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Un avellanar relictico (Corylus avellana L., Betulaceae) en la cuenca media del Rio Guadiana (Ciudad Real, Espana).

A hazel tree relict community (Corylus avellana L., Betulaceae) from the Guadiana River Middle Basin (Ciudad Real, Spain)

Hazel tree (Corylus avellana L.) is a rare species in the landscapes on the Mediterranean Iberian Peninsula, where it always grows as infrequent specimens in hygrophilous forest communities associated with river canyons, on moist shady slopes and riverine forest fringes, among other sites (QUESADA & al., 2009; RODRIGUEZ GUITIAN, 2010). There is only one reported hazel tree forest community in central-southern Iberian Peninsula: the supramediterranean formations of Sub-Baetic mountain territories (Albacete-Jaen provinces), corresponding to the association Geo urbani-Coryletum avellanae F. Valle, Mota & Gomez Mercado 1986 corr. Gomez Mercado [in Rivas-Martinez & al.] 2002 [Aceri granatensis-Quercion fagineae (Rivas Goday, Rigual & Rivas-Martinez in Rivas Goday, Borja, Esteve, Galiano, Rigual & Rivas-Martinez 1960) Rivas-Martinez 1987] (cf. RIVAS-MARTINEZ & al., 2001, 2002). These forest formations grow on deep calcareous-dolimitic soils in canyons and narrow shady valleys.

The presence of hazel trees throughout the landscapes of Castile-La Mancha is well known. However the references to the territory of Ciudad Real are very scarce and not always sufficiently documented; we only have some unpublished technical reports (CABRERA & FLOX, 1999/2000) and documents (GARCIA RIO, 2000), in addition to other published references in collective compilations (VERDE & al., 2000; CHARCO & al., 2008; GOSALVEZ & al., 2009, among others). For some years we have been studying the area covered by hazel tree forest formations growing on steep slopes and small shady canyons in the Middle Basin of the Guadiana River (areas with a lower mesomediterranean thermotype, from 510 to 550 m asl). This forest type is certainly a relict refugee community growing on deep moist soils in the study area, an attractive natural area located between the Montes de Toledo to the north and Sierra Morena to the south, and known as Comarca de Los Montes de Ciudad Real.

Our contribution is the first documented reference to hazel tree forest formations in the territory of Ciudad Real growing in areas with a mesomediterranean thermotype; we include some herbarium vouchers conserved in the Herbarium of the Faculty of Pharmacy, Complutense University, Madrid (MAF) (see Appendix, herbarium vouchers).

Table 1 shows several releves taken in the territories around the Guadiana River, on the El Campillo estate, in Ciudad Real, Spain, 38[grados]58'39"N, 4[grados]24'5"W, during the last years. This table contains eight releves which reveal the floristic, vegetational and ecological characterisation of these peculiar formations. Some edaphohygrophilous tree species are common, such as Salix atrocinerea and Fraxinus angustifolia; along with several characteristic species such as Athyrium filix-foemina, Carex pendula, Chamaeiris foetidissima, Narcissus portensis, Osmunda regalis, and Ranunculus ficaria.

We propose to frame these hazel tree formations in a new association: Chamaeirido foetidissimae-Coryletum avellanae ass. nova hoc loco (Table 1; holotypus, releve no. 7), within the edapho-hygrophilous forest alliance Populion albae, Fraxino angustifoliae-Ulmenion minoris suballiance (see Appendix, phytosociological scheme following the proposals of RIVAS-MARTINEZ & al., 2001). These forest formations point to a dynamic community related with ash tree (Fraxinus angustifolia) and western oak (Quercus broteroi) forests developed in lowlands on deep alluvial soil; we believe they represent serial pre-forest stages or even permanent communities in highly protected and wet areas such as steep slopes, ravines and shady canyons, among others. Their biogeographical distribution covers at least the mountain territories in the Middle Guadiana River Basin (northern and eastern territories of Lusitania and Extremadura subprovince, western-Iberian Mediterranean province, western-Mediterranean subregion, Mediterranean biogeographical region).

The landscape significance of this new proposed forest unit is explained by the history and dynamics of the natural vegetation in the study area. Historical references show that the potential distribution of this vegetation type was much larger than at present, when its main threats come from over-hunting and human management activities.

http://dx.doi.org/10.5209/rev_LAZA.2015.v36.51335

Received: 30 October 2015 Accepted: 23 November 2015

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

We would like to thank Leovigildo Flox Morales, Environmental Agent from the Autonomous Government of Castile-La Mancha for their valuable help; also Pru Brooke-Turner who revised the English language style of this contribution.

REFERENCES

Cabrera, F. & Flox, L.--1999/2000--Inventario, catalogacion y estudio floristico de los bonales de Ciudad Real. Informe tecnico--Consej. Agric. Junta Com. Castilla-La Mancha, Ciudad Real. (unpubl.).

Castroviejo, S. & al. (Eds.)--1986--Flora iberica. Plantas vasculares de la Peninsula Iberica e Islas Baleares--R. Jard. Bot. CSIC, Madrid.

Charco, J., Fernandez-Gonzalez, F, Garcia Rio, R., Mateo, G. & Valdes, A.--2008--Guia de los arboles y arbustos autoctonos de Castilla-la Mancha--Cent. Inv. Amb. Mediterraneo (CIAMED), Ciudad Real.

Garcia Rio, R.--2000--Flora protegida y habitats de interes de la provincia de Ciudad Real. Materiales para un curso--Consej. Agric. Junta Com. Castilla-La Mancha, Ciudad Real. (unpubl.).

Gosalvez Rey, R.U., Ayllon Lopez, E. & Flores Polanco, T.--2009--Fauna vertebrada terrestre en un espacio de transicion biogeografica: el borde meridional de la Meseta Sur en el entorno de Puertollano--In: Costa, M., Pieren A. & Viejo, J.L. (Eds.). Historia Natural de Puertollano y Comarca de Calatrava. Pp. 55-93. Mem. R. Soc. Hist. Nat., 2* epoc., tomo VI. Loeches, Madrid.

Rodriguez Guitian, M.A.--2010--Temperate riverside forests without alder trees in the north-west of the Iberian Peninsula: ecology, phytosociological profile and interest for preservation policies--Lazaroa 31: 9-37.

Quesada, J., Valle, F. & Salazar, C.--2009--El paisaje vegetal ripario del rio Guadalentin (Jaen-Granada, sureste de Espana): bases para la gestion y la conservacion del medio natural--Lazaroa 30: 119-132.

Rivas-Martinez, S., Fernandez-Gonzalez, F., Loidi, J., Lousa, M & Penas, A.--2001--Syntaxonomical checklist of the vascular plant communities of Spain and Portugal to association level--Itinera Geobot. 14:5-341.

Rivas-Martinez, S., Diaz Gonzalez, T.E., FernandezGonzalez, F., Izco, J., Loidi, J., Lousa, M & Penas, A.-- 2002--Vascular plant communities of Spain and Portugal (Addenda to the Syntaxonomical Checklist of 2001)--Itinera Geobot. 15(1): 5-432.

Tutin, T.G., Heywood, V.H., Burges, N.A., Moore, D.M., Valentine, D.H., Walters, S.M. & Webb, D.A.--19641980--Flora Europaea. Vol. 1-5--Cambridge Univ. Press, Cambridge.

Verde, A., Fajardo, J., Rivera, D. & Obon, C.--2000--Etnobotanica en el entorno del Parque Nacional de Cabaneros--Publ. Min. Med. Amb., Ser. Tec., Madrid. Enrique Luengo Nicolau (1) & Daniel Sanchez-Mata (1)

(1) Departamento de Biologia Vegetal II, Facultad de Farmacia, Universidad Complutense, E-28040 Madrid, Espana. Email: dsmata@ucm.es

APPENDIX

TAXONOMIC NOMENCLATURE

The taxonomic nomenclature follows the proposal of published volumes of Flora iberica (CASTROVIEJO & al., 1986), or Flora Europaea (TUTIN & al., 1964-1980). The exceptions and accepted taxonomic ranks for nomenclatural abbreviations are the following:

Lonicera hispanica: Lonicera periclymenum subsp. hispanica (Boiss. & Reut.) Nyman Narcissus portensis: Narcissus pseudonarcissus subsp. portensis (Pugsley) A. Fern. Quercus broteroi Rivas Mart. & C. Saenz Quercus rotundifolia Lam. Vitis sylvestris: Vitis vinifera subsp. sylvestris (C.C. Gmel.) Hegi

HERBARIUM RECORDS

Chamaeiris foetidissima (L.) Medik.

Ciudad Real: Luciana. Comarca de Los Montes. Relic hazel forest close to the Guadiana river in "El Campillo", 38[grados]58'39"N, 04[grados]24'05"W, 535 m asl., 10.06.2012, E. Luengo (MAF 175041).

Corylus avellana L.

Ciudad Real: Luciana. Comarca de Los Montes. Relic hazel forest close to the Guadiana river in "El Campillo", 38[grados]58'39"N, 04[grados]24'05"W, 535 m asl., 10.10.2012, E. LUENGO (MAF 175042).

PHYTOSOCIOLOGICAL SCHEME

SALICI PURPUREAE-POPULETEA NIGRAE (Rivas-Martinez & Canto ex Rivas-Martinez & al. 1991) Rivas-Martinez & al. 2001 Populetalia albae Br.-Bl. ex Tchou 1948 Populion albae br.-Bl. ex Tchou 1948 Fraxino angustifoliae-Ulmenion minoris Rivas-Martinez 1975 1. Chamaeirido foetidissimae-Coryletum avellanae ass. nova
Table 1

Chamaeirido foetidissimae-Coryletum avellanae ass. nova
(Fraxino angustifoliae-Ulmenion minoris, Populion albae,
Populetalia albae, Salici purpureae-Populetea nigrae)

Altitude (m asl)   520   520   530   520   550   540   510   520
Area (1 = 10       10    10    10    10    20    10    20    10
  [m.sup.2])
Inclination        25    30    30    40    30    30    35    30
  ([grados])
Exposure           NW    NW    NE     N    NW    NW     N    NE
N.N. species       16    16    16    19    22    28    29    29
Releve n.           1     2     3     4     5     6     7     8

Characteristics

Corylus avellana    3     2     2     3     2     2     4     2
Chamaeiris          2     1     2     2     2     2     3     2
  foetidissimus
Fraxinus            +     1     +     +     +     1     2     +
  angustifolia
Narcissus           .     +     1     1     1     1     1     2
  portensis
Ranunculus          +     1     .     +     .     +     1     1
  ficaria
Vitis               2     .     .     .     1     1     1     1
  sylvestis
Carex pendula       1     1     .     1     .     .     1     2
Salix               .     +     .     .     .     1     2     1
  atrocinerea

Companions

Ruscus aculeatus    1     1     2     2     +     3     2     1
Quercus broteroi    +     +     +     .     +     1     1     1
Erica lusitanica    +     .     1     +     +     +     +     1
Viburnum tinus      1     +     .     +     +     1     1     +
Lonicera            2     .     .     1     1     1     1     1
  hispanica
Rubus ulmifolius    .     2     .     +     +     +     1     1
Osmunda regalis     1     .     .     +     1     +     +     1
Smyrnium            .     +     .     .     +     2     1     1
  perfoliatum
Phillyrea           .     .     2     1     +     2     1     .
  latifolia
Crataegus           +     .     .     .     1     1     +     1
  monogyna
Athyrium            .     .     .     1     +     +     1     1
  filix-foemina
Rosa canina         .     +     +     .     .     1     1     +
Carex binervis      1     .     .     1     1     .     1     +
Lampsana            .     +     .     .     .     +     1     1
  communis
Acer                .     .     1     .     +     2     1     .
  monspessulanum
Arbutus unedo       .     +     +     .     .     1     1     .
Paeonia broteroi    .     .     1     .     .     1     +     +
Tamus communis      .     .     .     .     1     +     +     1
Sibthorpia          1     .     .     +     1     .     .     2
  europaea
Urtica dioica       +     +     +     +     .     .     .     .
Asplenium           .     .     +     .     .     1     1     +
  onopteris
Pistacia            .     .     1     .     +     1     +     .
  terebinthus
Rubia peregrina     .     .     .     .     .     +     +     +
Bryonia dioica      .     .     .     .     1     .     .     1
Teucrium            .     .     .     +     .     .     .     1
  scorodonia
Hypericum           .     .     .     1     .     .     .     1
  undulatum
Quercus             .     .     +     .     .     +     .     .
  rotundifolia

Localities: All releves from Ciudad Real: Luciana. Comarca de Los
Montes. "El Campillo". Holotypus releve number 7.
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Author:Nicolau, Enrique Luengo; Sanchez-Mata, Daniel
Publication:Lazaroa
Article Type:Ensayo
Date:Jan 1, 2015
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