Uncle Tom's Cabin in Our Time.
Uncle Tom's Cabin in the National Era. Presented by the Harriet Beecher Stowe Center. http://nationalera.wordpress.comitable-of-contents/
The Norton Critical Edition of Uncle Tom's Cabin. Edited by Elizabeth Ammons. 2nd ed. New York: Norton, 2010. XVIII 4- 616 pp. $15.75 paper.
Uncle Tom's Cabin; or, Life among the Lowly. Edited by David S. Reynolds. Facsimile of the Splendid Edition. New York: Oxford University Press, 2011. XXXiii 608 pp., 126 illus. $24.95 cloth.
Uncle Tom's Cabin and the Reading Revolution: Race, Literacy, Childhood, and Fiction, 1851-1911. By Barbara Hochman. Amherst: University of Massachusetts Press, 2011. XV + 377 pp., 40 illus. $80.00 cloth/$28.95 paper.
Mightier Than the Sword: Uncle Tom's Cabin and the Battle for America. By David S. Reynolds. New York: Norton, 2011. xiv 351 pp., 43 illus. $27.95 cloth/$17.95 paper.
Uncle Tom's Cabin. Prod. Vera Mattlin Jiji. 1983; 2010. DVD. $19.89.
In June 2011, more than one hundred scholars gathered at Bowdoin College to celebrate the two hundredth anniversary of the birth of Harriet Beecher Stowe. They heard and discussed papers that covered a wide range of topics, including the author's later works, her relationships with Frederick Douglass and Harriet Jacobs, her transatlantic connections, and Japanese translations of Uncle Tom's Cabin. They attended roundtable discussions of topics such as access to the archives at the Harriet Beecher Stowe Center in Hartford, Connecticut. Participants (including two of Stowe's descendants) saw performances of Stowe's works and even enjoyed a walking tour of her neighborhood in Brunswick, Maine. Arranged by the Harriet Beecher Stowe Society in conjunction with the Maine Humanities Council, the Maine Women Writers Collection, and Bowdoin College, the conference was the centerpiece of the prolific scholarly activity on Stowe and her famous novel in recent years. The online publication of the National Era serialization of Uncle Tom's Cabin, the two print editions, two monographs, and the DVD of the staging of George Aiken's dramatization of Uncle Tom's Cabin under review here have all appeared since 2009, the year of the publication of my Stowe in Her Own Time as well as the Broadview edition of Uncle Tom's Cabin, edited by Christopher G. Diller. A quick search of this brief time period in the MLA Bibliography reveals the publication of some thirty-five new articles and book chapters on the author and her best-known work. Three of these print articles are in languages other than English, and one is a selection from a digital critical edition of the novel in the new, entirely online journal Scholarly Editing. Moreover, one collection of essays moves away from the main event: Beyond Uncle Tom's Cabin: Essays on the Writing of Harriet Beecher Stowe, edited by Sylvia Mayer and Monika Mueller, both scholars at German universities. Without doubt, new scholarship on Stowe and Uncle Tom's Cabin is both transatlantic/pacific in nature and technologically sophisticated.
As Tillie Olsen noted in Silences, "Stowe was thirty-nine before she got to Uncle Tom's Cabin--at last. She wrote it in magazine serial installments--in between--when weary with teaching the children and tending the baby and buying provisions and mending and darning; much of it on the kitchen table" (206). The rest of the story is well known. The book was a runaway best-seller, read by people all over the world, including Queen Victoria. Late in his life, William Dean Howells wrote that as a teenager he "broke [his] heart over Uncle Tom's Cabin," which he first read as it was published in installments in the antislavery newspaper the National Era (51). A young Henry James saw a dramatic version of the novel, staged by P. T. Barnum at his American Museum in New York in 1853. Although many African American readers, such as Frederick Douglass, saw the value of the novel in attracting attention to the antislavery cause, others objected, feeling that Stowe knew little of the actuality of slavery. Martin R. Delaney wrote his serialized novel Blake; or, the Huts of America in direct response to Uncle Tom's Cabin. Writing from the freedom of Canada, Delaney told the story of Henry Blake, who escapes from slavery and organizes a revolution, in sharp contrast to the pious and pacifistic Uncle Tom. Naturally, Southerners were generally outraged by Stowe's blockbuster, and a number of anti--Uncle Tom novels appeared, including Mary Henderson Eastman's Aunt Phillis's Cabin; or, Southern Life as It Is.
The enormous attention paid to Uncle Tom's Cabin--the forerunner of the media circus of today--made Stowe a celebrity and her publisher rich. Further, the reaction to the novel was undoubtedly one of the many causes of the Civil War. Although she went on to publish a long list of novels, short stories, travel sketches, and books for children, when Stowe died at her home in Hartford, Connecticut, in 1896, the dozens of obituaries acclaimed her as the author of Uncle Tom's Cabin. The book lived on mostly in silent movie versions, books for children, and negative stereotypes of Uncle Tom, but it was little read and studied until the feminist movement revived it and other writings by women. Today, the novel is an integral part of the classroom ekperience of new generations of students and the subject of study for a wide range of scholars, including major African American writers such as Henry Louis Gates, Jr., and Charles Johnson.
The first of the three new editions under review here is Uncle Tom's Cabin in the National Era. During this past year, this project has provided real-time access to the original serial Stowe wrote from her home in Brunswick, Maine. Published online (and sent to subscribers by e-mail alerts) in weekly installments from 5 June 2011 to i April 2012, this edition parallels the original publication, which appeared from 5 June 1851 through i April 1852. Sponsored by the Harriet Beecher Stowe Center, Uncle Tom's Cabin in the National Era presents transcriptions of all of the installments from the Era in an easy-to-navigate website. Wesley Raabe, whose electronic edition of the National Era text first appeared in the Uncle Tom's Cabin and American Culture Electronic Archive, provides an excellent "Note on the Text" in which he explains the differences between the Era serial and the two-volume novel that was published in 1852 by John P. Jewett, weeks before the final installment appeared in the Era. In addition to the weekly installments, Uncle Tom's Cabin in the National Era provides blog commentaries by a wide range of scholars, a historical timeline, and a section on references to A Key to Uncle Tom's Cabin so that readers can examine Stowe's account of her sources. But the full text of A Key is not included on the website, and readers would need to consult it elsewhere. The blog commentaries on the individual installments vary in length and style but, taken as a whole, provide lively accounts of Stowe's work. Notable entries include those by Kenneth Warren, Sarah Robbins, Marjorie Pryse, and Stephen Railton. In a thoughtful move, the site developers included blogs for the three moments during the course of serialization that Stowe's installments failed to arrive in time for publication in the newspaper. Writing about the omission in the 21 August 1851 issue, for example, Melissa Homestead provides an engaging discussion of the difficulties writers faced in sending their work to newspaper offices long distances from their homes. Several supplementary blogs, including my own, provide further commentary on the novel and its importance.
In addition to this online edition of the National Era text of Uncle Tom's Cabin, two new print editions are available. The second edition of the Norton Critical Edition of Uncle Tom's Cabin is edited by Elizabeth Ammons (who also edited the first edition, which appeared in 1994). As with all the Norton Critical Editions, the new volume is designed for classroom use and includes a complete text (taken from Jewett's first edition of 1852), explanatory notes, "Backgrounds and Contexts," a section on "Criticism," a chronology, and a bibliography. Ammons's revised introduction emphasizes the controversial nature of the novel and places it in the context of other activist texts such as Frederick Douglass's Narrative of the Life of an American Slave and Helena Maria Viramontes's Under the Feet of Jesus. Ammons has updated this second edition in accordance with this theme. First, she includes new primary materials, such as excerpts from David Walker's Appeal and first-person accounts of slavery, such as that of Henrietta King; she also reprints recent critical essays by Sophia Cantave and Susan M. Ryan in the place of earlier studies by Hortense Spillers and Christina Zwarg. In a provocative essay, "Who Gets to Create the Lasting Images? The Problem of Black Representation in Uncle Tom's Cabin," Cantave probes the troubling questions of how Stowe appropriated the slave experience for white culture and what gets neglected when Stowe's novel alone stands for African American experience in a classroom. In "Charity Begins at Home: Stowe's Antislavery Novels and the Forms of Benevolent Citizenship," Ryan argues that neither Stowe's literary representations nor her politics can be understood apart from the discourse of "benevolent citizenship" (596), a key social and political concept governing individual thought and action in nineteenth century America. Rounding out this Norton edition is a new feature, a timeline of the history of slavery in America.
Stowe scholars will find especially interesting the other new print edition of the novel, published by Oxford University Press in honor of the two hundredth anniversary of the author's birth. David Reynolds, the author of Mightier Than the Sword: Uncle Tom's Cabin and the Battle for America, is the editor of a handsomely produced facsimile of what was called the "Splendid Edition" of Uncle Tom's Cabin, an illustrated version of the novel that John P. Jewett published in December 1852. Originally designed by Jewett as a gift edition for the Christmas holidays, this text is lavishly illustrated with more than one hundred engravings by Hammatt Billings, the Boston artist who had prepared six illustrations for the first edition of the novel. Billings's illustrations provide a fascinating commentary on the text. For example, readers will immediately notice how the artist emphasized the religious dimensions of the novel; numerous illustrations show characters at prayer or reading the Bible. Reynolds's introduction concentrates mainly on the illustrations and provides useful contextual information about Billings as well as the ways the illustrations inflamed proslavery hostility against Stowe and her novel.
These new editions of Uncle Tom's Cabin--the online serialization in the Era, the second Norton edition, and the facsimile of the "Splendid Edition"--are each valuable for teachers and scholars. But the new print editions point up a central problem for Stowe scholars--there is simply no definitive edition. As Wesley Raabe and Les Harrison clearly demonstrate in their recent article in Scholarly Editing in which they comment on and present an edition of chapter 20, "Topsy," the Era version of the novel and the three editions that John Jewett published in the early 185os all differ. Raabe and Harrison compare the differences among the texts, including three lines of dialogue between Topsy and Augustine St. Clare that Stowe added in what is known as the "Jewett Million" edition, published just after the first edition. The new print editions of the novel highlight the major gap in Stowe scholarship, what Raabe and Harrison properly call the lack of "a scholarly edition with an authoritative text and a history of composition and publication." This gap has noteworthy implications for the text we read and study. In another essay, "Harriet Beecher Stowe's Uncle Tom's Cabin: A Case Study in Textual Transmission," Raabe provides even more details about the sometimes significant differences among the texts, especially the Penguin edition, that are routinely used in classrooms and in scholarship. As just one example, compare the lines that form the revealing epigraph to Raabe's essay:
"you must consider it's not a matter of private feeling"--Senator Bird in Harriet Beecher Stowe, Uncle Tom's Cabin (Boston: John P. Jewett,1852), 1:121 "you must consider it's a matter of private feeling"--Uncle Tom's Cabin, ed. Ann Douglas (New York: Penguin, 1981, 1986), 144 (63).
As Raabe has taught us in these recent articles and in a series of conference presentations, we need to be much more aware of the status of the texts we use in the classroom and in our scholarly studies. As a case in point, the two monographs under review here, Barbara Hochman's Uncle Tom's Cabin and the Reading Revolution: Race, Literacy, Childhood, and Fiction, 1851-1911 and David Reynolds's Mightier Than the Sword: Uncle Tom's Cabin and the Battle for America, each use a different edition of the text. Hochman uses the Penguin, which is descended indirectly from the first American edition published by Jewett in 1852, and which includes the numerous transcription errors that Raabe documents; Reynolds uses the Norton, which is taken directly from the first American edition, Many of the typographical errors in that edition are corrected in what is now arguably the most reliable print text of Uncle Tom's Cabin, the recent Bedford college edition prepared by Stephen Railton, who also edits the indispensable online archive, Uncle Tom's Cabin and American Culture. (In the interests of full disclosure: I am the co-editor of the Bedford Anthology of American Literature and am cited in Railton's acknowledgments.) Nonetheless, we still lack a scholarly edition--in print and/or online--of Uncle Tom's Cabin.
Textual issues are not central to Uncle Tom's Cabin and the Reading Revolution and Mightier Than the Sword, both of which are essentially cultural biographies of the novel. Both Hochman and Reynolds explore the genesis and composition history of the novel and closely examine its impact before and after the Civil War. Hochman focuses on the multiple ways readers responded to Uncle Tom's Cabin from its first publication to the centenary of Stowe's birth in 1911. She connects the novel with the history of reading in the second half of the nineteenth century and provides a detailed analysis of the changing place of fiction in American society. Indeed, it was still the case in 1850 that novels were regarded as slightly suspect literary forms, especially by ministers and educators who feared the absorptive powers of fiction on readers. While Hoch-man's attention is on Uncle Tom's Cabin, readers will also learn a great deal about changing attitudes toward fiction more generally as well as about shifts in cultural assumptions in the aftermath of abolition and the bitterly fought Civil War. Drawing on portrayals of reading in the novel itself, on the comments of well-known and little-known readers, and on other archival materials, Hochman traces the early reception of the novel through the Civil War, Reconstruction, and beyond, and demonstrates how readers responded to it differently over time. The result is an engaging scholarly study that provides fresh readings of Uncle Tom's Cabin and new insights about its cultural contexts. The book has won the 2012 De Long Book History Prize, awarded by the Society for the History of Authorship, Reading and Publishing (SHARP).
Hochman's study begins with a discussion of the novel as it first appeared in the pages of the National Era, setting the stage by examining Stowe's reading before she wrote her famous novel and tracing her relationship with fiction, especially with the books she loved as a child, such as The Arabian Nights. Taking the position that the earlier fiction published in the National Era was intended to provide an escape from the harder news stories of the day, Hochman argues that Uncle Tom's Cabin was a departure that "ushered religious doubt, political conflict, and the problem of human rights into installment fiction" (33). 'While the novel certainly was a major departure for the Era, editor Gamaliel Bailey had, in fact, been printing serialized fiction concerning antislavery issues, especially the novels of E. D. E. N. Southworth, a figure Hochman discusses only in a footnote (266-67n25). Instead, Hochman discusses the poetry of the Era in some detail, pointing out that Bailey did publish a good bit of antislavery poetry. She argues that Stowe's use of standard motifs in fiction--depiction of the death of a child, a fugitive slave, and a grieving mother--not only drew readers into the serial but also caused considerable discomfort for them as Stowe reconceived these motifs for her imaginative and social ends. In her second chapter, Hochman considers the figure of the literate slave, suggesting that Stowe provided reassurance for her readers in showing slaves who used their literacy to read their Bibles--and not to foment the rebellions that slave masters feared. One of the iconic images from Jewett's 1852 edition (and reprinted in Hochman's book) is "Little Eva Reading the Bible to Uncle Tom in the Arbor" (70). As she argues in her third chapter, such visual--and textual--depictions of reading helped form the protocols of reading that Stowe used to enforce the value of literacy and to legitimize fiction.
In an astute analysis, Hochman documents the anti-fiction arguments of the mid-nineteenth century and demonstrates how Stowe implicitly countered them in her morality tale, with its numerous allusions to and citations of the Bible. In this chapter she makes excellent use of archival materials such as letters and diaries to reflect how readers responded to the novel. She next examines Uncle Tom's Cabin as a novel adapted for children, beginning with the 1853 publication of Pictures and Stories from Uncle Tom's Cabin. Hoch man's discussion of this step in the history of Uncle Tom's Cabin is important, for the topic has been frequently overlooked in studies of the novel. As she explains, Stowe's own children were her first audience and, in a paragraph at the end of the serial in the National Era (which is not included in any of the editions of the novel), Stowe directly addressed white children, admonishing them to "Remember the sweet example of little Eva, and try to feel the same regard for all that she did; and then, when you grow up, we hope that the foolish and unchristian prejudice against people, merely on account of their complexion, will be done away with" (Uncle Tom's Cabin in the National Era http://nation-alera.wordpress.comitextual-transcriptions/april-1-152-installment).
In the second half of her book, Hochman measures the changing fortunes of Uncle Tom's Cabin in the final years of the nineteenth century. As she notes, the novel was a centerpiece of the Harriet Beecher Stowe display in the Connecticut Woman's exhibit at the Columbian Exposition of 1893 (148-51). By that time, however, Uncle Tom's Cabin was more important as a historical artifact and less as a novel that readers still read with rapt attention. Here, as in her earlier chapters, the author relies on an array of archival materials, including discussions and illustrations of diaries and scrapbooks in which some readers chronicled their reading experiences. She also traces the ongoing repackaging of the novel for children, this time in support of an increasingly segregated society. In an epilogue she discusses the readings of Uncle Tom's Cabin by a variety of twentieth-century African American writers, such as James Weldon Johnson, James Baldwin, and Zora Neale Hurston. Through this volume Hochman has provided a major contribution to our understanding of reading practices in the nineteenth century--and to the ongoing debate about the place of Stowe's famous novel in American literary history.
In Mightier Than the Sword: Uncle Tom's Cabin and the Battle for America, David Reynolds covers more than two hundred years of history, beginning with an account of Harriet Beecher Stowe's parents, Lyman Beecher and Roxana Foote, and ending with an allusion to President Barack Obama's hope that the United States might one day be a country "beyond race" (273). In his celebratory account, Reynolds traces the genesis of the novel to Stowe's early religious experiences and training, to her family's firm opposition to slavery, and to her own career as a budding writer for periodicals. His thesis is that Stowe's genius lay in her ability to incorporate a vast array of images from popular culture and transform them directly into her own characters and plots--and thereby to create a novel, as he says on the book jacket, that was "perhaps the most influential and iconic novel ever written by an American." In his first two chapters, Reynolds narrates the early years of Stowe's life and demonstrates her interest in the many aspects of popular culture that she would later use in her novel. He discusses a variety of reform movements, especially temperance; religious services and revivals; plotlines from popular fiction, exhibits, and performances; and contemporary political news, such as the European revolutions of 1848. In the third chapter he then traces the evolution of Stowe's antislavery passion, drawing on biographical materials--familiar to scholars and students who have read Joan D. Hedrick's Pulitzer Prize-winning Harriet Beecher Stowe: A Lift--about her years in Cincinnati, Ohio, and in Brunswick, Maine, where she wrote the novel. Reynolds provides a detailed account of the influence of two Cincinnati antislavery leaders, Theodore Dwight Weld and James G. Birney. He speculates in some detail about men who might have been models for her character Uncle Tom and also discusses little-known slave narratives such as those by Milton Clarke and Lewis Garrard Clarke, two brothers who escaped slavery in Kentucky and published their accounts in 1846. While Reynolds is careful not to insist on these and other sources as the origins of plot details and characters, his attention to the many slave narratives, newspapers accounts, and other antislavery materials create a rich contextual background for Uncle Tom's Cabin.
In the second half of his book, Reynolds takes up the question of the impact of Stowe's novel on the Civil War. In his chapter "Igniting the War," he begins with a helpful history of the Fugitive Slave Law and demonstrates how the extreme popularity of the novel--and especially of the play adapted in 1852 from the novel by George Aiken--fired the public imagination. His position is clear: Stowe's novel was a major force in shaping events that led to the war, including political developments during the 185os. In what is perhaps at once the most original and the most questionable series of assertions in this study, Reynolds argues that the novel played "a key role in the political reshuffling that lay behind the rise of the antislavery Republican Party" and paved the way for the election of Abraham Lincoln (149). Although Stowe believed that the impact of her novel would end with the Civil War, Reynolds shows in his final chapters how the novel has continued to incite argument and debate. He suggests that it fired the imagination of revolutionaries in China, Russia, Brazil, and Cuba in the late nineteenth century and, much less positively, early in the twentieth century served to inspire the southern writer Thomas Dixon to write his viciously racist novel The Clansman, upon which D. W. Griffith based his blockbuster film The Birth of a Nation.
There is a wealth of information in these chapters about how the novel lived on in films and early television in the twentieth century. Indeed, Reynolds's account is remarkably full, and I can add only one detail to his discussion of Stowe and her novel in the 1940s. In the fall of 1944, large numbers of theatergoers attended performances of Harriet, starring Helen Hayes--first in New York, and then in Boston and Philadelphia. Written by the prolific playwriting team of Florence Ryerson and Colin Clements and directed by Elia Kazan, this historical drama about Stowe's life mixed fact with fictional characters from Uncle Tom's Cabin. The play, dedicated to Eleanor Roosevelt and clearly aimed at weary wartime audiences, concluded with Hayes in her character as Stowe giving a speech extolling the importance of fighting against tyrants. As the curtain falls, the Beecher and Stowe families gather around Harriet, singing "The Battle Hymn of the Republic." Relating the fight for the abolition of slavery in the US Civil War with the cause of the Allied powers against the Axis powers in World War II, the play offered a uniformly positive portrayal of Stowe as a crusader who successfully moved a president and a large number of people to action against a social and moral wrong. Reynolds ends his book with a final commentary on the ongoing importance of Uncle Tom's Cabin in American culture. To be sure, the amount of recent attention directed to Stowe and her novel clearly supports that claim.
In addition to the three new editions and two monographs, Vera M. Jiji's DVD, Uncle Tom's Cabin, will be of special interest to Legacy readers and classroom teachers. Although the novel has generally been considered too controversial for a big-studio production, there have been many film versions, including at least nine silent films made in the early twentieth century. The DVD contains the complete fourteen-minute Edwin S. Porter silent film produced by Thomas Edison in 1903. Featuring an all-white cast with actors in blackface portraying characters like Uncle Tom, the film provides a fascinating glimpse into how the novel was used and abused in the racially charged atmosphere at the turn of the twentieth century. There were also numerous theatrical adaptations of the novel, the most popular of which was Aiken's. Jiji does not include a complete dramatization of Aiken's play, but instead offers the staging of fourteen well-designed short scenes drawn from both the play and the novel. It runs for fifty minutes, the length of many classes. Filmed on spare sets with accomplished African American actors, this adaptation offers an arresting visual and auditory experience that provides a way for students to imagine how nineteenth-century audiences might have experienced the novel as a drama. As my own undergraduates at the University of Nebraska--Lincoln can attest, seeing scenes performed on the screen provides an excellent way to picture the characters and action of the novel. The DVD also contains a sourcebook of materials, including early theatre reviews and critical commentary through 2006, as well as discussion questions and ideas for writing assignments, all designed for classroom use. Indeed, the whole package offers a valuable supplement to a novel that continues to engage the interest of scholars and teachers alike.
In the midst of all of these new publications and celebratory events, Stowe and her famous novel made history once again during the state visit of President Obama to England in late May 2011. The Guardian published what must be one of the most remarkable images of our times: President Obama and his wife, Michelle, standing with Queen Elizabeth, Prince Philip, and other members of the royal family in front of an exhibit case at Buckingham Palace. In the photograph, President and Mrs. Obama are examining a glass case containing the two volumes of a first edition of Uncle Tom's Cabin that once belonged to Queen Victoria. Harriet Beecher Stowe, the author of a novel that continues to engage our passionate attention in the twenty-first century, was once again in the news, this time with the first African American president of the United States.
"Ba rack Obama's UK State Visit: Day One--in Pictures." Guardian Online 24 May 2011.
Belasco, Susan, ed. Stowe in Her Own Time: A Biographical Chronicle of Her Life, Drawn from Recollections, Interviews, and Memoirs by Family, Friends, and Associates. Iowa City: U of Iowa P, 2009.
Belasco, Susan, and Linck Johnson, eds. The Bedford Anthology of American Literature. 2 vols. Boston: Bedford/St. Martin's, 2008.
Delaney, Martin R. Blake; ot; the Huts of America. 1859. Ed. Floyd J. Miller. Boston: Beacon, 1970.
Diller, Christopher G., ed. Uncle Tom's Cabin. Peterborough: Broadview, 2009.
Eastman, Mary Henderson. Aunt Phillis's Cabin; or, Southern Life as It Is. Philadelphia: Lippincott, 1852.
Hedrick, Joan D. Harriet Beecher Stowe: A Life. New York: Oxford UP, 1995. Howells, William Dean. My Literary Passions. New York: Harper, 1895.
Mayer, Sylvia, and Monika Mueller, eds. Beyond Uncle Tom's Cabin: Essays on the Writing of Harriet Beecher Stowe. Madison: Fairleigh Dickinson UP, 2011. Olson, Tillie. Silences. New York: Delacorte, 1978.
Raabe, Wesley. "Harriet Beecher Stowe's Uncle Dm's Cabin: A Case Study in Textual Transmission." The American Literature Scholar in the Digital Age. Ed. Amy E. Earhart and Andrew Jewell. Ann Arbor: U of Michigan P, 2011. 63-83.
Raabe, Wesley, and Les Harrison. "A Selection from "Uncle Tom's Cabin: A Digital Critical Edition: 'Topsy." Scholarly Editing 33 (2012). Web.
Railton, Stephen, ed. Uncle Tom's Cabin. Boston: Bedford/St. Martin's, 2006.
--. Uncle Tom's Cabin and American Culture. Web.
Ryerson, Florence, and Colin Clements. Harriet: A Play in Three Acts. New York: Scribner, 1943.
Stowe, Harriet Beecher. A Key to Uncle Tom's Cabin. Boston: Jewett, 1853.
University of Nebraska-Lincoln
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|Publication:||Legacy: A Journal of American Women Writers|
|Article Type:||Critical essay|
|Date:||Jun 1, 2012|
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