UTILIZATION OF ACADEMIC LIBRARY RESOURCES FOR RESEARCH PRODUCTIVITY AMONG LECTURERS IN PRIVATE UNIVERSITIES IN SOUTH-SOUTH NIGERIA.
Research plays an important role in facilitating the prosperity of a nation and the well-being of her people. Through research, Universities and other higher institutions of learning make important contributions to the growth and development of vital sectors of a nation, thereby promoting national and global development. Most of the research work in Nigeria occurs in the universities. Research is a process of rigorous, systematic, validating, verifiable, empirical, critical, analyzing and interpreting information to answer questions. It is a conscious effort to collect, verify, and analyze information. Mason (2011) defined research as "the systematic quest for knowledge". Research provides good platform for Lecturers to become accomplished scholars. Research outputs come in the form of journal articles, published books, chapters in books, technical reports, conference papers, seminar papers, edited works, workshop papers, thesis and other types of publications. These research outputs enable lecturers to earn recognition in academic circles nationally and internationally. Also, University recognition and advancement of academic staff depend largely on the quantity and quality of research productivity. Research productivity often serves as a major role in attaining success in academic circle as it is related to promotion, tenure, salary etc, of academic staff (Okonedo, 2015).
For a meaningful research to take place, scholars should be aware of the state of the existing knowledge and have access to information which will help them to build up their own theories and findings. An important variable that may influence research productivity of lecturers in private universities in Nigeria is the academic library resources. All through the history of the world, libraries have been important institutions for the conservation and preservation of human knowledge. Generally, the library is unique in that, it does not only select, organize, store and retrieve information; it also creates access, protects intellectual freedom and provides direct assistance and instruction to its users in the use of its information resources. In recent times, new technologies and communication tools have revolutionized the format and style of libraries services. The channels to access and distribution of information and knowledge have become much more diverse. While libraries will not be replaced, they will need to adapt new methodologies in order to take advantage of the new tools.
Okonedo (2015) opined that there is a direct correlation between utilization of library resources and research productivity of lecturers. Okonedo recommended that academic libraries in Nigeria should be equipped with both print and electronic resources in order to attract more users especially lecturers. This study therefore further investigates the nexus between utilization of library resources and research productivity of lecturers in Private Universities in South--South Nigeria.
The following research questions were raised to guide the study:
i What is the extent of utilization of academic library resources by lecturers in private Universities in South-south, Nigeria?
ii What is the extent of research productivity among lecturers in private universities in South-south, Nigeria?
iii What are the challenges lecturers experience in their quest for research productivity in Private Universities in South-south, Nigeria?
The following hypothesis was formulated and tested at 0.05 significance level.
[HO.sub.1] There is no significant relationship between utilization of academic library resources and research productivity among lecturers in private universities in South-South Nigeria.
Review of Related Literature
Information plays vital roles in the lives of lecturers. They need information to enhance their professional career, promote their research activities, to keep up with the current development in their fields of study, and to develop competence in their teaching skills, among others. The use of Library resources by patrons sometimes determine their information seeking behavior. Kannappanavar and Manjunatha (2010) opined that information seeking behaviour has been a popular area of research for information Scientists. They further pointed out that information seeking behaviour and needs of social scientists are fewer than those involved in the natural science. According to Mason (2011), scholars are required to spend forty percent of their time doing research, and producing important, original work. Kannappanavar and Manjunatha (2010) reported that lecturers made use of their University libraries to access information for teaching and research. Harvard University (2009) and Baylor University (2012) posited that libraries play a central role in academic work.
Considering the role and importance of the library, Ifijeh (2011) opined that, the library is the only centralized location where new and emerging information technologies can be confined with traditional knowledge resources in a user-focused environment that supports today's social and educational patterns of learning, teaching, and research. Academic libraries today are complex institutions with multiple roles and a host of related operation and services developed over the years. Yet, their fundamental purpose have remained the same: to provide access to trustworthy, and authoritative sources of knowledge. Consequently, academic libraries, along with their private and government counterparts, have long stood unchallenged throughout the world as the primary providers of recorded knowledge and historical records. Within the context of high education especially, when users wanted dependable information, they turned to academic libraries (Odaro, 2010).
There is a relationship between library use and academic productivity (Baylor University, 2012; Kim, 2006). Okonedo (2015) reported that there is a decline in lecturers' research productivity in South-West Nigeria. She examined research productivity among academic librarians and lecturers in selected Universities in South-west Nigeria. The study revealed that a total of 726 articles were published by 124 lecturers and academic librarians between the periods of five years (2009-2014). Tsafe, Basaka and Mohammed (2016) analyzed the research productivity of academics in sixteen (16) Universities in Northern Nigeria from 2000 -2012. The study indicated that 165 academics produced 373 publications within the period under review. This is quite low.
This is a need to identify the factors responsible for low research productivity among lecturers in Nigeria. Studies have shown an inter-relatedness between the use of information resources in a library setting, and the effects of such use on research publications amongst a specialized user group (Ajegbomogun and Fagbola, 2015). The latter also observed that there was low publication output among lecturers, but noted also that, most other studies that reported low publications levels in Nigeria, were done at periods when electronic information resources were not readily available especially in libraries. There is a gap in literature on current trends on the relationship between use of library resources and research productivity of lecturers especially in South-South Nigeria. This study fills that gap.
Descriptive research design was adopted for this study. The population of the study was 1841 private universities lecturers in South-south Nigeria. Private Universities were chosen because they are relatively new and their lecturers are motivated to conduct research and publish their findings. A sample of 368 lecturers was used for the study. The figures are further displayed in the Table 1 below.
The research instrument employed for data collection was a self constructed questionnaire. The questionnaire was titled Utilization of Academic Library Resources for Research Productivity among Lecturers in Private University Questionnaire (UALRRPLPUQ).
The instrument was tested for reliability using test-retest reliability test technique. The split half reliability was employed using 15 academic staff from Micheal and Cecillia Ibru University, Owhrodo, Delta State. Using the questionnaire forms that are not part of the sample size on two different occasions. The time lapse between the two tests was two weeks. The scores of the two sets of test were computed. The Pearson Product Moment Correlation Coefficient was used to calculate the reliability and the reliability value of 0.73 was obtained making the instrument reliable.
The researcher, with the help of two trained research assistants administered copies of the questionnaire to private university lecturers in their various offices. The researcher used a period of 5 weeks to complete the administration of the questionnaires. This yielded 63% response rate (231) from the respondents.
The generated data for this study were analyzed using mean, median and t-test statistic to analyze the data of the respondents. The Pearson Product Moment Correlation Coefficient (PPMCC) was used to test the hypothesis.
Data Analysis, Results and Discussion of Findings
Analysis of the Demographic details of Findings
From Table 2, it can be seen that there are 151(65.4%) males and 80(34.6%) females. This implies that there are more male lecturers in the private universities in South-South Nigeria than their female colleagues.
Table 3 shows that there are 118(51.1%) lecturers with M.Sc./equivalent degree, 107(46.3%) of them with Ph.D. degree and 6(2.6%) with B.Sc/equivalent. This implies that majority of the lecturers in private universities in South-South Nigeria possess either an M.Sc. or a Ph.D. degree.
Table 4 shows the academic status of the respondents. There are 67(29%) lecturers who are Assistant lecturers, 57(24.7%) of them are Lecturer I, 50(21.6%) of them are Lecturer II, 25(10.8%) of them are Associate Professors, while 14(6.1%) are Professors. This implies that, majority of the lecturers are Assistant lecturers.
Answering of the Research Questions
Research Question 1: What is the extent of utilization of academic library resources by lecturers in private universities in South-south Nigeria?
The results in Table 5 shows that the extent of utilization of academic library resources among lecturers in private universities is high. This is because, the aggregate mean of 3.41 is greater than the criterion mean of 2.50.
Research Question 2: What is the extent of research productivity among lecturers in private universities in South-south Nigeria between 2014-2016?
Table 6 shows the level of research productivity among lecturers in private universities in South-south Nigeria in three years-2014, 2015 and 2016. The lecturers indicated the number of publications made in 3 years. Majority of the lecturers noted that they have published between 1-5 times in the past three years (2014-2016). They have published research reports/ monograph written for a funded project-174(75.3%, articles published in an academic book-140(60.0%), professional article written for a newspaper or magazine-135 (58.4%, artistic work performed or exhibited-126(54.5%, videos or films produced-84(0.4%), and computer program written for public use-83(2.2%).
Research Question 3: What are the challenges lecturers experience in their quest for research productivity in private universities in South-south Nigeria.
Table 7 shows the challenges lecturers experienced in their research productivity in private universities in South-South Nigeria. The lecturers indicated the following as the challenges they face in their research productivity. They include cost of publication-220(95.2%), time pressure and deadline-217(93.9%), students projects/thesis supervision-216(93.5%), delays in the implementation of promotion and entitlement-211(91.3%), excess work load-210(90.9%), attendance to lectures/seminars-206(89.2%), inadequate research personnel for instrumentality and analysis-204(83.3%), preparation of examination results-199(86.1%), participation in institutional administration-194(84.0%), poor research orientation-186(80.5%), and declining research infrastructure (such as computer)-184(79.7%). This implies that the major challenges facing lecturers' research productivity are cost of publication, time pressure and deadline, students' projects/thesis supervision, delays in the implementation of promotion and entitlement, excess work load, and attendance to lectures/seminars.
Testing of the Research Hypothesis
There is no significant relationship between lecturers' use of academic library resources and research productivity in private universities in South-south Nigeria.
From Table 8, Pearson Correlation Coefficient r = (0.225). Since the significant value (Sig.2-tailed) is 0.001 (which is less than 0.05), it can be concluded that there is a significant relationship between lecturers' use of academic library resources and research productivity in private universities in South-South Nigeria. The null hypothesis is therefore rejected implying that an increase in lecturers' use of academic library resources may lead to a corresponding increase in research productivity. This means that lecturers' use of academic library resources influences their research productivity.
Discussion of the Findings
The Extent of Utilization of Academic Library Resources by Lecturers in Private Universities in South--south Nigeria
Findings from the study revealed that the extent of utilization of academic library resources by lecturers in private universities in South-south Nigeria was high. This agrees with the position of Ifijeh (2011) that most lecturers visits the library either to borrow books or use the internet facilities at the library's media center. Majority of the lecturers borrow books from the library and sometimes, the library staff assist the lecturer to borrow books, journals etc. from another university library (Inter-library loan) for research and teaching. This supports Odaro (2010) who said that "academic library is the primary provider of recorded knowledge and historical records for users". Recorded knowledge can either be in print or electronic format such as books, e-books, thesis, conference proceedings, etc; these are primary providers of present and past information which lecturers consult often times in the library. Also, Alebaikan (2010) in his study on blended learning observed that professionals from different disciplines make use of library materials for teaching and research. These include Doctors, Engineers, Biochemists, Lawyers, Pharmacists etc., they use the library resources to enhance their professionalism. It is pertinent to note that the rate at which lecturers make use of the library cannot be overemphasized based on what Emorjorho (2013) opined that, majority of lecturers make use of library resources. Though, not all lecturers go to the library, some see it as a waste of time when you can actually access library resources in your phone or laptop at home but most lecturers use the library resources because, it reduces cost of accessing books, journal and other information resources in your phones or other electronic gadgets.
The Extent of Research Productivity among Lecturers in Private Universities in South-south Nigeria
The finding further revealed that the extent of research productivity of lecturers in private universities publications was on the average. This means that the lecturers published between 1-5 times in 3 years. This is in line with the finding by Tsafe, Busaka and Mohammed (2016) that the most commonly used criteria to measure productivity are: counts of articles written, count of publication pages, citation to published articles and impact--weighted counts of pages where impact is gauged by the citation to the journal in which the publication occurs.
Betsey (2007) further stated that, "citation counting" is a tenuous basis for evaluating lecturers and universities. In the evaluation of the level of research productivity in this study, it was observed that the frequency in research productivity of the lecturers that published books and articles in journal is 1-5 times, this means their productivity level is neither low nor high (average). On the other hand, one may associate low level of research productivity among lecturers in Nigeria to their low level of library resources utilization. By not utilizing library resources much, these lecturers obviously will lack the necessary information for high level publication output. This is because, output is a fundamental product of adequate utilization of library resources but some challenges can hamper the high publication output even if the use of library resources is high.
Challenges in Research Productivity among Lecturers in Private Universities in South--south Nigeria
In this study, it was observed that the major challenges facing lecturers' research productivity are cost of publication, time pressure and deadlines, students 'project/thesis supervision, delays in the implementation of promotion and entitlement, excess work load and attendance to lectures/seminars. This agrees with Omuniyi (2013)'s finding that a low level of productivity by African researchers in international journals is due to the above mentioned challenges. Many articles/scholarly works from Africa are rejected for publication in international journals due to poor quality (Olukoja, 2004). The identified challenges played a role in the average level of research productivity among the respondents in this study, despite their high extent of utilization of library materials.
Relationship between Utilization of Academic Library Resources and Research Productivity among Lecturers' in Private Universities in South-south Nigeria.
Finally, the study revealed that there was significant relationship between utilization of academic library resources for research productivity among lecturers' in private universities in South-South Nigeria. The null hypothesis was rejected, implying that an increase in lecturers' use of academic library resources can lead to a corresponding increase in research productivity. This means that lecturers' use of academic library resources influences their research productivity. The finding corresponds with the one by Chinamasa (2015) that, the availability of library resources are more directly associated with research productivity. Also, in the discovery, Alshahrani, (2013) posited that lecturers will benefit from obtaining relevant and up-to-date information from the internet to perform their duty; improved access to relevant information will reflect an increase in research productivity.
The utilization of academic library resources by lecturers is imperative for attaining high level research productivity. Delay in the implementation of entitlement, cost of publication, time pressure etc have affected the extent of research productivity by lecturers in private Universities in South--south Nigeria. University management should ensure that necessary facilities that enhance high level of utilization of library resources are adequately provided and work pressure should be reduced. This will make lecturers bear up the challenges of research productivity.
Based on the findings of this study, the following recommendations were made:
i. The University Management should increase budget for the acquisition of library resources such as: Books, Journals, Thesis, Periodicals, etc. (both print and electronic copies), which have significant influence on lecturers' research productivity. The availability of up-to-date library resources by University Management will influence lecturers' research productivity.
ii. Work pressure on lecturers should be reduced by employing more academic staff. This would enable lecturers make out time for research.
iii. Research productivity should be encouraged with adequate funding by the University Management. University Management should provide grants to lecturers irrespective of their level and rank. Lecturers' promotion and entitlement should not be delayed.
iv. Libraries and Librarians should embark on awareness and information literacy programs in order to improve on library patronage.
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Blessing Ajelomohie Ifijeh
Department of Library and Information Science
Delta State University, Abraka, Nigeria.
M. O OGBOMO (PhD)
Department of Library and Information Science
Delta State University, Abraka, Nigeria
Centre for Learning Resources
Covenant University, Ota, Nigeria
Independent Variable Dependent Variable Utilisation of Academic Research Library resources productivity by by private University Lecturers Lecturers in private Universities Library Resources High/Low Number of Journal articles published Borrow books High in referred and non- Reference service High referred journals. Magazine/Newspaper High Number of Books Journal/E-Journal High published. Inter-library loan High The number of Book Thesis High reviews. Conference proceedings High The number of Government publications High conference Projects, Thesis, Dissertation, High presentations. Map, Year Books, Directories, High Number of grants Dictionaries, Encyclopedia, High obtained Atlases, Gazetteers. High Table 1: Study population of University Lecturers S/N Name of Universities Population Sampled size 1. Igbinedion University Okada, Edo 217 43 state 2. Benson Idahosa University Benin 204 41 city Edo state 3. Novena University Ogume, Delta 193 39 State 4. Obong University Obong Ntak, Akwa 238 48 Ibom State 5. Rhema University Obeama-Asa, 236 47 Cross River state 6. Ritma University, Ikot Ekpene, 135 27 Akwa Ibom State 7. Wellspring University Evbuobanosa 176 35 Edo state 8. Western Delta University Oghara 207 41 Delta state 9. Arthur Jarvis Akpabuyo 235 47 University, Calabar, Cross Rivers TOTAL 1841 368 Table 2: Gender of the Respondent Gender Frequency Percentage (%) Male 151 65.4 Female 80 34.6 Total 231 100.0 Table 3: Educational Qualification of the Respondents Educational Qualification Frequency Percentage (%) B.Sc/Equivalent 6 2.6 M.Sc./Equivalent 118 51.1 PhD. 107 46.3 Total 231 100.0 Table 4: Academic Status of the Respondents Academic Status Frequency Percentage (%) Professor 14 6.1 Associate professor 25 10.8 Senior lecturer 18 7.8 Lecturer I 57 24.7 Lecturer II 50 21.6 Assistant lecturer 67 29.0 Total 231 100.0 Table 5: Extent of Utilization of Academic Library Resources Library Resources Mean Books 3.66 Year book 3.42 E-book 3.50 Magazine/Newspaper 3.58 Journal 3.63 Dictionaries 3.51 Electronic database 3.52 E-Dictionary 3.46 E-Journal 3.44 Government publication 3.03 E-map 3.50 Online Public Access Catalog 3.19 Encyclopedia 3.58 Library catalog 3.09 CD-ROM database 3.12 Atlases, Gazettes, Map 2.97 Aggregate Mean = 3.41 Criterion Mean = 2.50 Table 6: Extent of Lecturers' Research productivity Research Productivity 1-5 times 6-10 times Frequency % Frequency % Scholarly books you 135 58.4 21 9.1 authored Scholarly books coauthored 126 54.5 27 11.7 Scholarly books you edited 108 46.8 50 21.6 Scholarly books you 98 42.4 61 26.4 co-edited Articles published in an 140 60.6 46 19.9 academic book Articles published in a 121 52.4 61 26.4 journal Paper presented at a 115 49.8 55 23.8 scholarly conference Artistic work performed or 134 58.0 48 20.8 exhibited Video or film produced 84 36.4 14 6.1 Research report/monograph 174 75.3 30 13.0 written for a funded project Computer program written 83 35.9 60 26.0 for public use Patent secured on a 104 45.0 53 22.9 process or invention Professional article 136 58.9 51 22.1 written for a newspaper or magazine Research Productivity 11-15 times Above 15 times Frequency % Frequency % Scholarly books you -- -- 6 2.6 authored Scholarly books coauthored 6 2.6 3 1.3 Scholarly books you edited 38 16.5 12 5.2 Scholarly books you 42 18.2 18 7.8 co-edited Articles published in an 25 10.8 5 2.2 academic book Articles published in a 34 14.7 8 3.5 journal Paper presented at a 36 15.6 14 6.1 scholarly conference Artistic work performed or 16 6.9 4 1.7 exhibited Video or film produced 8 3.5 1 0.4 Research report/monograph 8 3.5 1 0.4 written for a funded project Computer program written 13 5.6 5 2.2 for public use Patent secured on a 16 6.9 3 1.3 process or invention Professional article 31 13.4 3 1.3 written for a newspaper or magazine Table 7: Challenges Facing Lecturers' Research productivity Agree Disagree Challenges No. % No. % Declining research 184 79.7 47 20.3 infrastructure (such as computer) Delays in the 211 91.3 20 8.7 implementation of promotion and entitlement Time pressure and deadline 217 93.9 14 6.1 Inadequate research 204 88.3 27 11.7 personnel for instrumentality and analysis work load 210 90.9 21 9.1 Preparation of examination 199 86.1 32 13.9 results Attendance to 206 89.2 25 10.8 lectures/seminars Participation in 194 84.0 37 16.0 institutional administration Students projects/thesis 216 93.5 15 6.5 supervision Cost of publication 220 95.2 11 4.8 Poor research orientation 186 80.5 45 19.5 Table 8: Relationship between lecturers' use of academic library resources and research productivity Extent of Level of utilization of lecturers' academic library research resources productivity Extent of Pearson Correlation 1 .225 ** utilization Sig. (2-tailed) .001 of academic N 231 231 library resources Level of Pearson Correlation .225 ** 1 lecturers' Sig. (2-tailed) .001 research N 231 231 productivity
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|Author:||Ifijeh, Blessing Ajelomohie; Ogbomo, M.O.; Ifijeh, Goodluck|
|Publication:||Library Philosophy and Practice|
|Date:||Dec 1, 2018|
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