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Understanding EU conditionnality: a conceptual framework of national sovereignty and religious freedom (Romania case study).

A. National sovereignty, multiculturalism and European integration

In the early 1990s, when many researchers enthusiastically aspired to be as objective as possible from a methodological point of view as well as from a scientific point of view, notions as European integration, national sovereignty and religious multiculturalism have acquired a time-space versatility and mobility, presenting experiences and circumstances characteristic for the whole period of contemporary history defining the new balance of the relations between the state and religion. We can thus say that in the context of geopolitics of religion, religious pluralism had an evolution and a destiny which generated in the context of European integration a real challenge equally for the states and the institutions (1).

Therefore, so far from the subject, religious multiculturalism, in one way or another, lies between the position of those who consider that European integration represents an element that should not be ignored in the process of interpretation and comprehension of geopolitics of religion and the position of those who consider European welfare as an immanent part of the process of recognition of the European spiritual personalism.

What on the contrary is common and, as such, characterizes the European law system is that, although the state proclaims its sovereignity, in fact, religion participates practically in the institutionalization process (especially when the legal statute of religion is approached). Due to caution, the state is autonomous in virtue of the idea of common good, of that idem sentire de re publica (but not also in power), not necessarily neutral, even in the societies where there is a strict separation regime between the state and religion (contrary to the principle of subsidiarity between the State and religion).

[FIGURE 1 OMITTED]

In this context, the problem of subsidiarity is influenced by the emergence and establishment of a new type of institutional influence of the church that opens the perspective towards the crisis of the relationship state-church (2) paradigm. In the second hypothesis, in the last decade, spiritual personalism presents some special features:

(1) By force of historical and political circumstances, in Eastern Europe the church assumed the role of an "ad extra" figure generating an identity multiculturalism;

(2) In the case of Western Europe, geopolitics of religions generated a temporal perspective and a merging reality according to Western legal system;

(3) Hence, the development of a dichotomic scenario activates the influence of religion majority in the context of European integration.

B. Church-State Subsidiarity and Negative Liberty

Thus, a second theoretical perspective focuses de novo the attention on the historical and generic link between multiculturalism and individual freedom which activates as a barrier claiming "negative freedom" and the non-integration perspective (3). Such an observation is articulated in two historical hypothesis:

* Hypothesis 1: in the first direction, individual freedom is accompanied by cultural pluralism and the obligation "from belonging to supporting" in the context of the respect of national sovereignty;

* Hypothesis 2: the second direction which presents the dichotomic analysis of the political neutrality at empirical level (4). A particular importance in this context is related to collective preferences and national sovereignty .

Adding up, as we notice, the circle of conceptual dilemmas and the model of "fluidity" is based on the observation that theoretical vocabulary concerns not only the "short-term strategy of restrictions due to freedom", but also the "long-term strategy of the total freedom".

If we follow the hypothesis of the circle of conceptual dillemas of freedom in present European public sphere, we have to note Kymlicka's liberal theory rather seen as a consequence of changes of realities and events, following the direct correspondence between short-term measures of freedom restriction and the perception of the disintegration of the society (see Hypothesis 1).

Just like Will Kymlicka observes, the linear perception of absolute freedoms includes within the collective behaviour two complementary perspectives:

* the paradigm of cultural uniformity;

* the paradigm of political community (the sense of the "recognition of primary benefits of cultural affiliation" (5)).

Although Kymlicka's vision regarding the features of freedom leads to dissensions in the social and political area, the quality differences produce consequences for the "negative freedom" (6) and the conceptual framework of national sovereignty.

[FIGURE 2 OMITTED]

Considering that, it is always possible to check the functional aspect of how the new theory articulates classic theology and social magisterium in the last two centuries. Moreover, it is difficult, from an ideologic perspective, to understand "people's government" (in terms of national sovereignty) and "assets administration" (see Hypothesis 2). This approach has essentially contributed to the establishment of a new scientific and rational theory on the particular evaluation of the human spirit starting with the 15th century, in opposition with the Christian social thinking. Thus, by the saint-simonism theory we understand the rational point of view of social reality, "translated" from a philosophical perspective at the interface between the hermeneutics of a reality centred on self abandon and the value commitments of European social doctrine.

Remaining in force the fact that, usually, the context of Western dialogue allows us to understand if the term "Europe" is understood empirically or symbolically, as a set of ideas and theories. The thesis proposed in the West in the last ten years is the one stating that European social thinking, far from being a residue of old Europe or just a non-scientific resort, represents the reflection of the European multiculturalism progress.

On the other hand, European society was characterized by a radical amount of the individual freedom and national sovereignty, in the functional terms of a liberalism that intends to signal the revirement of public opinion. From the conceptual framework of new social doctrine, Saint-Simon enunciates the following conclusions: But why was needed such a "moralization" condition for the whole area of social life? Refusing church magisterium, Europe should have retaken the new doctrine of multiculturalism from a theological and philosophical perspective by claiming the virtues and moral values of industry, science and commerce: cooperation, peace, communion, solidarity etc. (7).

For West, the great challenge lies in how secular religious crisis may take new shapes and aspects (8). The consequence of this challenge is the spiritual crisis of modernity, of the individual's desire to discover spiritual freedom and to reinvent the reconciliatory potential of the new multiculturalism.

Secondly, Taylor affirms that the relation between religion and European identity represents the natural consequence of the integration process, reasoning from here, that law (the legal recognition of religious affairs in the European law systems) cannot be removed from the essential structure of the social relationship which distinguishes a removable event of the last years namely, the "crisis of identity". Taylor appreciates that religion has a polarized configuration, in the sense of ambivalence which refers to the dichotomy political identity/identity crisis/ rights violations.

Starting from here, the interpretation of European identity and religious freedom as essential phenomenons of European integration could be opposed to the view conflict as possible event. In this sense, the vision of Charles Taylor's hostility toward the concept of group identity can mobilize both internal conflict as well as a conflict that takes place within a community. Such an approach is relevant to the political and epistemological assertion of freedom of thought, conscience and religion because because it (9):

1. exerts a corroboration role between the theories regarding the regime of cults and the European law systems in the "modern world" (10). The phrase "modern world", which Taylor's thesis is based on, stands on the fundamental idea of political legitimacy conceived in the sense of popular sovereignty that always existed. However, such an argument is the decisive factor that requires the appeal to the factological argument of political identity when accompanied by appropiate explanatory support;

2. emphasizes the possible deviant cases of how the types of relationships between state, church, law and citizen's rights in Europe. The conceptual debate around religious pluralism moves decisively in the sense of a philosophical itinerary that strenghtens the beginning of the Christian civilization (11).

The initial forms of separation is totally different from the contemporary cases, but its bases accompany continuously the modern development (12) and it fulfills the role of an analysis and interpretation of religion in contemporary Europe especially where Orthodox religion represents the majority. In the new legislative context, after the communist dictatorship, religion has reaffirmed its autonomy before the state, demanding de facto the legal recognition of this autonomy and the respect of law at the EU level (13). We have to mention that according to these statistics, the legal recognition of freedom of thought, conscience and religion generated a new work hypothesis according to the social and cultural and confessional reality in each of the member states (see the Romanian case).

3. therefore, putting aside the fact that approaching this problem might generate a new working hypothesis, putting aside the affirmation that claims the existence of religious multiculturalism and pluralism, the problem is that the discussion about the social and cultural realities in each state is definable from the perspective of personal worship and personal affiliation to Church's body in a limited sense" (moreover, according to article 9 of the European Convention on Human Rights: "Everyone has the right to freedom of thought, conscience and religion; this right includes freedom to change his religion or belief, and freedom, either alone or in community with others and in public or private, to manifest his religion or belief, in worship, teaching, practice and observance"--see Article 9 of the European Convention on Human Rights Freedom of thought, conscience and religion) (14).

4. emphasizes the existence of a situation that can be regarded, in the logics of individual and community differentiations, as a crucial experiment of different European law systems and EU condirinnalities. Thus, researching the problematics of religious freedom and the regime of cults becomes in current political theory a cosmopolite approach, offering a creational perspective of diversity beyond the simple natural communities: family, minority, ethnicity, nation. In other words, religious freedom becomes one of the mutiple extremes of the politics-religion-law continuum, definable in the appreciation of "free exercise of religion" (15).

C. EU integration and Romanian legislation on religion and religious freedom--case study

The emergence of law of religion is an eloquent proof of the special significance of the relationship between law and religion in the current period. Limiting himself only to some aspects, Walzer distinguishes a functional aspect of European multiculturalism, as expression of religious pluralism and pole of a continuum where there are determined the authority hierarchic structures and the "rational-efficient" level of the relationship law-religion in new EU member states (16). These ideas have then been sistematically developed by Walzer starting with the '70s in order to explain some compulsory definitions for the future researches regarding community pluralism and multiculturalism in the new European context (17).

Closely connected to the problematics of religious freedom and tolerance in the European multicultural space there also appears the analysis model of European reality proposed by Walzer for defending multiculturalism, by appealing to pluralism and critical demonstration, starting from the analogies between political market and legal arena. The objective assumed by Walzer proposes a reflection that emphasizes the philosophical stigmatization and it inspires a new plan concept, based on the interdisciplinarity between the political, legal and theological approach (18).

Examing these interpretations, Domenec Mele refers to a "free-rider problem" (in this context, the new interpretation refers "to those who take advantage of social cooperation for personal interest without making any contribution" (19)). Consequently, these benefits emphasize the uniqueness of human communities and its blind necessity to involve consciousness and freedom (20).

After ar least five decades of "perversion" and "gnostic" consternation of community personalism, Europe should have retaken, solitarily and solidarily, its Christian origin, from a theological and philosophical point of view as well as from a political and juridical one, by the assumed option for a geopolitics of religions in the spirit of new occidental multiculturalism.

In order to illustrate that, Kurth introduces the theme of the "religious marketplace". The author points the central role occupied by religion in the architecture of the European spiritual integration and European national identities beginning with the 1960s. Kurths also explains that contemporany European identity has to deal recently with a certain "counterfactual European history" (21).

We also have to note that Kurth's arguments will be developed by Verkuyten. In 2009, Verkuyten argued the new European multicultural system, national identity and national identification become the central terms in debates on immigration and in-group interests after Romania and Bulgaria's EU integration (22). The debates adopt an interdisciplinary approach, methods and methodology. Although one of the aims is to make a significant contribution to the causal argument in the paradigma of European new multiculturalism in the context of "new arrivals": Romanian and Bulgarian Orthodoxy.

From the integrationist point of view, the European development, which, with its occidental limitations, was supposed to serve as a central model for the "other Europe" (former communist countries with Orthodox majority), converged actually to a certain "broken rule" to borrow the words of Kenneth Grasso, "catholicism is the only game in the town" (23).

Furthermore, The Romanian Constitution defines freedom of thought, opinion, and religious belief in its second chapter (Article 29), Fundamental Rights, Freedoms and Duties, Chapter I Common provisions. In fact article 29 states that "freedom of thought, opinion, and religious beliefs shall not be restricted in any form whatsoever". Needless to say, the freedom of conscience is guaranteed. In evaluating this principle mentioned in article 29, we must bear in mind that conscience "is an individual phenomenon, and the strengths and weakness of this approach stem from its individualist understanding of religious commitment" (24).

"Article 29

(1) Freedom of thought, opinion, and religious beliefs shall not be restricted in any form whatsoever. No one shall be compelled to embrace an opinion or religion contrary to his own convictions

(2) Freedom of conscience is guaranteed; it must be manifested in a spirit of tolerance and mutual respect.

(3) All religions shall be free and organized in accordance with their own statutes, under the terms laid down by law.

(4) Any forms, means, acts or actions of religious enmity shall be prohibited in the relationships among the cults.

(5) Religious cults shall be autonomous from the State and shall enjoy support from it, including the facilitation of religious assistance in the army, in hospitals, prisons, homes and orphanages.

(6) Parents or legal tutors have the right to ensure, in accordance with their own convictions, the education of the minor children whose responsibility devolves on them" (25).

In this context, to respond to the question of a connection between individual prefference and political neutrality, Richard Bellamy and Dario Castiglione open a background on democratic legitimacy, the authority of institutions and procedural rules. They argues this merely implies "the diffusion of democratic procedures at the European level" as a "checking and balancing" system of interests and powers (26) between old and new EU members. Moreover, reffering to the studies on the theme of preferential option and the existence of a common good, Barrera systematizes the "operative core of tradition" and the "content of common good". His theory addresses two gaps by providing am overarching outline of "bonum commune" and the principle of subsidiarity (27).

In conclusion, the current analysis reconstruct the set of interaction between human nature and the theory of "new multiculturalism", preffering to study the content of some definitive aspects of spiritual personalism and emphasizing two important themes in implementing EU legislation namely: the declarative and preferential option for the moral and physical existence of the poor and the theme of common good (28). Hence we must conclude that in the contingent game of religious identity, religious freedom and national sovereignty, legal aspects and political interests, the comparative analysis of the implications in a comparative perspective reunites three independent systems, which function in parallel: common-law, equity and statute-law (29).

Lastly, the individual becomes the exponent of a closed and self-referential system, result of a deduction of particular principles and knowledge (30). We will add the fact that in all democratic countries it is recognized the fundamental right to a private religious life and the differentiations are based on observation, description, individualization, on specific manners to acquire this basic legal capacity (31).

Acknoledgement

"This work was supported by the strategic grant POSDRU/89/1.5/S/61968, Project ID61968 (2009), co-financed by the European Social Fund within the Sectorial Operational Program Human Resources Development 2007-2013."

Bibliography:

* BADER, Veit, Religious Pluralism: Secularism or Priority for Democracy? in "Political Theory", No. 27 / October 1999

* BARRERA, Albino, Modern Catholic Social Documents & Political Economy, Washington, D.C., Georgetown University Press, 2001

* BAUBEROT, Jean, (Dir.), Religion et laicite dans l'Europe des douze, Paris, Syros, 1994

* BECKLEY, Gloria T., Paul Burstein, Religious Pluralism, Equal Opportunity, and the State in "Political Research Quarterly", No. 44 / March 1991

* BELLAMY, Richard, CASTIGLIONE, Dario, The uses of democracy. Reflections on the European democratic deficit in Erik Oddvar Eriksen, John Erik Fossum, Democracy in the European Union. Integration Through Deliberation, New York, Routledge, 2002

* CARLEHEDEN, Mikael, GABRIELS, Rene, An Interview with Michael Walzer in "Theory Culture Society", Nr. 14 / February 1997

* CHAGNON, Roland, Religion, secularisation et deplacements du sacre in "Studies in Religion", No. 18 / June 1989

* DOBBELAERE, Karel, Resume Secularisation: Un Concept a Plusieurs Dimensions in "Current Sociology," No. 29 / March 1981

* EVANS, Bette Novit , Interpretating The Free Exercise of Religion and American Pluralism, The University of North Carolina Press, Chapel Hill, NC

* FILORAMO, Giovanni, Religious Pluralism and Crises of Identity in "Diogenes", No. 50 / August 2003

* KAUL, Volker, HABERMAS, Jurgen, Tariq Ramadan, Michael Walzer in the dialogue on politics and religion in "Philosophy Social Criticism", No. 36 / March 2010

* KOENIG, Matthias, Vitalite religieuse et mecanismes de secularisation institutionnelle en Europe in "Social Compass", No. 55/ June 2008, pp. 217-229

* KURTH, James, Religion and National Identity in "Society", Vol. 44, No. / 2007

* LAFOREST, Guy, Philosophy and Political Judgement in the multinational federation in WEINSTOCK, Daniel M., Philosophy in the Age of pluralism year: the philosophy of Charles Taylor in question, Cambridge, Cambridge University Press, 1995

* GEORGESCU, Catalina Maria, Challenges in implementing EU anti-discrimination legislation in Member States in "Revista de Stiinte Politice. Revues des Sciences Politiques", no. 24/2009

* GRASSO, Kenneth L., Beyond Liberalism: Human Dignity, the Free Society, and the Second Vatican Council in Kenneth L. Grasso, Gerard V. Bradley, and Robert P. Hunt, Lanham, Catholicism and Religious Freedom, Maryland, Rowman & Littlefield Publishers, Inc., 1995

* MAYER, Robert, Michael Walzer, Industrial Democracy, and Complex Equality in "Political Theory", No. 29 / April 2001

* MELE, Domenec, Integrating Personalism into Virtue-Based Business Ethics: The Personalist and the Common Good Principles in "Journal of Business Ethics", Vol. 88, No. 1/ 2009

* OLIMID, Anca Parmena, Istoria gindirii politice. Libertatea si laicitatea in spatiul public european, Craiova, Aius, 2011

* POPESCU, Irina Olivia, Conditiile esentiale pentru validitatea actului juridic civil in traditia si perspectiva sistemelor de drept europene in "Revista de Stiinte Politice. Revues des Sciences Politiques", no. 24/2009

* LEVY, Jacob T. Language Rights, Literacy, and the Modern State in Will Kymlicka, Alan Patten, Language Rights and Political Theory, New York, Oxford University Press, 2003

* ROSATI, Massimo Post-secular society, transnational legal pluralism and religious Civilizations "Philosophy Social Criticism", No. 36 / March 2010

* ROSENBLITH, Suzanne, Beyond Coexistence: Toward a more reflective religious pluralism in "Theory and Research in Education", No. 6 / March 2008

* SCHMIDT, Thomas M., Religious pluralism and democratic society: Political liberalism and the reasonableness of Religious Beliefs in "Philosophy Social Criticism", No. 25 / July 1999

* TAYLOR, Charles, Philosophical Arguments, Cambridge, MA, Harvard University Press, 1995

* TAYLOR, Charles, A Secular Age, Cambridge, Mass., Belknap Press of Harvard University Press, 2007

* TAYLOR, Charles, Varieties of Religion Today: William James Revisited, Cambridge, MA, Harvard University Press, 2002

* THOMAS, Scott M., Religious and Cultural Pluralism Seriously Taking: The Global Resurgence of Religion and the Transformation of International Society in "Millennium-Journal of International Studies", No. 29 / December 2000

* VERKUYTEN, Maykel, Support for Multiculturalism and Minority Rights: The Role of National Identification and Out-group Threat in "Social Justice Research", Vol. 22, No. 1/ 2009

* WILLIAMS, Rhys H., The Languages of the Public Sphere: Religious Pluralism in "The Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science".

Anca Parmena OLIMID, University of Craiova, Faculty of Social Sciences, Political Sciences Specialization

E-mail: parmena2002@yahoo.com

Notes:

* Parts of this paper have been presented at the International Conference Romania-a continued reform, 5 March 2012, Casa Universitarilor, LLA International Conference, Craiova under the title Anca Parmena Olimid, Impact of European decisions on national sovereignty. Case study: Romania Fact Sheets.

(1) For a broader discussion on the subject see Thomas M. Schmidt, Religious pluralism and democratic society: Political liberalism and the reasonableness of Religious Beliefs in "Philosophy Social Criticism", No. 25 / July 1999, pp. 43-56; Massimo Rosati, Post-secular society, transnational legal pluralism and religious Civilizations "Philosophy Social Criticism", No. 36 / March 2010, pp. 413-423, Suzanne Rosenblith, Beyond Coexistence: Toward a more reflective religious pluralism in "Theory and Research in Education", No. 6 / March 2008, pp. 107-121. More notions and concepts were also developed in Anca Parmena Olimid, Istoria gindirii politice. Libertatea si laicitatea in spatiul public european, Craiova, Aius, 2011, pp. 131-142

(2) There were two different studies on this topic, see Jean Bauberot, (Dir.), Religion et laicite dans l'Europe des douze, Paris, Syros, 1994.

(3) Ibidem, p. 79.

(4) Ibidem.

(5) Ibidem, p. 178.

(6) More on the duplicitous nature of the "negative freedom" through the community language functions see Jacob T. Levy Rights, Language Rights, Literacy, and the Modern State in Will Kymlicka, Alan Patten, Language Rights and Political Theory, New York, Oxford University Press, 2003, pp. 230-245.

(7) For a broader discussion on the topic see Matthias Koenig, Vitalite religieuse et mecanismes de secularisation institutionnelle en Europe in "Social Compass", No. 55/ June 2008, pp. 217-229.

(8) See also Roland Chagnon, Religion, secularisation et deplacements du sacre in "Studies in Religion", No. 18 / June 1989, pp. 127-151, Karel Dobbelaere, Resume Secularisation: Un Concept a Plusieurs Dimensions in "Current Sociology," No. 29 / March 1981, pp. 155-159.

(9) See also Rhys H. Williams, The Languages of the Public Sphere: Religious Pluralism in "The Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science", No. 612 / July 2007, pp. 42-61.

(10) Charles Taylor, op. cit., p. 3, Anca Parmena Olimid, op. cit., pp. 131-134.

(11) For a comparison see Giovanni Filoramo, Religious Pluralism and Crises of Identity in "Diogenes", No. 50 / August 2003, pp. 31-44; Veit Bader, Religious Pluralism: Secularism or Priority for Democracy? in "Political Theory", No. 27 / October 1999, pp. 597-633.

(12) Note that the term "secular" was originally included as part of Christian vocabulary. More details on the subject in Charles Taylor, Philosophical Arguments, Cambridge, MA, Harvard University Press, 1995, p. 249.

(13) More on this topic in Charles Taylor, A Secular Age, Cambridge, Mass., Belknap Press of Harvard University Press, 2007, pp. 364-365, 764-765, 676-677.

(14) Charles Taylor, Varieties of Religion Today: William James Revisited, Cambridge, MA, Harvard University Press, 2002, p. 73. See also European Convention on Human Rights available at http://www.hri.org/docs/ECHR50.html#C.Art9.

(15) Guy Laforest, Philosophy and Political Judgement in the multinational federation in Daniel M. Weinstock, Philosophy in the Age of pluralism year: the philosophy of Charles Taylor in question, Cambridge, Cambridge University Press, 1995, p. 202.

(16) See, for a comparative analysis Gloria T. Beckley, Paul Burstein, Religious Pluralism, Equal Opportunity, and the State in "Political Research Quarterly", No. 44 / March 1991, pp. 185-208, Scott M. Thomas, Religious and Cultural Pluralism Seriously Taking: The Global Resurgence of Religion and the Transformation of International Society in "Millennium-Journal of International Studies", No. 29 / December 2000, pp. 815-841.

(17) See, in this respect, Volker Kaul, Jurgen Habermas, Tariq Ramadan, Michael Walzer in the dialogue on politics and religion in "Philosophy Social Criticism", No. 36 / March 2010, pp. 505-516, Mikael Carleheden, Rene Gabriels, An Interview with Michael Walzer in "Theory Culture Society", Nr. 14 / February 1997, pp. 113-130, Robert Mayer, Michael Walzer, Industrial Democracy, and Complex Equality in "Political Theory", No. 29 / April 2001, pp. 237-261.

(18) Ibidem, p. 121.

(19) Domenec Mele, Integrating Personalism into Virtue-Based Business Ethics: The Personalist and the Common Good Principles in "Journal of Business Ethics", Vol. 88, No. 1/ 2009, pp. 239, DOI 10.1007/s10551-009-0108-y, p. 239.

(20) Ibidem, p. 236.

(21) James Kurth, Religion and National Identity in "Society", Vol. 44, No. / 2007, pp. 120-125 DOI 10.1007/s12115-007-9020-1

(22) Maykel Verkuyten, Support for Multiculturalism and Minority Rights: The Role of National Identification and Out-group Threat in "Social Justice Research", Vol. 22, No. 1/ 2009, p. 32 DOI: 10.1007/s11211-008-0087-7

(23) Kenneth L. Grasso, Beyond Liberalism: Human Dignity, the Free Society, and the Second Vatican Council in Kenneth L. Grasso, Gerard V. Bradley, and Robert P. Hunt, Lanham, Catholicism and Religious Freedom, Maryland, Rowman & Littlefield Publishers, Inc., 1995, p. 54.

(24) The difference between the terms "conscience" and "religion" is proposed by Bette Novit Evans, Interpretating The Free Exercise of Religion and American Pluralism, The University of North Carolina Press, Chapel Hill, NC , p. 27.

(25) According to the official translation of the Constitution of Romania available on the House of Deputies, Romanian Parliament at the following address: http://www.cdep.ro/pls/dic/site.page?den=act2 2&par1=2#t2c2s0a29.

(26) Richard Bellamy, Dario Castiglione, The uses of democracy. Reflections on the European democratic deficit in Erik Oddvar Eriksen, John Erik Fossum, Democracy in the European Union. Integration Through Deliberation, New York, Routledge, 2002, pp. 78-79.

(27) Albino Barrera, Modern Catholic Social Documents & Political Economy, Washington, D.C., Georgetown University Press, 2001, pp. 290-290.

(28) Catalina Maria Georgescu, Challenges in implementing EU anti-discrimination legislation in Member States in "Revista de Stiinte Politice. Revues des Sciences Politiques", no. 24/2009, pp. 47-52.

(29) See, for a comparative perspective, Irina Olivia Popescu, Conditiile esentiale pentru validitatea actului juridic civil in traditia si perspectiva sistemelor de drept europene in "Revista de Stiinte Politice. Revues des Sciences Politiques", no. 24/2009, pp. 121-127.

(30) Ibidem, pp. 122.

(31) Catalina Maria Georgescu, op. cit., pp. 50-51.
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Author:Olimid, Anca Parmena
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Date:Oct 1, 2011
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