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Update from the digital realm of cyberspace.



The Department of Defense (DOD) and the U.S. Army have made significant progress within the cyber domain, but only after grappling with critical issues for many years. There are still many serious force modernization actions that still need to occur. A large portion of that effort has just begun or is soon to begin. This is an exciting effort from the DOD to Joint to Army service levels as the entire community shapes our future by building mature cyber capabilities.

This article provides an update on the actions ongoing within the cyber domain using the doctrine, organization, training, materiel, leadership and education, personnel, and facilities (DOTMLPF) construct, and addresses some of the most recent developments regarding the cyber aspects of doctrine, organization, and personnel.

Doctrine. What's available and what's yet to be published.

Joint Publication (JP) 3-12, Joint Cyberspace Operations, published 2 February 2013, is available on the SIPRNET Joint Electronic Library. JP 3-12 provides the fundamental constructs and guidance to assist joint force commanders, their staffs, and supporting and subordinate commanders in the planning, execution, and assessment of cyberspace operations.

It defines cyberspace operations as the employment of cyberspace capabilities where the primary purpose is to achieve objectives in or through cyberspace. It discusses and explains the Joint Staff, combatant command, U.S. Strategic Command, U.S. Cyber Command, functional and Service component relationships and responsibilities, and military operations in and through cyberspace, and it establishes a framework for the employment of cyberspace forces and capabilities.

Combined arms doctrine is coming to grips with the cyber domain and cyber activities with the introduction of cyber electromagnetic activities (CEMA). This process occurred much like the development for Information Operations. The Army codified the concept of CEMA in ADRP 3-0, Unified Land Operations, and ADRP 6-0, Mission Command. The mission command warfighting function now includes four primary staff tasks:

* Conduct the operations process (plan, prepare, execute, assess).

* Conduct knowledge management and information management.

* Conduct inform and influence activities (IIA).

* Conduct CEMA.

The Electronic Warfare Proponent Office at Fort Leavenworth, Kansas, submitted Field Manual (FM) 3-38, Cyber Electromagnetic Activities (CEMA) to the Combined Arms Center Commanding General for signature, and was signed on 25 October 2013. FM 3-38 is the first doctrine field manual of its kind, the concept of integrated and synchronized CEMA is new.

FM 3-38 provides an overview of principles, tactics, and procedures on how the Army will integrate CEMA as a part of unified land operations. At its heart, CEMA are designed to posture the Army to address the increasing importance of cyberspace and the electromagnetic spectrum and their role in unified land operations. CEMA are implemented via the integration and synchronization of cyberspace operations, electronic warfare (EW), and electromagnetic spectrum management operations (EMSMO).

The Army continues to support the Secretary of Defense and joint requirements for information operations, EW, and cyberspace operations through the execution of IIA, CEMA, and the integration of 20 other information-related activities. These separate activities are tied through Mission Command, but have 21 distinctly different processes for carrying out their operating requirements. FM 3-38 will join the rest of the FMs that are a part of the Doctrine 2015 initiative.

FM 3-12, Army Cyberspace Operations, currently has an approved program directive and is under development. The Intelligence Center of Excellence (ICoE) expects the release of the initial staffing draft of FM 3-12 to occur mid to end November 2013 and final publication to occur around the September 2014 timeframe. FM 3-12 is meant to provide a baseline of fundamental tactics and procedures for commanders and staffs regarding the employment of cyberspace operations.

ICoE has just started work on ATP 2-91.9 tentatively titled "Intelligence Support to CEMA" with an anticipated publication date of December 2015. The publication will serve as the doctrinal foundation for Army intelligence professionals and commanders at all levels and will provide the information necessary to effectively provide intelligence support to CEMA at all echelons.

It will describe the integration of CEMA into the intelligence warfighting function; outline core functions and missions of intelligence support to cyberspace operations, electronic warfare, and electromagnetic spectrum management operations, and provide specific techniques and procedures. It will also discuss the CEMA structure, organizations, and capabilities; planning and collection for CEMA; and the conduct of CEMA intelligence support for unique missions. ATP 2-91.9 will be a classified publication available on JWICS.

Organization. Pending Secretary of the Army approval, the Army plans to establish an Institutional Unit of Effort (IUE) within the U.S. Army Training and Doctrine Command to manage the DOTMLPF force modernization proponent responsibilities for cyberspace operations. A combined team from the Army Intelligence Community (HQDA G-2, the U.S. Army Intelligence and Security Command, and ICoE) will provide dedicated on-site support for the planning efforts to bring the IUE from a conceptual existence to a fully operational capability.

Personnel. As a long term objective, the IUE will provide the foundational analysis and supporting data for an informed decision on whether the Army may need to design and create a cyber career management field/military occupational specialty (MOS). However, for the MI Corps, Soldiers in MOS 35Q will be the CEMA trained personnel.


Changes to DOTMLPF supporting CEMA and intelligence support to CEMA will continue into the foreseeable future as the Army establishes its policies, doctrine, organizations and capabilities. The future within the cyber domain will be complex and no one has the crystal ball to understand exactly what we may face. Therefore, it is critical for the Army to continue developing flexible solutions nested with Joint cyber operations while also capturing the unique nature of Army operations.

Mr. Schlappy is a retired Army Major with 26 years of service at both tactical and strategic levels. Among his varied assignments, he served as the S2, 210 Fires MLRS Brigade, 2nd Infantry Division in Korea, the 66th MIG in Germany, and as an Intelligence Planner, J5, Multinational Forces Iraq, in the U.S. Embassy, Iraq. He currently serves in the Doctrine, Concepts, Experimentation, and Lessons Learned Branch at Fort Huachuca, Arizona with a focus on the cyber domain.
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Author:Schlappy, David K.
Publication:Military Intelligence Professional Bulletin
Geographic Code:1USA
Date:Jan 1, 2014
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