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Understand the Fundamental Principles of Synchronous Digital Hierarchy in Modern Broadband Networks.

DUBLIN, Ireland -- Research and Markets ( has announced the addition of E-Learning Course: SDH Principles to their offering.

"SDH Principles" introduces the fundamental principles of the Synchronous Digital Hierarchy (SDH) as employed in modern broadband networks.

Course aim: After completing this course a trainee will be able to describe the benefits, features and basic principles of the Synchronous Digital Hierarchy (SDH).

Pre-requisites: Understanding of the basic principles of synchronous transmission; knowledge of PDH transmission networks would also be advantageous. It is recommended that SyncNet course A: "Transmission principles" or StarTel courses A and C ("Fundamentals of Telecoms" and "Telecoms networks") are studied before attempting this course.

"SDH Principles" forms part of the SyncNet suite of courses.

Each SyncNet course:

* provides several hours of in-depth, authoritative technical training

* employs interactive simulations, hypertext links and question sessions to fully involve the trainee in the learning experience.

* provides personalised training with each trainee able to make his/her on notes and place bookmarks. A record of progress and level of achievement is recorded for each trainee.

* provides a structured assessed course and can also be used to browse for revision or reference.

* can be studied in isolation or as an integrated suite; each chapter of a course includes revision links to relevant subjects covered in the other SyncNet courses.

Course Content:

Overview of SDH: Aims of the ITU when drawing up recommendations for equipments and networks based on the Synchronous Digital Hierarchy (SDH)

advantages of employing a network based on the SDH

typical uses of networks based on the SDH.

Capabilities of SDH networks: Properties of SDH aggregate signals including the ITU recommended bit rates and payload capabilities, traffic payload capabilities and maximum distances between regenerators

capabilities and typical uses of different types of SDH network element including terminal multiplexers and drop and insert multiplexers.

Optical links: The basic components of an optical link

purpose of ITU recommendations relating to optical interfaces between transmission equipment. SDH Management: Overview of facilities of an SDH network management system in terms of configuration management, fault and maintenance management, performance monitoring and security management.

SDH payloads: Introduction to the concepts of virtual containers, tributary units and tributary unit groups

principles of using virtual containers to transport different types of traffic within an STM signal

payload capabilities of the various types of virtual container.

STM-1 frame: Basic functions of an STM-1 multiplexer

description of the basic structure of the STM-1frame including the number and location of payload and overhead bytes and an explanation of the standard (ITU-T) method of representing the frame structure.

Section overheads (SOH): Overview of the purpose of the Section Overhead (SOH) bytes in an STM-1 frame in terms of frame alignment, error checking, data communications

orderwire provision and provision of automatic protection switching

comparison of the roles of the regenerator section overhead (RSOH) and the multiplex section overhead (MSOH) bytes

purpose of the individual bytes of the SOH.

Payload pointers: Cause of phase variation between an STM frame and its payload

structure of a virtual container in terms of Path Overhead (POH) and payload container

locating the POH of a virtual container by use of the pointer bytes in an STM frame.

Payload mapping: The location of a VC-4's pointer in the Section Overhead (SOH) of an STM-1 frame

the concept of carrying virtual containers within a larger virtual container

the structure of a Tributary Unit (TU) in terms of a virtual container and its pointer

the relationship between TUs and Tributary Unit Groups (TUGs).

STM-n frames: Use of byte interleaving to multiplex STM-1signals to form STM-n aggregate signals with n equal to 4, 16 or 64

description of the frame structure of STM-n signals

purpose of the A1, A2 and J0 bytes of the Section Overhead of an STM-4 frame

comparison of direct and indirect multiplexing to produce an STM-16 aggregate signal

concept and purpose of concatenation

principles, use, and comparison of explicit and virtual concatenation.


"The advantage of the e-learning formula for the introduction training was that at the end of the e-learning courses all participants in the "advanced" module had the same level of knowledge. This was greatly appreciated by the participants"

- Gino Van de Sompel, training and development consultant at Belgacom

Cost effective training for Jersey Telecom

"As a communications service provider based "off shore" we have found that the e-learning courses provide high quality and excellent content training to our engineers without the need to arrange expensive flights out of the island - truly cost effective"

- Bill Barker, training and development manager, Jersey Telecom

Real world training for Eircom

"Three factors led us to select e-learning: the courses use European jargon and bit rates, they are obviously written by telecoms professionals with real world insight and the interactions are well thought out"

- Richard Downey, e-learning manager, Eircom plc

For more information visit
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Publication:Business Wire
Date:Nov 10, 2006
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