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U.S. forces in Iraq.

Force Levels

As of June 1, 2008, according to the Department of Defense (DOD), the United States had 182,060 military personnel deployed in Iraq. Of these, 150,400 were active component personnel and 31,660 were National Guard and Reserves. Figures 1 and 2 provide the distribution by armed service of active component personnel. These totals do not include 23,000 military support personnel in Kuwait, or naval personnel aboard ships patrolling through the Persian Gulf. (1)

Amid concerns about U.S. troop levels, in a January 10, 2007 address to the nation, President Bush announced an increase of more than 20,000 U.S. troops to be deployed to Iraq as part of a new initiative in ongoing efforts to stabilize the security situation. As announced, these forces were to be primarily deployed to Baghdad and Anbar province, the major current areas of unrest and conflict in Iraq. These additional force levels were originally to be accomplished primarily by a stepped-up pace of military unit rotations into Iraq and a delay for some personnel departures from that country.

However, Secretary of Defense Robert Gates announced on April 11, 2007, that all active-duty Army personnel in the U.S. Central Command area would serve 15-month tours in the region, up from the previous 12-month tour rotations. (2) Since the speech on troop deployments by President Bush and the announcement by Secretary Gates, a gradual increase in troop deployments in Iraq occurred between February through October 2007 but troop levels decreased beginning in November 2007. Current active duty levels, however, are still higher than reported before the surge announcement by President Bush.

Comparative Operation Iraqi Freedom U.S. Force Levels. Overall U.S. force levels in Iraq declined from November 2005 to January 2007, particularly the Reserve Component. After a slight increase in February 2007, the surge built up troop levels through October 2007. Based on DOD statistics, Figures 3 through 6 provide comparative data on both active and reserve component force levels, including month-to-month and year-to-year comparisons of U.S. troops in Iraq. DOD officials have declined to project the timing or size of future force reductions, stating these will depend upon the security situation within Iraq.

Operation Iraqi Freedom Troop Rotations. On December 3, 2007, DOD announced its latest scheduled troop deployments for unit rotations to Iraq in support of Operation Iraqi Freedom (OIF). These planned 2009 Army National Guard unit deployments to Iraq supplement earlier announcements involving 2008 Army or Marine Corps units. These rotations are summarized in Table 1 below. These rotations and extensions of active and reserve component Army tours to 15 months would maintain U.S. military capacity at 20 brigade or regimental combat teams on the ground in Iraq. Marine Corps rotations last seven months. On August 1, 2008, Army active duty and reserve component rotations are to be reduced to 12 months. Future policy and logistics announcements may change the number of scheduled units assigned to Iraq.

(1) DOD Fact Sheet, Global Commitments, December 14, 2007.

(2) American Forces Press Service, Gates Extends Army Tours in Iraq to 15 Months, April 11, 2007.

JoAnne O'Bryant and Michael Waterhouse

Information Research Specialists

Knowledge Services Group
Table 1. Operation Iraqi Freedom:
2008 and 2009 Rotational Units

Military Unit               Home Military Base    Rotation to Iraq

Army

3rd Brigade, 4th Infantry   Fort Carson, CO       Early 2008
Division

10th Mountain Division,     Fort Drum, NY         Spring 2008
Headquarters

Marine Corps

1st Marine Expeditionary    Camp Pendleton, CA    Early 2008
Force Headquarters

Regimental Combat Team 1    Camp Pendleton, CA    Early 2008

Regimental Combat Team 5    Camp Pendleton, CA    Early 2008

Army National Guard

4th Brigade, 4th Infantry   Fort Hood, TX         Summer 2008
Division

30th Heavy Brigade Combat   Clinton, NC           Summer 2008
Team, North Carolina
National Guard

56th Stryker Brigade        Philadelphia, PA      Summer 2008
Combat Team, 28th
Infantry Division,
Pennsylvania National
Guard

56th Brigade Combat Team,   Fort Worth, TX        Summer 2008
36th Infantry Division,
Texas National Guard

29th Brigade Combat Team,   Kalaeloa, HI          Summer 2008
Hawaii National Guard

81st Brigade Combat Team,   Seattle, WA           Summer 2008
Washington National Guard

45th Fires Brigade,         Enid, OK              Summer 2008
Oklahoma National Guard

50th Brigade Combat Team,   Lawrenceville, NJ     Summer 2008
New Jersey National Guard

32nd Brigade Combat Team,   Madison, WI           Summer 2009
Wisconsin National Guard

41st Brigade Combat Team,   Tigard, OR            Summer 2009
Oregon National Guard

155th Brigade Combat        Lucedale, MS          Summer 2009
Team, Mississippi
National Guard

Source: DOD News Releases July, October, and December 2007.

Figure 1. Active Component Personnel in Iraq
(as of June 1, 2008)

Army             99,600
Air Force        10,800
Navy             19,800
Marine Corps     20,200

Source: Department of Defense, Office of the Joint Chief Staff,
"Boots on Ground" data.

Note: Table made from bar graph.

Figure 2. Reserve Component Personnel in Iraq
(as of June 1, 2008)

Army NG          18,300
Air NG            1,200
Army Rv           6,700
Air Rv            1,050
Navy Rv           2,100
Marines Rv        2,310

Source: Department of Defense, Office of the Joint Chief Staff,
"Boots on Ground" data.

Note: Table made from bar graph.

Figure 3. OIF Active Component Force Levels
(June 2007/June 2008)

                Jun-07      Jun-08

Army             90,654      99,600
Navy              3,837      19,800
AF               10,459      10,800
MC               22,204      20,200

Source: Department of Defense, Office of Joint Chief Staff,
"Boots on Ground" data.

Note: Table made from bar graph.

Figure 4. OIF Reserve Component Force Levels
(June 2007/June 2008)

                Jun-07      Jun-08

Army NG          13,639      18,300
Air NG            1,087       1,200
Army Rv           6,826       6,700
Air Rv              717       1,050
Navy Rv             713       2,100
Marines Rv          200       2,310

Source: Department of Defense, Office of Joint Chief Staff,
"Boots on Ground" data.

Note: Table made from bar graph.

Figure 5. Comparative U.S. Force Levels in Iraq
(January 2007/December 2007)

Jan-07          128,569
Feb-07          134,754
Mar-07          137,976
Apr-07          144,486
May-07          144,202
Jun-07          150,336
Jul-07          156,247
Aug-07          157,674
Sep-07          165,607
Oct-07          167,353
Nov-07          164,424
Dec-07          161,783

Source: Department of Defense, Office of Joint Chief Staff,
"Boots on Ground" data, January 1, 2007, through December 1, 2007.

Note: Table made from bar graph.

Figure 6. Comparative U.S. Force Levels in Iraq
(January 2008-June 2008)

Jan             155,846
Feb             158,400
Mar             159,700
Apr             162,400
May             197,850
Jun             182,060

Source: Department of Defense, Office of Joint Chief Staff,
"Boots on Ground" data.

Note: Table made from bar graph.

Figure 7. Comparative U.S. Force Levels in Iraq
(Years 2006, 2007, 2008)

June 2006       128,798
June 2007       150,336
June 2008       182,060

Source: Department of Defense, Office of Joint Chief Staff,
"Boots on Ground" data.

Note: Table made from bar graph.
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Title Annotation:CRS Report for Congress
Author:O'Bryant, JoAnne; Waterhouse, Michael
Publication:Congressional Research Service (CRS) Reports and Issue Briefs
Date:Jul 1, 2008
Words:1129
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