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Uncommon human resources: the Newberry Library volunteer program.


This article explores volunteerism in American institutions and the founding of institutions through voluntary actions, and examines the potential for volunteer support of libraries. The Newberry Library volunteer program from 1974 to the present is explored as a case study in adapting volunteer service to the needs of research libraries. Volunteers are found to be a major resource to meet present and future needs across a broad spectrum of library activities.


American research libraries in the 1990s are confronted with the realities of mature collections requiring labor-intensive maintenance, escalation of serials prices that erode materials budgets, a proliferation of expensive sophisticated access tools, and extensive backlogs of rare book and manuscript collections. At the same time, their parent institutions are reducing staff size, eliminating departments, and are barely maintaining levels of library support, if indeed they are not reducing them. States and municipalities find their revenues inadequate to sustain full library support. Branch libraries have been closed and hours of service have been reduced. Buildings have been finished but moving in must be delayed for lack of funding. Other articles in this issue have dealt with managing personnel resources in this environment. This article explores an approach that other institutions and agencies have used in similar situations-volunteer workers.


Volunteer service is integral to a broad spectrum of American life - e.g., health research, hospitals, activities for youth, churches, and social service agencies. The literature on volunteerism spans many of these areas but the largest concentration of information is by social work professionals and sociologists. A number of associations active in the promotion of volunteerism have published a variety of works covering management, recruiting, insurance, and liability. One of these associations, Independent Sector, commissioned the Gallup Organization - in 1988 and again in 1990 - to carry out national studies subsequently published as Giving and Volunteering in the United States (1990). The 1990 survey found that the average hours volunteered each week for all adults over age eighteen were two and two-tenths. Their reasons for volunteering were to do something useful (62 percent), to do work they would enjoy (34 percent), to benefit family and friends (29 percent), and for religious fulfillment (26 percent). They learned of volunteer opportunities because they were asked by someone or because they belonged to the organization. When asked to volunteer, 75 percent of the people surveyed said they would not refuse (Giving and Volunteering in the United States, 1990).

The foundation of many of this country's libraries and their parent institutions can be said to have been the result of voluntary actions. Harvard University, Yale University, and most of the other colonial colleges were privately founded and supported for the advancement of learning and training of clergy and were voluntarily financed and guided by groups of like-minded people. Stanford University was founded on the beneficence of Leland Stanford. More than half of U.S. institutions of higher education are private - depending on endowment, ongoing support, and governance offered voluntarily. Many major research libraries are parts of private colleges and universities. In the nineteenth century, independent libraries such as the Boston Athenaeum and the Library Company of Philadelphia were founded as voluntary membership organizations. The late nineteenth century saw the development of a movement to establish libraries supported by municipalities with initial efforts and much ongoing activity being volunteer efforts. The major foundations that formed the basis of the New York Public Library - Astor, Lenox, and Tilden - were gifts, as was Andrew Carnegie's tremendous support for building public and academic libraries. In Chicago, the John Crerar and Newberry Libraries were founded by bequests, as were the Morgan Library in New York, the Huntington Library in California, and the Folger Shakespeare Library in Washington. The early years of these institutions were characterized by active involvement of volunteer boards of directors in decisions on collections, construction of buildings, and other operating details. The continuing support, well being, and governance of these institutions continues to this day to be the responsibility of volunteer boards. Board activity can be seen as one of the oldest forms of volunteer service.

Current literature on volunteers in libraries generally focuses on school or public library literacy programs. There are good manuals such as the one Christine Kuras (1975) developed for the Inglewood Public Library in California. The American Library Association's "Guidelines for Using Volunteers in Libraries" dates from 1971. Although it is twenty years old, its commonsense approach to using and managing volunteers is still useful. "Friends of Libraries" groups, a trend begun in public libraries, have become more common in university and other research libraries. The fund raising, benefits, and gifts of collections that these groups provide are a major source of volunteer energy as well as potential for other projects in and for the institutions they befriend.

The 1979 Allerton Park Institute (held by the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign) program was devoted to papers by distinguished librarians, library volunteers, and fund-raising executives. At that time, the need for new avenues of support for libraries followed in the wake of California's Proposition 13. Most of the papers at the conference reflected on history, philosophy, and experience related to library friends. In her essay on the management of volunteers, Cynthia Wedel (1980) was optimistic about the potential for volunteer service to libraries, citing increasing levels of education among the populace, the fact that people have more discretionary time, and a perception that many people spend their working time in unfulfilling jobs. Rather than a decline in volunteering as more women join the work force, she predicted an explosion-in volunteering, especially among young people and retirees.

Volunteers are, in general, people who do necessary work, part-time, and without pay. All the elements of good personnel administration - recruitment, orientation, training, setting objectives, evaluation, motivation, retention, recognition, and termination - come into play. To examine these elements, the Newberry Library, which has had a formal volunteer program since 1974, has been used as a case study. Institutional records were studied for historical background, volunteer directories were analyzed, and the individuals involved in the program were asked about their experiences. Among those interviewed were two Newberry Library executives, staff who work with volunteers, as well as several volunteers.

The Newberry Library Volunteer Program

The Newberry Library's Volunteer Program began as an activity of the Newberry Library Associates. A "friends of the library" group formed in 1965, the Newberry Library Associates was organized around the time the library began its first systematic fund-raising efforts. Until then, income from endowments had been sufficient to support collection building and library service. In the early 1960s, the collections had grown to a critical mass requiring greater curatorial support and awareness of conservation issues. Research centers and fellowship programs to promote collection use changed the character of public service in the 1960s and 1970s with a shift of personnel from bibliographic, curatorial, and cataloging activity to public service. Cumulative growth of collections and programs led to the need for new "friends." In early years, the associates raised funds to support collection building and fellowship programs. In 1974, the library's director, realizing that a backlog of necessary tasks was growing, asked an officer of the associates to plan and institute a volunteer program.

Operations were based in the office of the library's associate director. A call for volunteers went out in A Newberry Library Newsletter, offering work as reference and research assistants, book oilers, typists, and manuscript sorters - with a requirement that recruits would commit themselves to at least four hours a week. Within the first year, twenty people were working, and the associates laid plans to open a bookstore for the library staffed entirely by volunteers.

A New berry Library Newsletter has carried features on individual volunteers for the purposes of recognition, public relations, and recruiting. They are a good sample of the range of volunteer activities. For example, thousands of pieces of sheet music have been sorted into two groups (pre- and post-1870) and alphabetized by title, facilitating access to an uncataloged collection. Ben Hecht's literary and personal papers arrived in five huge packing boxes in total disorder; a volunteer spent three years sorting the collection and prepared an exhibition to celebrate opening the collection for research. Volunteers joined distinguished dance critic Ann Barzel in initiating the Chicago Dance Collection with dancers, dance companies, choreographers, teachers, and critics giving their papers to the library; processing has been almost entirely a labor of love under the supervision of staff curators (Sheehy, 1990). There were 250 boxes of miscellaneous genealogical clippings, pamphlets, charts, and letters processed and these form the basis of a vertical file with card catalog subject access. The library's McNickle Center for the History of the American Indian worked with a Volunteer to prepare a guide to a collection of drawings by George Catlin. In the process, the volunteer established that the collection is the largest such collection in the world. Although not strictly a part of the volunteer program, the library's rare book cataloger for many years spent weekends during the 1970s cataloging pre-1840 American sheet music. The catalog was ultimately published as a three volume set by G. K. Hall. Then, in his last two years on the staff, he began to catalog anonymous pamphlets in the library's premier French Revolutionary Collection, a task which he completed in two succeeding years as a volunteer (15,000 items were entered in the OCLC database).

From the outset, operation of the Newberry volunteer program has been shared by staff and volunteers - with a designated coordinator from each group. At first the program operated out of the associate director's office, which also handled the Newberry Library Associates. Later the program moved into the development office where it was the responsibility of the public affairs officer. At the current time, it is in the office of public events under the guidance of the events director, formerly a reading room supervisor and a long time member of the staff - knowledgeable about library operations and well known to library supporters at many levels. Volunteer coordinators have been drawn from - indeed volunteered from - the library's support groups and from a variety of its voluntary activities. They have worked with the staff to recruit, interview, and place volunteers and have joined in planning events for training, socialization, and recognition.

This brief account of the Newberry experience forms a background for an assessment of the past success and future potential of using volunteers. Library management, staff, and volunteers were surveyed or interviewed to formulate a perspective which may guide other research libraries in assessing their own experience or in formulating plans for using volunteers.

Management Perspective

The literature on volunteers emphasizes the importance of management support for volunteer programs. Initiative for programs needs to come from, or be endorsed by, an organization's leadership. Implementation, if not undertaken at the executive level, needs to be done by individuals with a thorough understanding of the working environment, the staff, and the volunteer labor pool. Resources necessary to real commitment of staff time are required. Although salaries are not paid, the cost of some forms of recognition and reward must be considered.

The Newberry Library, as an independent library, operates under the governance of a volunteer board of trustees responsible for its fiscal welfare. The board, in turn, appoints a president and librarian whose current management team includes vice presidents in charge of library operations, research and education programs, administration and financial affairs, and development.

The Newberry's senior officers join the volunteer corps at luncheons twice a year to thank them for their contributions to the library. They see that many tasks are appropriate for volunteers, such as basic and simple tasks essential to major fund-raising efforts, clerical tasks throughout the institution, recruitment of teachers for adult education courses, and clerical work in the bookstore, etc. They do work supplementary to the library's mission as well as work that is central to it. Charles T. Cullen, Newberry president since 1986, says: "Without them we could not be what we are" (personal interview, June 21, 1991). Volunteer involvement forms bridges between scholars and the public, reminding everyone how libraries contribute to the common good. The Newberry Library provides volunteers a place to do meaningful work for people who may have wanted a life with books but found their livelihoods in other ways. Committee and board work, as well as other volunteer service, opens opportunities to pursue interests in the humanities and education. The Newberry Library and its collections have become known to a broader community through its volunteers. The president regards volunteers as staff - they are in the file of staff photographs - and he meets with them regularly. He just does not make salary decisions about them.

Volunteers are key factors in the Newberry's development program. Gifts of materials and funds are voluntary, and a corps of givers is needed in solicitation of gifts - in person, by phone, and by mail. The library could extend the use of volunteers in fund raising and could expand their involvement. Development volunteers need training, education, and timely updates on institutional affairs in order to represent and promote the institution. Control of energetic and enthusiastic volunteers is an institutional responsibility requiring tact and diplomacy. Volunteers need to be treated in ceremonial ways, such as with luncheons and receptions, and also need recognition and acknowledgment in print - i.e., in newsletters and annual reports. The officers see the volunteer program as critical to the library's success in promoting itself; its volunteers serve as an army of promoters.


The Newberry Library is staffed by 100 individuals - librarians, curators, conservators, researchers, fund-raisers, public relations people, a bookstore manager, and facilities staff to name a few. Thirty-five of them were informally surveyed by questionnaire to measure involvement with volunteers and to elicit a sense of the range of volunteer activity today. Twenty people responded. To expand upon these responses, four staff were interviewed - the staff volunteer coordinator, a curator using volunteers for sophisticated projects, an office manager overseeing volunteers in routine clerical work, and a curator who had expressed reservations about reliance on volunteers.

Sixteen staff responding to the survey employ volunteers in a broad range of tasks which could be classified as clerical, bibliographic, cataloging, library public service, other public service, technical, conservation, research, and retail. Volunteers address thousands of pieces of outgoing mail every year and sort incoming mail for catalogers, curators, and bibliographers; they search the catalog for new orders and duplicates in gift collections; retired librarians and new library school graduates catalog recent monograph collections; family or association members (among others) sort collections of personal and organizational papers; two professional librarians (a retiree and a part timer from another library) work at the reference desk; a photographer makes high quality facsimiles for cartographic exhibits; and a retired banker and an artist make slings and envelopes in the conservation laboratory providing protection for fragile books and pamphlets. For an atlas project, a volunteer researcher measures areas on maps and surveys counties by phone to document boundary changes, and eight volunteers help to operate the book shop year round. One hundred forty volunteers staff the annual book fair which nets $25,000-$35,000 a year for general support of the library. Volunteer recruitment has been done through volunteer coordinators, the associates, referrals from friends or other staff, word of mouth, or newspaper announcements. Staff perceptions of recruitment are positive with some concern that there are more volunteers available than jobs for them, that someone needs to spend more time developing job descriptions, and that there is a need for more formal recruitment procedures in general. Time for training and supervision of volunteers varies with tasks involved - i.e., from an hour to several months at the outset and little supervision to several hours a week.

The Newberry Library's staff liaison for its volunteer program also manages public events, social functions, and the institutional calendar. This person has had an expanding role in public outreach for the library, taking initiative for the public tour program inaugurated in 1985. Volunteer guides or docents lead two tours each week in addition to specially scheduled tours for dignitaries and conference attendees. Docent training covers the history of the library and its major collections, the activities and functioning of its departments and research centers, and the history of the building. After eight weekly classes, docents gave tours in pairs with one leading and one critiquing. Each docent was asked to do a research project or to work in a library department or center. The tours are publicized widely in city guides, magazines, and newspapers and have been well attended; these tours have been the impetus for major growth in the total volunteer corps from thirty-four in 1983 to ninety-four in 1988. Volunteer rolls now stand at 250 with 140 working only for the book fair. The volunteer liaison spends about 15 to 20 percent of her time on the volunteer program. In her view, the purposes of the program are to supplement staff, to do things that need to be done, to enrich institutional hospitality, to cultivate donors, to get manual tasks done, and to make public outreach, such as tours and concerts, possible. She has seen staff acceptance and employment of volunteers improve over the years and credits the work of volunteer coordinators for this. To her, the outstanding volunteer is a person who has strong affection for, and commitment to, the library, who will do several projects, who will be reliable, and who will recruit friends to volunteer and make other contributions to the library.

The office manager in the Newberry's Development Office oversees about a dozen volunteers who prepare promotional materials, newsletters, invitations, and fund solicitations. At the time of her interview, she was recruiting to rebuild her volunteer force which had been depleted by illness, other absences, and loss of interest due to irregularity in schedules for mailings. Although the tasks are easy and training minimal, she finds that volunteers need lots of attention - coffee, snacks, conversation, and general greeting when they arrive. They need to feel needed and appreciated. Although the office has several people generating volunteer tasks, it works best to have the volunteers responsible to, and reliant upon, just one staff member for each project or activity. A real sensitivity to abilities and frustration levels is required in working with clerical volunteers. When physical or other disabilities interfere with tasks, another task is substituted. The purposes of the program, in her view, are to get work done, provide meaningful activity for volunteers, and to give them social opportunities and friendship.

The curator of manuscripts has managed dozens of volunteer projects after overcoming an initial strong reluctance to do so. In the 1970s, this individual did not see how outsiders could be brought in to work with original materials, particularly given concerns about security and about assigning work to nonprofessionals. Experience with several undergraduate interns, however, resulted in breaking down tasks into units amenable to short term commitments. Thus she was able to translate this experience into projects done over longer time periods a few hours at a time. In retrospect and also for the future, she thinks that orientation and training for staff using volunteers has been weak and that it needs to be strengthened. When the volunteer program began, she had a narrow view of it - that it could serve outreach and fund-raising purposes but not real library work. Now she sees volunteers as essential to survival since they enrich the library's community - bringing in people of diverse backgrounds and experience. For her own part, contact with volunteers of various social backgrounds has given her social experience and confidence to become an effective curator and builder of archival collections. To a degree, volunteers have served as her mentors. The manuscript volunteers are a roster of bankers, artists, dancers, teachers, businessmen, society women, and former librarians who have given time, knowledge of the collections, and loyalty. Their projects' results are a catalog of collections organized and documented.

The curator responsible for genealogical collections and services inherited a group of volunteers with his position. They maintain vertical files, fill photocopy requests, and do some simple indexing. While appreciative and enthusiastic about the work they do, his own public service load does not allow him to give the amount of attention to and supervision of volunteers that he thinks the program requires. In the interview, he observed that junior staff can find it difficult to manage and control the work of highly intelligent

people who may be of their parents' or grandparents' generation and who are not being paid.

The literature on volunteerism often warns of the need to overcome staff resistance to volunteers and their fear that they will be replaced by volunteers. There does not seem to be strong resistance or fear among Newberry staff at present - perhaps because of a confluence of events in the late 1980s. In 1987, the Newberry began to retrench in all areas of its library operation - reducing staff positions, cutting serials subscriptions, and delaying projects of various kinds - while it set about a campaign to increase endowment. Work force reduction was done over several years in deliberate and planned steps. However, no matter how well planned, all such adjustments are followed by a period of figuring out how to operate with reduced means. In very real ways, volunteers have stepped into the breach. They have been accepted by staff because they share the work that is to be done. They have, in a sense, taken the place of paid staff and, fortunately for the Newberry and its public, present and future, the response has generally been relief and not fear.

Staff attitudes toward reliance on volunteers seem generally positive. The benefits identified by staff can be classified as doing essential work, accomplishing desirable work, enhancing and broadening the library's community, providing social involvement and intellectual fulfillment for volunteers, and giving encouragement and inspiration to library staff. In responding to the survey, one staff member noted that it is unhealthy to rely solely on volunteers for core activities and asked that the staff receive more advice, information, and training in the supervision of volunteers. Survey respondents suggested that the library should expand use of volunteers in the areas of fund raising, front-line institutional information desks, and outreach to school groups.


As related earlier, the Newberry Volunteer Program began as an activity of the associates as a way of expanding their contributions to the library, recruiting more members, increasing understanding of the library among members, and strengthening ties between supporters and the institution. All volunteer coordinators have come from the Newberry Library Associates' governing committee. Currently a retired medical librarian is volunteer coordinator. She brings her years of professional experience and her increasing knowledge of the Newberry and its staff to the process of matching jobs and volunteers; her professionalism is brought to bear with staff in defining tasks, and it heightens credibility of the program. To gain insight into volunteer experience at the Newberry, the coordinator and two volunteers were interviewed.

The volunteer coordinator was first recruited as a volunteer by a Newberry staff member and participated in the book fair. She finds that motivation for volunteering varies, but that sociability is of ten a key element. Recruitment is accomplished through tours, word of mouth, public programs, and classes. There are more willing volunteers than the library staff can absorb. Training is dependent on having staff with teaching abilities and time to train and supervise volunteers until they can become independent. Retaining and rewarding volunteers is difficult to manage in formal ways, and success seems to come from their love of the institution, the social satisfaction of participation, and the work itself. Problem volunteers are handled carefully, with benign neglect preferred over confrontation in terminating volunteers. Volunteers who are disruptive or unproductive are quietly dropped from telephone lists. The volunteer coordinator indicated that there is some sense among staff that volunteers have displaced employees.

One of the principal bookstore volunteers moved into the neighborhood in 1982 as a newcomer to Chicago. After walking by the library for several months, she went in and asked if they needed volunteers. Interviewed in the development office, she was asked if she preferred social activity or solitary work, and, since she was lonely and new in town, she opted for social activity. She went to work in the bookstore, and, by her own account, it gave her a sense of community and saved her sanity. In her view, recruitment is so effective that there are more volunteers than opportunities. Training needs to be structured and assignments need to be scheduled with mutual commitments between staff and volunteers. She thinks that volunteers stay committed because they feel needed. While she personally does not value awards and gifts to volunteers for their recognition, she thinks that volunteer pins and logo items are useful for publicity purposes. In addition to her regular service, she represents the Newberry volunteers in a city-wide network of volunteer coordinators.

A senior librarian from the University of Chicago's Crerar Library became a Saturday docent in response to a newsletter announcement. This individual joined the docent corps with several years experience with the Chicago Architecture Foundation, and he found the training well structured and a good preparation for representing the library to general audiences. He observed that universities and their libraries can also use generalists to serve as good campus and library tour guides for new students, parents, and alumni. He finds satisfaction in learning about another institution, in intellectual involvement with its humanities focus, and in friendship with other docents.

In 1991, Newberry's 250 volunteers contributed about 11,725 hours of work. At minimum wage, this amounts to $58,625 and, given the sophisticated level of some volunteer activity, the paid value with benefits is more realistically estimated at $85,000. They work in all library departments, in the four research centers, in the development office, in the bookstore, and in two wholly volunteer-operated programs (the book fair and the docent program). The largest number (140) work for the book fair. Special Collections employs the largest number for year round commitments (thirty-seven). Many volunteers are retired professionals, and forty are known to be employed. Some people volunteer at several Chicago institutions while others commit several days a week to the Newberry. Proximity to the library seems to be a factor, with 136 living within Chicago and ninety in fairly comfortable walking distance. Very few live beyond the reach of public transportation.

Accomplishments, Benefits, and Potential

Volunteer contributions to Newberry activity have been considerable. Development, educational, and outreach mailing operations have been volunteer driven since the 1970s. Numerous gifts of manuscript collections have been processed which otherwise would have been turned down or consigned to processing backlogs. The logistics of "Early Music from the Newberry" concert management would be impossible without volunteers handling mailings, subscriptions, program production, hall setup, and ushering. Exhibits and publications have been enhanced and enriched - from research and label writing to student tours. Manuscript collections have been sorted, and guides have been prepared. A scholarly exhibit on the Inquisition was mounted. Collective biographies of early Chicago were indexed. The library's eighteenth-century titles in English were reported to the Eighteenth-Century English Short Title Catalog project and collections continue to be made. All of this was done by volunteers and otherwise would not have been done at all. At a time of shrinking resources, the Newberry has been able to maintain and extend its commitment to collect, organize, and preserve library materials and promote their effective use.

Over the past ten years, the Newberry Library and several major metropolitan public libraries have encountered economically difficult times. Large public libraries, independent research libraries, and museums have pioneered in the development of friends support groups and in the employment of volunteers. University library friends groups are well established in many universities - supporting collections and special projects. Drawing upon these community resources may be the means by which to offset the impact of a shrinking work force.

The Newberry Library volunteer program bears out the predictions made at the 1979 Allerton Park conference - i.e., of needs perceived and needs met. The accomplishments and enthusiasm of the Newberry volunteers embody the attitudes toward giving, volunteering, and charitable organizations found in the Gallup Survey - strong confidence in private and public educational institutions. With more volunteers Waiting than the Newberry Library can currently accommodate, it is evident that use of volunteers could be increased. Many people are not asked to volunteer, most who are asked do volunteer, and many who are not asked volunteer anyway. Therefore, it seems that volunteers are there for the asking - ready to serve as leaders through board membership, as managers of volunteer projects, and as service volunteers doing myriad necessary tasks (Giving and Volunteering in the United States, 1979, p. 10).

Employment of volunteers is not without its hazards. Management commitment must include enough staff time to plan and develop volunteer jobs and to train regular staff to supervise volunteers. Without these elements, staff will be reluctant to assign anything more than the simplest of tasks to volunteers and may not realize the high contact needs of some volunteers with the result that drop-out rates will be high. Staff need to be assured that they are not being replaced by volunteers, and this is still difficult to do. Apt supervisors of volunteers can extend their working capacity by using volunteers - making them prospective, if not retrospective, replacements for employees. It is important to view volunteer programs as a way to enhance a library's mission, to do useful work, and to extend its community without losing sight of professional responsibilities of staff and administration. Volunteers work because they want to, and what they want to do may or may not be what most needs doing. Thus the selection of, and negotiation about, assigned tasks requires diplomacy and tact. Mature volunteers with strong professional and life experience can intimidate younger staff and forcefully promote personal agendas, often unwittingly, sometimes to the point of getting themselves and others over committed. Strong and well coordinated employee and volunteer involvement in planning for use of volunteers can ensure positive outcomes.

Managing volunteers day to day draws on skills, techniques, and patience. It calls for policies and guidelines similar to those required in managing student assistants - concise training, well conceived procedures, and tasks or projects suited to short periods each day over months rather than years. Recruiting volunteers demands a population of individuals who have time to give and who can understand and share in the institutional mission. They can be identified through local civic or educational organizations, retirement communities, or through alumni associations. Libraries with established friends organizations have natural communities upon which to build their volunteer programs. Alumni and university development offices are experienced with volunteer activity and can be asked to share their expertise. In return, they can broaden the base of individuals committed to supporting their institutions, and volunteers themselves can develop a deeper understanding of how important financial support is to the future of libraries.


American Library Association. (1971). Guidelines for using volunteers in libraries. American Libraries, 2(4), 407-408. Giving and volunteering in the United States. (1990). (Findings from a national survey by The Gallup Organization for the Independent Sector and analyzed by Virginia A. Hodgkinson and Murray S. Weitzman). Unpublished study, Washington, DC. Kuras, C. (1975). Volunteer assistance in the library. Inglewood, CA: Inglewood Public Library. A Newberry Newsletter. no. 1- (1973- ). Chicago, IL: The Newberry Library. Sheehy, C. A. (1990). Chicago dance collection: A case in pointe. American Archivist, 53(3), 432-440. Wedel, C. (1980). The management of volunteers. In D. W. Krummel (Ed.), Organizing the library's support: Donors, volunteers, friends (Allerton Park Institute No. 25) (pp. 91-95). Urbana-Champaign, IL: University of Illinois, Graduate School of Library Science.

Additional References

American Council on Education. (1987). American Universities and Colleges, 13th ed. New York: Walter de Gruyter. Brudney, J. L. (1990). Fostering volunteer programs in the public sector: Planning, initiating, and managing voluntary activities. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass. Chambre, S. M. (1987). Good deeds in old age: Volunteering by the new leisure class. Lexington, MA: Lexington Books (D.C. Heath and Company). Drucker, P. F. (1990). Managing the non-profit organization: Practices and principles. New York: Harper Collins Publishers. Jacobson, A. (Ed.). (1978). Standards and guidelines for the field of volunteerism. Association of Volunteer Bureaus, Inc. Krummel, D. W. (Ed.). (1980). Organizing the library's support: Donors, volunteers and friends. (Allerton Park Institute No. 25). Urbana-Champaign, IL: University of Illinois, Graduate School of Library Science. Layton, D. N. (1987). Philanthropy and voluntarism: An annotated bibliography. New York: Foundation Center. MacBride, M. (1979). Step by step; Management of the volunteer program in agencies. Hackensack, NJ: Volunteer Bureau of Bergen County. Naylor, H. H. (1973). Volunteers today - Finding, training, and working with them. Dryden, NY: Dryden Associates. Naylor, H. H. (1985). Beyond managing volunteers. Journal of Voluntary Action Research, 14(2-3), 25-30. Newberry Library Annual Report (title varies). (1973-1988). Newberry Library Bulletin, (1944-1979), 1-6. Newberry-Ana. vol. 1- (1969- ). Staff Newsletter of the Newberry Library. Newberry Library Volunteer Directory. (1991). Chicago, IL: The Newberry Library. O'Connell, B. (1983). America's voluntary spirit. New York: Foundation Center. O'Connell, B., & O'Connell, A. B. (1990). Volunteers in action. New York: Foundation Center. Scheier, I. H. (1978). Winning with staff. A new look at staff support for volunteers. Boulder, CO: National Information Center on Volunteerism. Scheier, I. H. (1980). Exploying volunteer space: The recruiting of a nation. Boulder, CO: Volunteer: The National Center for Citizen Involvement. Systems and Procedures Exchange Center. (1990). Student employment programs in ARL libraries (SPEC Kit No. 168). Washington, DC: Association of Research Libraries Office of Management Services. Walter, V. (1987). Volunteers and bureaucrats: Clarifying roles and creating meaning. Journal of Voluntary Action Research, 16(3), 22-32.
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Title Annotation:Managing Human Resources in Research Libraries
Author:Wyly, Mary
Publication:Library Trends
Date:Sep 22, 1992
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