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USAIC&FH Geospatial Intelligence enterprise initiatives.

Introduction

The U.S. Army Intelligence Center and Fort Huachuca (USAIC&FH) has become a lead element for Geospatial Intelligence (GEOINT) and has embraced the National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency (NGA) stewardship of GEOINT as its functional manager. Headquarters, Department of the Army (HQDA) G2, the U.S. Army Intelligence and Security Command (INSCOM), the U.S. Army Engineering Topographic Center (TEC) at Fort Belvoir, Virginia and the U.S. Army Engineer School at Fort Leonard Wood, Missouri have also embraced NGA GEOINT stewardship. The intent is for all partners to bring to life the "space to mud" GEOINT enterprise. All partners are currently engaged with the USAIC&FH Cradle To Grave (C2G) study, assessing and resolving GEOINT impacts on Doctrine, Organization, Training, Materiel, Leader Development, Personnel, and Facilities (DOTMLPF).

The Chief of Staff of the Army directed the HQDA G2 as the geospatial lead in May 2004, with TRADOC Program Integration Officer--Terrain Data and the U.S. Army Engineer Center at Fort Leonard Wood as Geospatial Information and Services (GI&S) lead. The USAIC&FH Commanding General, MG Barbara Fast, designated GEOINT as an intelligence discipline in February 2006. That set into motion many very fast-paced and simultaneous efforts to capitalize and further develop GEOINT. In early March 2006 with the CG's guidance, the Deputy Commandant, Mr. Jerry V. Proctor and the USAIC&FH Senior IMINT (Imagery Intelligence)Advisor, CW4 Thomas R. Dostie, developed the USAIC&FH-NGA Engagement Plan. It was subsequently briefed to, and garnered support from, the senior managers of NGA, (including the former Director of NGA, Lieutenant General (Retired) Clapper) resulting in an evolving and extremely successful partnership. The U.S. Army was the first military service and Department of Defense (DOD) organization to fully embrace NGA stewardship of GEOINT, recognizing t as the GEOINT functional manager and supporting the creation of a GEOINT Enterprise system much like the NSA model. By March 29. 2006, the C2G completed a full DOTLMPF assessment of GEOINT impacts with goals to "identify, facilitate, and integrate solutions" within six months.

In early April 2006 the USAIC&FH-U.S. Army Engineer GEOINT memorandum of agreement (MOA) was drafted, in June 2006 the MOA was signed. An important part of the MOA was the agreed upon definition of GEOINT as: "Intelligence derived from the exploitation, analysis, and fusion of imagery with geospatial information to describe, assess, and visually depict physical features and geographically referenced activities in the battlespace. GEOINT consists of imagery, imagery intelligence (IMINT) and geospatial information." The definition is important since many organizations and soldiers in the field thought that they could globally replace IMINT with GEOINT. IMINT will always remain a separate and distinct intelligence discipline but when combined with GI&S data (normally a terrain analysis function) or products then that item or function becomes GEOINT. GEOINT consists of Electro-Optical (EO); Advanced Geospatial Intelligence (AGI), also referred to as imagery-derived MASlNT; Overhead Non-Imaging Infrared (ONIR); Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR); Geospatial Information and Services (GI&S); Moving Target Indicator (MTI); Infrared (IR), and Full Motion Video (FMV).

The GEOINT Enterprise

Why embrace and help create the GEOINT Enterprise? As previously mentioned, both USAIC&FH (with HQDA G-2 approval) and NGA are both striving to create a GEOINT Enterprise based on the NSA model to primarily benefit the warfighter with increased speed, context, accuracy, depth, and synchronization of intelligence. There is much synergy to be gained from partnering with a National agency. NGA is the GEOINT Functional Manager, from the top down, complying with DOD Directive 5105.60 establishing NIMA (now NGA) as the Intelligence Community (IC) IMINT Functional Manager. This would ensure tactical information access, partnership, and sharing from the bottom up. For example, NGA is precluded by law from acquiring ground still-photography, but Army Military Intelligence (MI) Human Intelligence (HUMINT), Every Soldier is a Sensor (ES2), etc. can acquire ground still-photography and allow NGA to access information which NGA is authorized to store, retrieve, manipulate, and exploit. Army MI could benefit with resources down to the last tactical mile to ensure fully functional GEOINT operations.

The GEOINT Enterprise would also ensure all partners operate under common standards, as directed by Joint Publication 2-03, Joint Tactics, Techniques, and Procedures for Geospatial Information and Services Support to Joint Operations, further ensuring information sharing, system compatibility, and interoperability called for in the Distributed Common Ground Station (DCGS) concept. Teaming of U.S. Army and U.S. Marine Corps (USMC) personnel would consolidate all ground component requirements and allow for enhanced and more efficient NGA/military response. Army could leverage NGA in order to enhance GEOINT with an extension of the NGA College (NGC) at Fort Huachuca with a goal (which is in the early exploratory stages) of having NGA designate Fort Huachuca training as the GEOINT Center of Excellence for the IC. More to follow on that subject in later issues.

MI and Engineer Partnership

The whole is more than the sum of MI plus Engineers. This partnership includes the two proponents working very closely together on all efforts (as we have for quite sometime now). For instance, both proponents are diligently working on forming GEOINT Cells in field units, especially brigade combat teams (BCTs), to have Imagery and Terrain Analysts working side-by-side to provide advanced GEOINT support for the warfighter. Engineer soldiers will have access to MI communications, fusing the many sources of intelligence to improve their products. MI soldiers will have great terrain tools to utilize in their efforts to support the commanders and individual soldiers in the field. Current projections for the BCT GEOINT Cell are four MOS 21U (Terrain Analyst) and up to eight MOS 96D/H (Imagery Analyst/Common Ground Station Operator) soldiers.

In case you missed it, the Digital Topographic Support System's (DTSS) (the primary system used by Terrain Analysts) future requirements were all designated to be placed inside of the MI flagship system, the DCGS-A, by HQDA several years ago. Of course, MI requests all terrain requirements from the Engineer proponent for inclusion inside the DCGS-A. So no matter what, Terrain Analysts (soon to be called Geospatial Analysts) will be working side-by-side not only with IMINT soldiers as called for in the GEOINT Cell structure but, in effect, with all MI soldiers working with DCGS-A.

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GEOINT Training

The Intelligence Center has also reconfigured GEOINT training in record time to reflect what needs to be accomplished now. A Critical Task Site Selection Board (CTSSB) met in mid-December 2005 with over 75 IMINT soldiers from all over the world participating in an entire relook at all Critical Task List (CTL) skills needed for MOS 96D and 350G soldiers. Many new tasks such as FMV Imagery Exploitation, MTI exploitation, Imagery architecture tasks, etc. and corresponding supervisory tasks were added to the CTL. Normally it takes several months for senior leaders to read through and approve such dramatic changes. During that time the IMINT training sections taking the initiative, began revising training, acquiring equipment, and writing lesson plans and practical exercises prior to approval and had new training for the GEOINT Cells up and running by mid-January 2006. This training development and implementation was considerably sped up by utilizing and combining resources with the Joint Intelligence Combat Training Center (JI-CTC). This is an excellent example of internal teaming across many company, battalion, brigade, and Intelligence School boundaries; all commanders supported this complex undertaking of a very short-notice project.

GEOINT Training now consists of an IMINT section working in an integrated and collaborative Analysis and Control Element (ACE) environment where students simultaneously exploit FMV and MTI radar returns, cross-cue multiple sensors such as Unmanned Aerial Systems (UAS) and the Joint Surveillance and Target Attack Radar System (J-STARS), and produce digital reports including Imagery Derived Products (IDP) and video clips within the DCGS-A concept design. Students also learn basic UAS flight operations on Multiple User Simulation Environment (MUSE) systems to ensure they understand what our (now Aviation) UAS operators do and their own roles when working together during a mission. Students learn how to employ the mIRC (Internet relay chat) function and voice communications with the secure Voice Over Internet Protocol (VOIP) to ensure all means available are employed.

The training is geared towards Skill Level (SL) 10 but many tasks trained are at SL 20 (for which there is no course) and SL 30 which will soon have staff sergeants attending as part of their Basic Noncommissioned Officer Course Phase 2 training. Many SL 40 Advanced Noncommissioned Officer Course students from three different MOSs (96D, 96H, 96U) have been trained and have given positive feedback including some that stated it was the best training they ever received in their entire careers. Warrant Officer UAV Technicians also stated the same about their training. Our Deputy Commandant for Training and the 111th MI Brigade Commander all support instructing soldiers in upper level skills above what may be their current rank since many will be placed in positions of responsibility sooner rather than later. Soon all 350Gs (Imagery Intelligence Technician) will attend the same training at JI-CTC as part of their Technical Certification course.

Beginning in October or November 2006, we will bring MOS 21U soldiers from Fort Belvoir to train in the GEO-INT Cell. This is a first within the GEOINT community. So far our training has been observed by many senior NGA manage and analysts, including many NGC officials, and has been recognized as the leader in GEOINT training throughout the entire IC. NGA has started the push to begin the process of designating Fort Huachuca as the IC GEOINT Center of Excellence. Deploying NGA analysts will train with the GEOINT Cell prior to arriving in Theater where they will work with Army units. The Intelligence Center trains 668 IMINT commissioned officers, warrant officers, NCOs, and enlisted soldiers each year.

Final Thoughts

NGA will support USAIC in writing GEOINT doctrine for inclusion in many Army, USMC and MI specific doctrinal guides such as:

* FM 2-01.3/MRCP-2-3A, Intelligence Preparation of the Battlefield.

* FMI 2-01.301 Specific Tactics, Techniques, and Procedures and Applications in IPB.

* FM 3-34.230, Geospatial Operations.

* FM 3-0, Operations.

* FM 2-0, Intelligence.

* FM 2-22.5, Imagery Intelligence.

NGA is not only supporting USAIC in writing GEOINT doctrine but is emphasizing the need for the Army to coordinate all GEOINT doctrine products with the USMC to ensure that the total ground component requirements for doctrine agree. NGA is also requiring that U.S. Army GEOINT doctrine is sent to NGA so that it can be integrated in NGA's doctrine. In effect, NGA has outsourced parts of its own GEOINT doctrine development to USAIC. This is a great collaborative endeavor; sounds like a GEOINT Enterprise!

CW4 Dostie is the Senior Imagery Advisor to Senior Leadership at Fort Huachuca, Arizona. He is a graduate of many advanced Imagery Analysis courses to include the Advanced Imagery Interpretation and Advanced Sensor Imagery Courses, Wiesbaden, Germany; the NATO Equipment Identification Course, Bergstrom AFB, Texas; The Defense Sensor and Imagery Applications Training Program (DSIATP), Goodfellow AFB, Texas; and the Joint Surveillance Target Attack Radar System (J-STARS) Operator, Maintenance, and Supervisor Courses, Minneapolis, Minnesota and Scottsdale, Arizona. He also graduated and qualified as an inspector/escort in the On-Site Inspection Agency for the Intermediate Nuclear Forces (INF) Treaty; the Conventional Force Reduction in Europe (CFE) Treaty, and the Strategic Arms Limitation Treaty (START). Assignments include tours at Palmerola Air Base, Honduras; the 2nd Infantry Division, Korea; the Defense Intelligence Agency (DIA); the Central Intelligence Agency CIA); the National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency (NGA); the United Nations Command (UNC), and the Combined Forces Command (CFC), Yongsan, Korea. CW4 Dostie can be reached at (520)538-4071 or at Thomas.dostie@us.army.mil.
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Author:Dostie, Thomas R.
Publication:Military Intelligence Professional Bulletin
Date:Jan 1, 2006
Words:1945
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