Unclos expands to cover marine biodiversity.
Approximately two-thirds of the oceans exist beyond national jurisdiction. The United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea (Unclos), concluded in 1982, currently provides the broad legal and policy framework for all activities relating to the seas and oceans-including, to some extent, for the conservation and sustainable use of marine biological diversity beyond areas of national jurisdiction (BBNJ).
However, despite the comprehensive nature of Unclos, many feel that BBNJ is not adequately covered under it as detailed knowledge of BBNJ was not available, even to the scientific community, at the time.
Advancements in science and technology have brought vast amounts of knowledge to our attention in the years following the conclusion of Unclos.
Today, human knowledge about the oceans, including its deepest parts, which were inaccessible previously, is much more comprehensive and new information continues to flood in due to significant scientific and technical advances.
Unclos, referred to as the 'Constitution for the Oceans' by the former Singaporean Ambassador Tommy Koh, came into force in 1994, and will necessarily be further elaborated as human knowledge of the oceans increases and human activities multiply.
It is already complemented by two specific implementing agreements, namely the agreement relating to Part XI of Unclos, which addresses matters related to the area as defined in the Unclos-the sea bed beyond national jurisdiction-and the agreement for the Implementation of the Provisions of Unclos relating to the Conservation and Management of Straddling Fish Stocks and Highly Migratory Fish Stocks.
The proposed treaty on BBNJ will be the third implementing agreement under the Unclos.
The seas and oceans, which have acquired unprecedented commercial value and have become a major source of global nutrition, have also been the subject of considerable international rule making, most of it piecemeal.
An estimated 200 million people world wide make a living from fishing and related activities-mostly in poor developing countries.
Fish provide at least 20 of the animal protein intake of over 2.6 billion people. A treaty on BBNJ, as envisaged, while filling a gap in the existing global regulatory framework, will also result in significant areas of the oceans being set aside as marine-protected areas to provide protection to marine biological diversity, its critical habitat, including spawning areas, as well as ensuring the equitable division of the benefits resulting from the scientific exploitation of such resources, especially through the development of new products.
Under the umbrella of Unclos, and carefully accommodated within it and its implementing agreements, a number of international instruments (and regimes) at the global and regional levels relevant to the conservation and sustainable use of marine BBNJ, have been put in place already.
At the global level, these include, inter alia, the regulations adopted by the International Seabed Authority for the protection and preservation of the marine environment in the area; the Convention on Biological Diversity; instruments adopted by the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations; measures adopted by the International Maritime Organization; measures relating to intellectual property in the context of the World Trade Organization and the World Intellectual Property Organization.
At the regional level, the relevant measures include those adopted by regional fisheries management organizations and arrangements by regional seas organizations having competence beyond areas of national jurisdiction.
A range of nonbinding instruments/mechanisms also provide policy guidance of relevance to the conservation and exploitation of marine biodiversity, including beyond areas of national jurisdiction.
These include the resolutions of the UNGA on oceans and the law of the sea and on sustainable fisheries, as well as the Rio Declaration and Chapter 17 of Agenda 21 adopted at the 1992 United Nations Conference on Environment and Development, the Johannesburg Plan of Implementation adopted in 2002 at the World Summit on Sustainable Development, the outcome document of the 2012 United Nations Conference on Sustainable Development, i.e.
The future we want, and the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development, in particular Sustainable Development Goal 14 (Conservation and sustainable use of the oceans, seas and marine resources for sustainable development).
However, despite the existence of the above regimes, the need for a legally binding multilateral instrument to govern the protection, sustainable utilization and benefit sharing of BBNJ has been advocated by a range of interest groups for some time. A champion of this process has been Argentina.
Negotiation process: Smooth sailing or rough seas ahead?
The UN ad-hoc working group (WG) on BBNJ, established by the UNGA in 2004, in response to the demands of a majority of the international community, took over 10 years to finalize its recommendations in February 2015. Initially, the WG made little progress and was running the risk of being terminated.
Since 2010 it was cochaired by Sri Lanka (Ambassador Dr. Palitha Kohona) and the Netherlands (Dr. Liesbeth Lijnzard).
While the subject was not easy, and many delegations were only beginning to grasp its complexities, curious coalitions began to form. The Group of 77 (G-77) and the European Union (EU) formed a common and a powerful front for different reasons.
Many strategic negotiating approaches were discussed behind the scenes and effectively deployed by these two unlikely allies resulting in a successful outcome to the work of the WG.
Basically, the G-77 wanted the future exploitation of BBNJ regulated globally so that the anticipated benefits would be distributed more equitably, and marine technology transferred consistent with the commitments made under the Unclos.
Already significant numbers of patents based on biological specimens, including microorganisms (12,998 genetic sequences), retrieved from the oceans, many from hydrothermal vents, have been registered. Eleven percent of all patent sequences are from specimens recovered from the ocean, while 98 percent of patents based on marine species were owned by institutions in 10 countries.
The German pharmaceutical giant, BASF, alone has registered 47 percent of the patented sequences.
The financial bonanza that was expected from the commercialization of these patents was hugely tempting. It is estimated that by 2025, the global market for marine biotechnological products will exceed $6.4 billion and was likely to grow further.
The EU, for its part, wanted to reserve large areas of the oceans for marine protected areas for conservation purposes. Conservation in this manner would result in providing space for genetic material to replenish itself naturally. The goals of the two groups were not necessarily contradictory.
The reservations on the need for a global legally binding regulatory mechanism for BBNJ were expressed mainly by the US, Japan, Norway and the Republic of Korea.
Their interest was in preserving the unhindered freedom of private corporations to exploit biological specimens to conduct research and produce new materials, including drugs, biofuels and chemicals for commercial purposes.
These corporations needed the assurance that the billions that they were expending on research would produce financially attractive results.
The difficulties involved in identifying the sources from where the specimens were recovered-whether beyond national jurisdiction or within-the costs usually associated with a discovery and bringing a commercially viable product into the market place, the actual need for a legally binding instrument in the current circumstances, the possibility of achieving the same goals through a nonbinding instrument, etc., were some of the concerns articulated.
These concerns are expected to be raised during the treaty negotiations, as well. The US-which held out to the bitter end preventing consensus at the WG-is not even a party to the Unclos.
A Preparatory Committee established by the UNGA to make recommendations on the elements of a draft of an international legally binding instrument on the conservation and sustainable use of marine BBNJ under Unclos, prior to holding an international conference met in four sessions in 2016 and 2017.
Treaty negotiations began in September 2018 following the organizational session (in April 2018) and the conclusion of the fourth and concluding session of the Preparatory Committee.
It could be expected that the US and the like-minded group, reflecting a recognizable private enterprise oriented policy bias, would continue to raise objections affecting the smooth progress of the negotiations.
The Trump administration, which has made it a habit of distancing itself from compacts to which the US had solemnly subscribed, cannot be expected to be more sympathetic to the BBNJ aspirations of the G-77 and the EU any more than the Obama administration.
(Editor's note: The Philippines won against China in an Unclos-related case, when the Permanent Court of Arbitration affirmed as having no basis in international law China's claimed 'historical maritime rights' over contested areas in the West Philippine Sea/South China Sea. Beijing claims it owns the territories contained within the 'nine-dash line' that encircles as much as 90 percent of the contested waters as far as 2,000 kilometers from Mainland China to within a few hundred kilometers of the Philippines, Malaysia and Vietnam.
(The Philippines argued that the nine-dash line exceeds the limits of maritime entitlements permitted under Unclos, which provides that a nation has sovereignty over waters extending 12 nautical miles from its land and exclusive control over economic activities within 200 nautical miles. The Hague-based court also ruled that China's construction projects in the Spratly Islands, harassment and prevention of Filipinos from conducting fishing activities in Scarborough Shoal, and interference with oil and gas exploration at the Reed Bank blatantly violated Philippine sovereign rights.)
Deposit with the UN secretary-general
The UN secretary-general is the depositary of over 550 multilateral treaties, mostly negotiated under the auspices of the United Nations. The Unclos and its two implementing agreements are examples. These are customarily deposited with the SG due to the recognition that he enjoys in the international community as a high-level independent global authority.
The proposed treaty on BBNJ would in all likelihood, be deposited with the UN SG, when concluded. The day-to-day management of activity relating to these multilateral treaties is the responsibility of the Treaty Section of the UN Office of Legal Affairs, a function which dates back to the early days of the creation of the UN.
Exceptionally, a major multilateral treaty may be deposited elsewhere. For example, the Nuclear Nonproliferation Treaty is deposited with the governments of the US, the UK and Russia.
Under Article 102 of the UN Charter all treaties, both multilateral and bilateral are required to be registered with the UN. The UN is the custodian of over 55,000 bilateral treaties so registered, currently available online.
|Printer friendly Cite/link Email Feedback|
|Publication:||Business Mirror (Makati City, Philippines)|
|Date:||Sep 17, 2018|
|Previous Article:||Climate change becoming a reality check for the North.|
|Next Article:||Protecting the habitats of nature's lamplighters.|