Diseases Information Clearinghouse. National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases, National Institutes of Health. NIH Publication No. 03-4195. May 2003. http://kidney.niddk.nih.gov/kudiseases/pubs/bcw_ez/index.htm. Accessed January 6, 2005.

"FDA Approves New Labels for Estrogen and Estrogen with Progestin Therapies for Postmenopausal Women Following Review of Women's Health Initiative Data." FDA News/Press Release. January 8, 2003. http://www.fda.gov/bbs/topics/NEWS/2003/NEW00863.html. Accessed January 6, 2005.

Lacey, James V., et al. "Menopausal Hormone Replacement Therapy and Risk of Ovarian Cancer." JAMA 2002. Vol. 288:334-341.368-369.

Grady D, Herrington D, Bittner V, et al, for the HERS Research Group. Heart and estrogen/progestin replacement study follow-up (HERS II): Part 1. Cardiovascular outcomes during 6.8 years of hormone therapy. JAMA 2002;288:49-57.

Hulley S, Furberg C, Barrett-Connor E, et al, for the HERS Research Group. Heart and estrogen/progestin replacement study follow-up (HERS II): Part 2. Non-cardiovascular outcomes during 6.8 years of hormone therapy. JAMA 2002;288:58-66.

Writing Group for the Women's Health Initiative Investigators. Risks and benefits of estrogen plus progestin in healthy postmenopausal women: principal results from the Women's Health Initiative randomized controlled trial. JAMA 2002; 288:321-333.

"NHLBI Stops Trial of Estrogen Plus Progestin Due to Increased Breast Cancer Risk, Lack of Overall Benefit." National Heart, Lung and Blood Institute. National Institutes of Health. NIH News Release July 9, 2002. http://www.nhlbi.nih.gov/new/press02-07-09.htm. Accessed January 6, 2005.

"Findings from the WHI Postmenopausal Hormone Therapy Trials." Women's Health Initiative," National Heart, Lung and Blood Institute. National Institutes of Health. Updated 2004. http://www.nhlbi.nih.gov/whi/. Accessed January 6, 2005.

"Recommendations for estrogen and progestogen use in peri- and postmenopausal women: October 2004 position statement of the North American Menopause Society." October 2004. http://www.menopause.org/edumaterials/2004HTreport.pdf. Accessed January 6, 2005.

The Menopause Guidebook: Helping Women Make Informed Healthcare Decisions through Perimenopause and Beyond. North American Menopause Society. Copyright 2005. http://www.menopause.org/edumaterials/guidebook/mgtoc.htm. Accessed January 6, 2005.

"What is IC?" Interstitial Cystitis Factsheet. Interstitial Cystitis Association. http://www.ichelp.org/WhatIsIC/ICFactSheet.html. Modified November 1, 2004. Accessed January 6, 2005.

"Neurogenic Bladder" Urologyhealth.org. American Urological Association. http://www.urologyhealth.org/adult/index.cfm?cat=03&topic=109. Accessed January 6, 2005.

"Inability to Urinate" eMedicine Consumer Health. July 13, 2004. http://www.emedicinehealth.com/articles/8850-1.asp. Accessed January 6, 2005.

"Learning About Polycystic Kidney Disease" The PKD Foundation. http://www.pkdcure.org/aboutPkd.htm. Accessed January 6, 2005.

"Analgesic Nephropathy (Painkillers and the Kidneys)." National Kidney and Urologic Diseases Information Clearinghouse. National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases. National Institutes of Health. NIH Publication No. 04-4573. April 2004. http://kidney.niddk.nih.gov/kudiseases/pubs/analgesicnephropathy/index.htm. Accessed January 6, 2005.

"Cystocele (Fallen Bladder)." National Kidney and Urologic Diseases Information Clearinghouse. National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases. National Institutes of Health. NIH Publication No. 05-4557. November 2004. http://kidney.niddk.nih.gov/kudiseases/pubs/cystocele/index.htm. Accessed January 6, 2005.

"Cystoscopy and Ureteroscopy." National Kidney and Urologic Diseases Information Clearinghouse. National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases. National Institutes of Health. NIH Publication No. 04-4800. December 2003. http://kidney.niddk.nih.gov/kudiseases/pubs/cystoscopy/index.htm. Accessed January 6, 2005.

"Eat Right to Feel Right on Hemodialysis." National Kidney and Urologic Diseases Information Clearinghouse. National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases. National Institutes of Health. NIH Publication No. 03-4274. April 2003. http://kidney.niddk.nih.gov/kudiseases/pubs/eatright/index.htm. Accessed January 6, 2005.

"Glomerular Diseases." National Kidney and Urologic Diseases Information Clearinghouse. National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases. National Institutes of Health. NIH Publication No. 04-4358. December 2003. http://kidney.niddk.nih.gov/kudiseases/pubs/glomerular/index.htm. Accessed January 6, 2005.

"Hematuria (Blood in the Urine)." National Kidney and Urologic Diseases Information Clearinghouse. National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases. National Institutes of Health. NIH Publication No. 04-4559. December 2003. http://kidney.niddk.nih.gov/kudiseases/pubs/hematuria/index.htm. Accessed January 6, 2005.

"High Blood Pressure and Kidney Disease." National Kidney and Urologic Diseases Information Clearinghouse. National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases. National Institutes of Health. NIH Publication No. 03-4572. July 2003. http://kidney.niddk.nih.gov/kudiseases/pubs/highblood/index.htm. Accessed January 6, 2005.

"Interstitial Cystitis." National Kidney and Urologic Diseases Information Clearinghouse. National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases. National Institutes of Health. NIH Publication No. 03-3220. July 2003. http://kidney.niddk.nih.gov/kudiseases/pubs/interstitialcystitis/index.htm. Accessed January 6, 2005.

"Keeping the Urinary System Healthy." American Medical Women's Association Women's Complete Healthbook. Roselyn Payne Epps and Susan Cobb Stewart, eds. American Medical Women's Association. http://www.amwa-doc.org/index.cfm?objectid=0016846A-D567-0B25-51B4A1772F75DI79.Accessed January 6, 2005.

"Kidney and Urologic Diseases Statistics for the United States." National Kidney and Urologic Diseases Information Clearinghouse. National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases. National Institutes of Health. NIH Publication No. 04-3895. http://kidney.niddk.nih.gov/kudiseases/pubs/kustats/index.htm. Accessed January 6, 2005.

"Kidney Diseases Dictionary Index." National Kidney and Urologic Diseases Information Clearinghouse. National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases. National Institutes of Health. NIH Publication No. 03-4359. May 2003. http://kidney.niddk.nih.gov/kudiseases/pubs/kdictionary/index.htm. Accessed January 6, 2005.

"Kidney Stones in Adults." National Kidney and Urologic Diseases Information Clearinghouse. National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases. National Institutes of Health. NIH Publication No. 03-2495. April, 2003. http://kidney.niddk.nih.gov/kudiseases/pubs/stonesadults/index.htm. Accessed January 6, 2005.

"Your Kidneys and How They Work." National Kidney and Urologic Diseases Information Clearinghouse. National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases. National Institutes of Health. NIH Publication No. 03-4241. July 2003. http://kidney.niddk.nih.gov/kudiseases/pubs/yourkidneys/index.htm. Accessed January 6, 2005.

"Neurogenic Bladder." UrologyHealth.org. American Urological Association. http://www.urologyhealth.org/adult/index.cfm?cat=03&topic=109. Accessed January 6, 2005.

"Proteinuria." National Kidney and Urologic Diseases Information Clearinghouse. National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases. National Institutes of Health. NIH Publication No. 03-4732. June 2003. http://kidney.niddk.nih.gov/kudiseases/pubs/proteinuria/index.htm. Accessed January 6, 2005.

"Urologic Diseases Dictionary Index." National Kidney and Urologic Diseases Information Clearinghouse. National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases. National Institutes of Health. NIH Publication No. 04-4376. September 2004. http://kidney.niddk.nih.gov/kudiseases/pubs/dictionary/index.htm. Accessed January 6, 2005.

"Best Bets for Menopausal Hormone Use." National Cancer Institute. National Institutes of Health. http://www.cancer.gov/search/results.aspx. Accessed January 6, 2005.

"Vesicoureteral Reflux." National Kidney and Urologic Diseases Information Clearinghouse. National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases. National Institutes of Health. NIH Publication No. 03-4555. April 2003. http://kidney.niddk.nih.gov/kudiseases/pubs/vesicoureteralreflux/index.htm. Accessed January 6, 2005.

"What You Need to Know About Bladder Cancer." National Cancer Institute. September 16, 2002. http://cancernet.nci.nih.gov/templates/doc.aspx?viewid=cddc0d3e-4fdc-4332-8f6b-1d6136ffdd5f. Accessed January 6, 2005.

"Your Urinary System and How It Works." National Kidney and Urologic Diseases Information Clearinghouse. National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases. National Institutes of Health. NIH Publication No. 04-3195. September 2004. http://kidney.niddk.nih.gov/kudiseases/pubs/yoururinary/index.htm. Accessed January 6, 2005.

Editorial Staff of the National Women's Health Resource Center 2002/12/01 2005/03/17 Your urinary system works with other organs to excrete wastes and keep chemicals and water in the body balanced. An adult eliminates about a quart and a half of urine each day, but the amount can vary depending on the amount of fluid and food consumed and how much is lost through sweat and breathing. Cystitis,Cystoscope,Intravenous pyelogram,Kidneys,Renal,Urinary tract,Urinary tract conditions,Urodynamic testing
COPYRIGHT 2005 National Women's Health Resource Center
No portion of this article can be reproduced without the express written permission from the copyright holder.
Copyright 2005 Gale, Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.

Article Details
Printer friendly Cite/link Email Feedback
Publication:NWHRC Health Center - Urinary Tract Conditions
Geographic Code:1USA
Date:Mar 17, 2005
Words:2620
Previous Article:Urinary Tract Conditions; Questions to Ask.
Next Article:Urinary Tract Conditions; Overview.
Topics:

Terms of use | Privacy policy | Copyright © 2022 Farlex, Inc. | Feedback | For webmasters |