United Nations: A Long Tale of Maniac without Serving the Purpose.
More than 3520 peacekeepers are died and captive ratio is other. UN agencies are working for food programs but many donors are not taking interest to meet their commitments. Cuban missile crisis, Vietnam episode, and unilateral action of US against Iraq is before the sphere. Meetings in Copenhagen about climate could not be successful. Nuclear proliferation could not be stopped by the UN. Trend of democratization of the world could not be introduced. Territorial disputes yet not to be solved. Improving the living standard regardless of racial, ethnic, religious and other types of discrimination are not going towards the solution (John, 2005).
Five permanent members of veto authority enjoy all powers. Their single member of them can delay an important issue. The issue of Syria is an example of the practice of Security Council members. The members of UN are working for decades to be active in its affairs but achievements are still in progress. The victors of WWII are playing key role in its affairs from last 70 years. Each of them has veto power in Security Council. People's opinion is that these powers are not representing the whole world today. General Assembly of 193 state members has no restrictionery powers which should be in this period. Germany, India, Japan, Brazil, Nigeria and South Africa deserve for permanent Security Council seat. Islamic World with 2nd largest religion in the world has no seat in Security Council. Twenty-six agencies of UN with autonomous and semi-autonomous status are working, there is no central entity to watch them all. Secretary General has no legal authority to see many of them.
Its core example is of World Health Organization's (WHO) director in Geneva who is not bound to report the Secretary General in New York. In September 2004, Kofi Annan (secretary General) arose a statement that UN's involvement in Iraq is an illegal violation of the UN charter in an interview with BBC. Such issues would be discussed below:
Political Horse Trading
UN secretariat and UN agencies heads are appointed through lobbies. A criticism is seen on their appointments. Major international disputes were not yet to be solved due to flexing attitude of US. US paid millions of $ in UN's budget. In 1985 a theme was approved by US congress that "voting rights in UN should proportionate to the contribution of each member state to the budget of UN and its specialized agencies" There is impatience growing in the white house over the slow pace of UN reform, withholding UN funding was discussed. There is relatively little confidence in its overall ability. Next couple of years would be important for the future of UN. A great deal depend on institutional management reforms (Browne, 2013).
UNESCO was established to promote education, science and culture in order to further promote justice, rule of law, and fundamental freedom of the people. But it has a tragic history. US boycotted the organization for 18 years from 1985 to 2003, over its policies, agenda, and budgetary mismanagement (Boiidin, 1985).
Severe Situation of Terrorism
The term terrorism was first coined by the French revolutionary governments by applying systematic state terror against the population of France in 1790s, killing thousands of people. The term terrorism became famous on international level after de-colonialism. Newly independent (third world states) started fight for their rights due to the biased big powers policies, Political behavior also created displeasure, resentment and reaction by the aggrieved freedom fighters. The apprehension has made the lives of the immigrants, working or living there quite miserable. These workers are not able to attack nuclear reactors. Terrorism either by state or by non-state actors is the cruelest of crimes which kills less criminals but more innocent citizens. Terrorism has no absolute and globally accepted definition.
If simply stated, terror is extreme or intense fear. It is a psychological state, which combines the physical and mental efforts to create threat and insecurity. If we look a political disputes like Iraq and Afghanistan the interior motives of war on terrorism are:
1. To get hold of the natural sources of Muslim countries, either with the policy of friendship or confrontation.
2. Islam is spreading fast in west, people accepted Islam 4500 after 9/11. They are using in the name of democracy to damage the ideology of Islam. They are changing the elected governments but not the Gulf States monarchy.
It is said if a nation dies it is a national death but if a culture or ideology dies it is the death all over. The Bush administration called counter terrorism as the war on terrorism between Christine and Muslim civilization. The American enforced rather than undermined al-Qaeda ideology. The last UN Secretary General reported on Afghanistan, that the corruption, opium production, lawlessness and human rights violation are all increased. Poverty is also an incubating cause of terrorism. UN has not yet defined the term of terrorism. What is terrorism? Why terrorism is spreading? What is behind it, is yet to be explored? Different types of terrorism are specified but not proper work is completed. Types of terrorism are state terrorism, religious terrorism, right wing, left wing, issue oriented, narcotic terrorism, domestic terrorism.
Domestic or homegrown terrorism is associated with violent acts of the permanent residents of a state against their own people or property without foreign influence, a tactic design to advance political religious or ideological objectives. USA patriot act 2001 defined the domestic terrorism as "activities that (a) involve acts dangerous to human life that is violation of the criminal laws of the US or any state. (b) Appear to be intended coerce a civilian population, influence the policy of the government to affect the conduct of the government by mass destruction, assassination or kidnapping.
US designated seven states, 'state sponsors of terrorism' Cuba, Iran, Libya, North Korea, Syria and Sudan. But none of them is agree with this statement. These homegrown so called terrorists are well educated, college graduates, members of the military. Recent research by Matt Qverturp in the British journal of politics and international relations suggested that domestic terrorism is the result of lack of opportunities for perfect political engagement. He suggested that domestic terrorism can be reduced by introducing constitutional changes, and promote the minority groups. Abdullah Hakeem Muhammad killed military recruits. He was arrested and he claimed that he has links with al-Qaida. But investigators found no evidence of this. Nidal Hassan Malik killed several of his military colleagues, he was accused to be the member of Taliban but after later investigation he was declared psychiatrist patient. The internet is a driver of radicalization.
The possibilities of terrorists obtaining biological, chemical or nuclear weapons either by buying, stealing or through collusion with states developing weapons of mass destruction (WMD) are a growing concern.
Child Sexual abuse Scandal
Many nations gained help from UN in war and desperation. It was reported in 1990s that UN forces were involved in child prostitution. Senior officials refused to condemn this practice. They took their stance that this investigation will be discouraging the morale of the peace missions. UN launched peacekeeping missions in the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC) in 1999, it was the second largest mission with 23,383 personnel, including 18,928 peacekeeping troops, including neighboring nations to extract precious resource as gold and diamonds freely exclude in eastern DRC. Periodically they raped women and girls 15000 per year by 2008.
In 2007, General Assembly decided about serious action against such military personnel. But poor feedback came from the member states. Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) and Central African Republic (CAR) had a lot of sexual prostitution and human trafficking. UN Secretary General and minister of education of Mozambique raised the issue of child sexual exploitation in peace keeping missions. In 1999, international UN police force officers were paying for prostitution and it enjoyed immunity from prostitution in Bosnia. UN reported at February 2002 that children were exploited. The report was based on the interviews of the refugees, local population, returnees, and human aid workers, sexual exploitation and prostitution was very common in West Africa in UN peace missions. UN Office of Internal Oversight Services (OIOS) published a report on the allegations of sexual abuses and exploitation of the refugees by the aid workers and the UN peacekeepers in West Africa on October 2002.
A single year later from the report of OIOS. Secretary General spoke openly on sexual abuses. One of the paragraphs of his statements is as follows "UN forces conducting operations under UN command and control are prohibited from the committing acts of sexual exploitation and sexual abuses, and have a particular duty of care towards women and children". In Democratic republic of Congo, UN personnel were investigated. They were found guilty in rape and prostitution of young girls and women across the country. The alleged personnel of UN were from France, South Africa, Pakistan, Tunisia, Uruguay, Morocco and Nepal. In 2006, BBC revealed a report of prostitution and rape in Haiti and Liberia. UN forces used girls in return of money and food. UN report leaked in April 2015 that 10-12 boys were raped at the age of 15 for food and shelter. In 2016, 69 sexual allegations were registered.
A Series of Massacre
Serbians attacked the Bosnian Muslims; it was the big massacre after WWII in Europe. UN forces were unable to stop the Serbians. Innocent children and women were raped and killed. 7800 Bosnians were killed in 1995. The episode of Cambodia is also one of them 33% of total population was massacred. Sudanese forces tussle in more than 30 attacked on civilian villages, the UN forces did not enter in Sudan. Sudanese military was destroying the civilian population. It was reported that Sudanese military used white painted aircraft and dropped bombs in villages. This fighting continued till 2010. Approximately 300,000 civilian Sudanese were killed.
The civil war of Rwanda between Hutu and Tutsi ethnic groups reached on higher risk. The UN peacekeeping military forces were not allowed to achieve their goals. US was unwilling to help the Sudanese civil war. One million Rwandans were killed, it was 20% of total population. Tutsi and Hutu tribes in Rwanda killed the 800,000 each other's, Tutsi sympathies; a lot of international mistakes were revealed (Genocide in Bosnia 1992-1995).
Budgetary Requirements for Peace Operations
World is approximately spending $ 794 billion on arms purchasing while the cost of UN peace mission budget is $ 26 billion. Member states are not willing to give their dues for overcoming the rebellions.
CIA world fact book mentioned that 2/3rd illiteracy of the world is found in three regions of the world i.e. Sub-Sahara Africa South and West Asia. This stander of education justifies the performance of UN's education program.21000 children die before their 5th birthday everyday due to preventable diseases. No substantial measures are taken by UN in this esteem. After the massacre of 800,000 in Somalia, the UN commission failed in inquiry. UN peace mission commission miserably failed in investigating the tragic death of 43 American and Pakistani soldiers and 54 wounded. In Rwanda peace agreement unresolved tensions were ignored that prevented unity and co-operation. UN peace keepers knowingly disgracefully abandoned thousands of Rwanda civilians, leaving them invulnerable to surrounding militia and troops who subsequently massacred them.
UN failed to identify the genocide and respond the genocide. Bosnia massacre1995; 20000 Muslims including children, women were brutally massacred in so called safe areas (ASPI Defence Budget Brief 2016-17).
Oil for Food
This put bad impression on UN's reputation riddled with corruption and mismanagement as well as complete lack of discipline in its peacekeeping operations. UN Secretary General Kofi Annan acknowledged that acts of gross misconduct have taken place. Report described sexual exploitation by UN personnel's in Congo as significant widespread and ongoing. Corruption of oil for food scandal also degraded the UN's status. This scandal is the biggest scandal in the history of UN. The largest financial fraud in modern times. Investigators examined huge amounts relating fraud, corruption and bribery. Approximately Saddam Husain's period got $ 1.8 billion illicit under the oil for food program due to sanctions on Iraq. 500 page report painted an ugly picture of corruption, fraud, bribery on a global scale. Incomplete inquiry left many questions mark of interrogation on UN secretary General Kofi Annan and his chief aide Iqbal Riza.
The destruction of highly sensitive documents by Iqbal Riza was an obstruction to justice that demands fair investigation. It put a `dark cloud over the credibility of secretary general (Amnesty International, 2003)
Trend of Displacement or Consumers of the Migrants World refugees' situation is also severe. UN refugee agency is dealing with 51 million people who are forced to migrate from their own countries. Peace keeping missions are in the severe situation. Conflict and persecution caused global forced displacement to escalate sharply in 2015, reaching the highest level ever recorded and representing immense human suffering, according to a report released today by United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR), the UN Refugee Agency. UNHCR's annual Global Trends report, which tracks forced displacement worldwide based on data from governments, partners including the Internal Displacement Monitoring Centre (IDMC), and the organization's own reporting, said 65.3 million people were displaced by the end of 2015, compared to 59.5 million just 12 months earlier. This is the first time that the threshold of 60 million has been crossed.
The total of 65.3 million comprises 3.2 million people in industrialized countries who as by end of 2015 were awaiting decisions on asylum (the largest total UNHCR has recorded), 21.3 million refugees worldwide (1.8 million more than in 2014 and the highest refugee total since the early 1990s), and 40.8 million people who had been forced to flee their homes but were within the confines of their own countries (an increase of 2.6 million from 2014 and the highest number on record).
Measures against Earth's 7.349 billion population, these numbers mean that 1 in every 113 people globally is now either an asylum-seeker, internally displaced or a refugee - a level of risk for which UNHCR knows no precedent. In all, there are more forcibly displaced people today than the populations of the United Kingdom, France or Italy.
Countries Produce Half the world's Refugee
Among countries covered by the Global Trends report several stand out: Syria at 4.9 million, Afghanistan at 2.7 million and Somalia at 1.1 million together accounted for more than half the refugees under UNHCR's mandate worldwide. Colombia at 6.9 million, Syria at 6.6 million, and Iraq at 4.4 million meanwhile had the largest numbers of internally displaced people. Yemen was the biggest producer of new internal displacement in 2015, 2.5 million people, or 9 per cent of its population. Europe's struggles to manage more than one million refugees and migrants who arrived via the Mediterranean dominated the attentions of many in 2015, nonetheless the report shows that the vast majority of the world's refugees were elsewhere (Kumar, 2016).
Asylum Claims Rise
Among industrialized countries, 2015 was also a record year for new asylum claims, with two million requests (contributing to the 3.2 million cases still pending as of the end of the year). Germany received more asylum requests than any other country (441,900), largely reflecting its readiness to receive people who were fleeing to Europe via the Mediterranean. The United States had the second highest number of asylum claims (172,700), many of these individuals fleeing gang-related violence in Central America. Substantial asylum applications were also seen in Sweden (156,000) and Russia (152,500). Rising numbers of people fleeing gang and other violence in Central America contributed to a 17 per cent rise in displacement across the wider region. Refugees and asylum seekers from El Salvador, Guatemala, and Honduras together reached 109,800, most coming to Mexico and the United States and representing a more than five-fold increase over three years.
Colombia, a longstanding situation, remained the world's biggest country for internal displacement (6.9 million). Europe's proximity to Syria and Iraq, the arrival of more than a million refugees and migrants via the Mediterranean mostly from the world's top ten refugee-producing countries, and the situation in Ukraine, together dominated the region's displacement picture in 2015. At the end of 2015 there were some 593,000 refugees from European countries - more than half from Ukraine. European countries also hosted 4.4 million refugees - 2.5 million of them in Turkey. Figures provided by the Government of Ukraine list 1.6 million Ukrainians as being displaced there. The Global Trends report lists 441,900 asylum claims in Germany, where the refugee population increased by 46 per cent from its 2014 level to 316,000 (Ibid).
About Half the World's Refugees are Children
Children constituted 51 per cent of the world's refugees in 2015 according to the data UNHCR was able to gather (complete demographic data was not available to the report authors). Worryingly, many were separated from their parents or travelling alone. In all there were 98,400 asylum requests from children who were unaccompanied or separated from their families. This is the highest total UNHCR has seen - and a tragic reflection of how global forced displacement is disproportionately affecting young lives (OECD, 2010).
Unable to go Home
While global displacement totals were higher than ever, the number of people able to return to their home or find another solution (local integration in a country of first refuge or resettlement elsewhere) was low. 201,400 refugees were able to return to their countries of origin in 2015 (mainly Afghanistan, Sudan and Somalia). This was higher than the total in 2014 (126,800), but still substantially down compared with the peaks of the early 1990s. Some 107,100 refugees were admitted for resettlement in 30 countries in 2015 - representing just 0.66 per cent of the refugees under UNHCR's mandate (by comparison, 26 countries admitted 105,200 refugees for resettlement in 2014, representing 0.73 per cent of the refugee population under UNHCR care). At least 32,000 refugees became naturalized over the course of the year, the majority in Canada and with smaller numbers in France, Belgium, and Austria and elsewhere.
1. UN should be active and its powers and functions must be defined according to current situations.
2. Security Council seats must be increased on population based accordingly.
3. Volunteering or donating money can help mitigate the crisis. Well-regarded organizations that have been heralded for helping refugees around the world include.
4. Big powers must take serious steps to solve the problems of 3rd world states.
5. Save the Children, these are the coming generation. Provide them education, emergency aid and health care facilities to them for healthy future.
Determinants of terrorism must be evaluated and difference between freedom fighters and terrorists must be explained.
Notes and References
Betts, A. Bloom, L. Kaplan, J. and Omata, K. (2016). Refugee Economies: Forced Displacement and Development. Amnesty International, Oxford University Press.
Ashwani K., Jan, A., Mary, K., Marlies, G., Hakan, S. and Helmut K.(2009) Poverty and Activism, Global Civil Society Yearbook.
Chomsky, A. (2014). Undocumented: How Immigration Became Illegal Beacon Press.
Correll, John T. (2005). Airpower and the Cuban Missile Crisis" (http:/ / www. airforce-magazine. com/ MagazineArchive/ Pages/ 2005/ August 2005/ 0805u2. aspx). AirForce-Magazine.com 88 (8). . Retrieved May 4, 2010).
Deschamps, M. ( .)2015 The UN and the Future of Peacekeeping Operations Are In Jeopardy. II. .... the fact that the sexual abuse of children in the context of armed conflict ...Taking Action on Sexual Exploitation and Abuse by ... - Nations Unieswww.un.org.Genocide in Bosnia 1992-1995.www.hmh.org.
UNHCR, (2016). Global forced displacement has increased in 2015, with record-high numbers. By the end of the year, three countries: the Syrian Arab Republic (4.9 million), Afghanistan. Investigate the United Nations Oil-for-Food Fraud .amazonaws.com. United Nations Oil-for-Food Fraud.
Maman, S. (2014). Sidikou Takes a Tough Stand on Sexual Exploitation and Abuse in Somalia. Johannesburg: African Union, African Union Mission in Somalia. Press Release: Incoming African Union Special Representative for Somalia and Head of AMISOM, Migration trends and patterns of Syrian asylum ... - Situations - UNHCR, OECD,2010 OECD Publishing, 2010International Migration Outlook.
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|Publication:||Journal of Pakistan Vision|
|Date:||Jun 20, 2019|
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