UWB monopole patch antenna with two H-shaped slots and dual-band notch for WLAN and WiMAX applications.
UWB wireless communication has spread worldwide as the Federal Communications Commission (FCC) approved the unauthorized frequency band ranging from 3.1 GHz to 10.6 GHz in 2002. Microwave engineers are increasingly requesting the UWB antenna with a small size, low profile, good impedance matching, group delay, and two radiation patterns (bi-directional and omnidirectional patterns) [1-3].
Many studies have been performed to design small-sized multiband antennas that can tolerate various communication applications (WLAN/5.15GHz-5.35GHz band) and technologies (WiMAX/3.3GHz-3.7GHz band). Therefore, to avoid interference with other bands, a filter antenna must be designed to reject the unwanted bands. The single or dual etching of U-, H-, C-, W-shaped slots and elliptical slots on the radiation patches or the ground plane of an antenna is a way to realize notched-band features [4-6].
The stopping frequency of the band is feasibly satisfied by adjusting the length, width, and radius of these structures. The advantage of designing a multiband antenna is to provide multiple frequency bands in a single antenna, reducing manufacturing costs as well as complex design and operation [6-9]. There are many methods for obtaining a band-notch function in a UWB antenna that is integrated with the ground plane or radiation patch by using Split Ring Resonator (SRR) , Tapered Slot Edge (TSE) , Electromagnetic Band-Gap (EBG) , Complementary Split-Ring Resonator (CSRR) and Defective Ground Structure (DGS) .
The application of fractal geometry can be adopted to achieve miniaturization and broadband frequency response because of its space-filling and multi-resonance characteristics [14-17]. Accordingly, the UWB antennas with notched bands based on fractals are reported, such as circular fractal , Koch fractal , and rectangle tree fractal .
In this study, new H-shaped slots etched on the monopole radiation patch antenna were employed for UWB with WiMAX and WLAN dual-band rejections. Furthermore, by cutting one square notch in the ground plane, we can produce wide impedance bandwidth at the higher band. The proposed antenna design provides UWB response with a dual-band notch without increasing the size of the antenna, in addition to the benefits of its simple topology, small dimensions, low profile, and acceptable gain features.
The main objective of this research was to transmit and receive line codes without the requirement of analog modulations by wireless baseband transmission technique, like in Manchester and Polar Return-to-Zero encodings . The operation of the antenna was investigated by HFSS v. 15.0 simulator using FR4 substrate. The design and dimension details of the proposed multiband antenna are discussed and provided in Section 2. In Section 3, the effect of different slot parameters on the antenna frequency response is investigated besides the simulation results of surface current, radiation patterns, voltage standing wave ratio, and gain. Moreover, experimental results are presented and compared to the simulated ones. Section 4 presents the concluded and highlighted points of this study.
2. ANTENNA DESIGN
The layout details of the designed monopole patch antenna fed by the CPW and simulated by the HFSS electromagnetic simulator are provided in Fig.1. In this paper, we introduce the UWB antenna based on the power divider and slot ground plane with dual H-shaped slots etched on the patch radiator. The monopole antenna is based on the FR4 substrate with a thickness of1.6 mm, a dielectric constant of 4.4, and a loss tangent of 0.02. The feed line has a characteristic impedance of 50 [ohm], and the full dimensions of the proposed antenna are 22 [mm.sup.3] * 20 [mm.sup.3] * 1.6 [mm.sup.3]. The designed impedance bandwidth range with S11 [less than or equal to] -10 dB is 2.4-9.6 GHz. The antenna's width and length along with the dimensions of H-shaped slots were calculated using the following equations :
[Please download the PDF to view the formula] (1)
[Please download the PDF to view the formula] (2)
[Please download the PDF to view the formula] (3)
where C represents the speed of light (0.3 Gm/s), [f.sub.r] is the resonance frequency at 6 GHz, [[epsilon].sub.r] is the dielectric constant of FR4 material, and [[epsilon].sub.reff] denotes the effective dielectric constant for the same material that was determined by the HFSS simulator.
L = 22, W = 20, [W.sub.f] = 3.4, [W.sub.g] = 2.5, a = 6.6, b = 6.3, c = 3.6, d = 6.6, e = 3.94, f = 4.2, g = 3.4, h = 6.8, I = 11, A = 1, B = C = 2.5, D = 0.7, E = 0.2, F = G = 1.5, H = 14, K = Z = 0.5, R = 12.4, M = 6, N = 2.
3. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
As a starting point, an initial topology of the monopole antenna was simulated to investigate the UWB performance on a bandwidth ranging from 2.4 GHz to 9.6 GHz. The range of UWB was provided by using a modified rectangle slot on the patch radiator and the ground plane.
The lower operating frequency was observed by cutting a rectangle in the radiating patch and the ground plane. The higher operating frequency was observed through the stripline feed, as shown in Fig. 2. This figure is based on the reference antenna without H-shaped slots. Several narrow bands for other wireless systems, like WLAN and WiMAX, may cause interference with the UWB application. For that reason, the band notching method is practicably used to minimize potential interferences.
3.1. H-shaped slot on the patch radiator
In this section, one H-shaped slot was first etched on the top of the radiation patch, which can notch the WiMAX frequency band at 3.35-3.83 GHz, as depicted in Fig. 3.
Figure 3 illustrates the simulated S11 response for the antenna with an H-shaped slot in the radiating patch. It has the identical basic topology of the original antenna to provide an operating frequency range of 2.4-9.6 GHz with a band-notched range from 3.35 GHz to 3.83 GHz for WiMAX behaviour. The slot length was determined by means of Eq. 3 after assuming that the rejected band was centered at 3.7 GHz. The calculated length of the slot is equal to 24.45 mm. In contrast, the optimized length of the slot is equal to 25 mm, where the difference between the calculated and optimized values is about 2.25% based on trial and error criteria.
In the next step, the second H-shaped slot was embedded on the centered radiation patch to investigate its S11 response, as depicted in Fig. 4. The simulated S11 response of the antenna with a slot reveals the UWB behaviour with a bandwidth range from 2.4 GHz to 9.6 GHz, and the rejected band was centered at 5.7 GHz with a band-notched range from 4 GHz to 6 GHz for WLAN behaviour. The calculated length of the slot is equal to 15.87 mm by Eq. 3, and the optimized length is equal to 16.8 mm, where the difference between them is about 5.54%.
In the last step, the antenna with two H-shaped slots was printed on the radiating patch, and its S11 response is illustrated in Fig. 5. After introducing the two slots into the radiating patch of the antenna, the simulation outcome reveals that the antenna is still operated within the frequency band from 2.4 GHz to 9.6 GHz. At the same time, two extra resonances were presented to the passband of the antenna. One of these resonances is responsible for introducing the WiMAX band, and the other presents the WLAN band, as shown in Fig. 5. It was detected that by inserting dual H-shaped slots on the radiating patch, the two rejected bands are effectively improved under WiMAX and WLAN frequency ranges.
Table 1 describes the comparison between the suggested antenna and other reported antennas in [4,5,10, 13,22-24] in terms of size, employed substrate type, design principle, available WiMAX notch range, available WLAN notch range and the number of bands. As can be seen in Table 1, the designed antenna has the minimum size and the simplest topology compared to the ones studied in the literature.
3.2. VSWR and Gain
Figure 6 displays the simulated gain and voltage standing wave ratio (VSWR) of the designed antenna within the frequency range from 1 GHz to 12 GHz.
An impedance bandwidth with suitable matching for VSWR [less than or equal to] 2 from 2.4 GHz to 9.6 GHz and dual rejected bands for WLAN and WiMAX bands is observed in the UWB range with the highest gain of 1.18 dB, excluding the rejected frequency bands.
3.3. Radiation patterns and current distribution
Figure 7 shows the simulation of radiation patterns at 3.4, 5.6, 6, 8.6, and 9 GHz with H-plane and E-plane. For a monopole patch antenna, the radiation patterns in the E- and H-planes are bi-directional and omnidirectional. It is comprehended that the radiation pattern in the H-plane is almost omnidirectional for the five frequencies as required for UWB bands.
To further understand the behaviour of H-shaped slots in the lower and upper frequencies, the current distribution of the designed monopole antenna at 3.4, 5.6, 6, 8.6 GHz is given in Fig. 8. As depicted in Fig. 8, weighty currents are discernible along the slot edges. The highest surface current is noted at the edge of the upper slot at 3.4 GHz (Fig. 8a), while it is noticed at the edge of the lower slot at 6 GHz (Fig. 8c). These behaviours indicate that the effective current path length is extended through the etched slots contributing to the observed dual-band rejection.
The designed UWB monopole antenna prototype based on the adjusted dimensions was manufactured as depicted in Fig. 9. The 50 [ohm] SMA connector was used to feed the antenna, and the S11 parameter was measured by using an Anritsu 37369A Vector Network Analyzer (VNA), as illustrated in Fig. 10. Figure 11 shows that the measured result agrees well with the simulated ones. The differences are predominantly caused by minor size shifts in the fabrication process, soldering between the SMA connector and the printed circuit board, and FR4 material losses.
A new compact UWB monopole antenna has been simulated and tested. Two H-shaped slots were printed on the patch radiator to provide two notched bands for WiMAX and WLAN systems. The antenna has a frequency band from 2.4 GHz to more than 9.6 GHz, with notch bands from about 3.1 GHz to 3.9 GHz and from 5.1 GHz to 5.9 GHz. The size of the antenna is 20 [mm.sup.3] * 22 [mm.sup.3] * 1.6 [mm.sup.3] with tolerable input reflection and gain responses. Also, it has nearly omnidirectional radiation patterns throughout the UWB response, which makes the designed antenna valid for the wireless applications, especially for transmitting digital data directly, without using modulation techniques in a short-distance configuration.
The authors express their gratitude to the University of Mosul, Al-Esraa University College, and Mustansiriyah University in Iraq for supporting this study. The publication costs of this article were partially covered by the Estonian Academy of Sciences.
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Ultra-lairibaline (UWB) topelt H-kujulise piluga ja kahe tokkesagedusega planaarantenn WLAN ning WiMAX rakendusteks
Furat Abayaje, Yaqeen Sabah Mezaal ja Ban M. Alameri
UWB tehnoloogial baseeruv raadioside on loodud andmete ulikiireks edastamiseks luhikeste vahemaade taha madalal saatevoimsusel. Kaesolevas artiklis antakse ulevaade ulimalt miniaturiseeritud kahe tokkesagedusega planaarantennist, mis on ette nahtud traadita kohtvorgu WLAN ja WiMAX sidelahenduste tarvis. Laiaribalise antenni uldisi gabariite on vahendatud suuruseni 22 * 20 [mm.sup.2], parandades seelabi side kvaliteeti UWB sides kasutatavas sagedusalas 2,4 GHz - 9,6 GHz. Kahe H-kujulise pilu suvistamisega aktiivelemendile on saavutatud WiMAX sides kasutatavate raadiosageduste tokestamine sagedusvahemikus 3,1 GHz - 3,9 GHz ja WLAN raadiosageduste tokestamine sagedusvahemikus 5,1 GHz - 5,9 GHz. H-kujuline pilu on suvistatud molemasse aktiivelementi. Antenn on valmistatud FR4 trukkplaadile ja seda toidetakse koplanaarse lainejuhi (CPW) kaudu. Antenni impedantsi sobitamiseks (50 [ohm]) kasutatakse koaksiaalkaablil pohinevat lahendust. Antennil on H-tasandil ringikujuline ja E-tasandil kahesuunaline suunadiagramm. Too kaigus valmistati antenni prototuup, mida seejarel testiti ja kasutati verifitseerimiseks.
Furat Abayaje (a), Yaqeen Sabah Mezaal (b*) and Ban M. Alameri (c)
(a) Department of Software Engineering, University of Mosul, Iraq
(b) Medical Instrumentation Engineering Department, Al-Esraa University College, Baghdad, Iraq
(c) Department of Electrical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Mustansiriyah University, Baghdad, Iraq
Received 2 August 2020, accepted 8 February 2021, available online 13 April 2021
(*) Corresponding author, firstname.lastname@example.org
Table 1. Comparison between the suggested antenna and other reported antennas in [4,5,10,13,22-24] Ref. Dimensions Substrate Design principle WiMAX notch ([mm.sup.3]) type range (GHz)  46 * 42 * 1 FR-4 U-slot in the ground structure and U-shaped slot in the radiating patch  30 * 30 * 1.524 RO4350B C-slots in the 3.2-3.85 radiating patch and reduced ground plane  35 * 30 * 1.59 FR-4 C-shaped circular 3.2-3.6 slot and SRR  40 * 34 * 1.6 FR-4 SRR and DGS 3.4-3.69  50 * 50 * 1.575 Taconic Dual SRR loaded monopole antenna  33 * 32 * 1.5 FR-4 Printing meandered 3.3-3.8 slot in the radiator patch and U-slot in the feed line  31 * 27 * 1.6 FR-4 Koch fractal and 3.4-3.7 C-slots Proposec 22 * 20 * 1.6 FR-4 Two H-shaped 3.1-3.9 slots on the antenna's radiating patch Ref. WLAN notch range No. of notched (GHz) bands  5-6 2  5.1-5.9 3 (including C-band)  5.15-5.85 2  5.15-5.825 2  2  5.2-5.7 2  5.15-5.825 2 Proposec 5.1-5.9 2
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|Author:||Abayaje, Furat; Mezaal, Yaqeen Sabah; Alameri, Ban M.|
|Publication:||Proceedings of the Estonian Academy of Sciences|
|Date:||Jun 1, 2021|
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