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Typical and atypical motor development in young children.

ACTIVE START: A Statement of Physical Activity Guidelines for Children Birth to Five Years. Jane E. Clark, Rhonda L. Clements, Marci Guddemi, Don W. Morgan, Rae Pica, James M. Pivarnik, Mary Rudisill, Eric Small & Stephen J. Virgilio. 2002.31 pp. (Available from: American Alliance for Health, Physical Education, Recreation and Dance, P.O. Box 385, Oxon Hill, MD 20750-0385.) Noting that infants should be encouraged to be physically active from the beginning of life to enhance physical and cognitive development, this statement provides teachers, parents, caregivers, and health care professionals with guidelines that address the kinds of activities, the environment, and the individuals responsible for facilitating very young children's physical activity. Following an introduction and overview, the statement provides five guidelines for each age group: infants (birth to 12 months), toddlers (12 to 36 months), and preschoolers (3 to 5 years). Each guideline addresses the "what," "where," and "who" of physical activity. Following the guidelines, the statement answers frequently asked questions. A glossary and chart of common motor behaviors, by age, conclude the statement.

CULTURALLY & LINGUISTICALLY SENSITIVE PRACTICES IN MOTOR SKILLS INTERVENTION FOR YOUNG CHILDREN. Technical Report. Yash Baghwanji, Rosa Milagros Santos, & Susan A. Fowler. 2000. (Available from: CLAS Early Childhood Research Institute, Champaign, IL; and from www.eric. 926.) This report examines the validity of motor intervention practices that have been described as "quality" practices and the extent to which they are appropriate for all families and children. Misunderstandings and conflicts in the areas of motor skills evaluation and intervention can occur between those providing services and those receiving services, if service providers do not address the values and beliefs about children and the social and behavioral codes. A review of the motor development literature reveals a need to revise current practices to be more reflective of and responsive to families' differing values, traditions, and perceptions regarding young children's motor development. The literature offers support for existing quality indicators that address core assumptions and professional roles. However, there is a need to consider how a number of variables impact and challenge current thinking about young children's motor development. Examples of these variables include the child's temperament, the child's form of disability, the caregiver's expectations for the child, and the physical features and setting in which the child lives. Finally, the authors suggest revisions to selected current practice indicators considering cultural and linguistic differences.

Journal Articles

A FIELD-BASED TESTING PROTOCOL FOR ASSESSING GROSS MOTOR SKILLS IN PRESCHOOL CHILDREN: The Children's Activity and Movement in Preschool Study Motor Skills Protocol. Harriet G. Williams, Karin A. Pfeiffer, Marsha Dowda, Chevy Jeter, Shaverra Jones, & Russell R. Pate. Measurement in Physical Education and Exercise Science, Vol. 13, No. 3 (2009): 151-165. The purpose of this study was to develop a valid and reliable tool for use in assessing motor skills in preschool children in field-based settings. The development of the Children's Activity and Movement in Preschool Study Motor Skills Protocol included evidence of its reliability and validity for use in field-based environments as part of large epidemiological studies. Results indicated that test reliability, interobserver reliability, and validity coefficients were all high, generally above R/r = 0.90. Significant age differences were found. Outcomes indicate that the Children's Activity and Movement in Preschool Study Motor Skills Protocol is an appropriate tool for assessing the motor development of 3-, 4-, and 5-year-old children in field-based settings that are consistent with large-scale trials.

USING "CONSTRAINTS" TO DESIGN DEVELOPMENTALLY APPROPRIATE MOVEMENT ACTIVITIES FOR EARLY CHILD HOOD EDUCATION. Linda M. Gagen & Nancy Getchell. Early Childhood Education Journal, Vol. 34, No. 3 (2006): 227-232. This article explains basic motor development theory as the basis for examples of appropriate movement tasks for young children. Teachers of young children know the importance of designing developmentally appropriate activities to encourage motor development, but are not always prepared with the information they need to accomplish this design. When teachers choose movement activities, motor development theory must be understood and utilized in the planning of activities to ensure that the choice of the movement task, equipment, and the movement environment interact to encourage developmentally appropriate movement experiences.

THE WORLD OF A YOUNG CHILD. Donna Shilts. Our Children, Vol. 26, No. 1 (2000): 10-11. Sensory and motor experiences are essential in childhood and are the foundation for all higher-level learning and skill acquisition. This paper examines how young children make sense of sensory experiences, focusing on infants and toddlers, preschoolers, and school-age children. It also looks at the importance of creating an environment rich in sensory-motor experiences.

SENSORI-MOTOR AND DAILY LIVING SKILLS OF PRESCHOOL CHILDREN WITH AUTISM SPECTRUM DISORDERS. Emmanuelle Jasmin, Melanie Couture, Patricia McKinley, Greg Reid, Eric Fombonne, & Erika Gisel. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, Vol. 39, No. 2 (2009): 231-241. The objective of this study was to determine the impact of sensori-motor skills on the performance of daily living skills (DLS) in preschool children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Thirty-five children, 3 to 4 years of age, were recruited and assessed with a battery of diagnostic and clinical tests. The children showed atypical sensory responses and very poor motor skills and DLS. Sensory avoiding, an excessive reaction to sensory stimuli, and fine motor skills were highly correlated with DLS, even when cognitive performance was taken into account. Sensori-motor deficits have an impact on the autonomy of children with ASD, and interventions should aim at improving and supporting the development of sensori-motor skills.

PHYSICAL DEVELOPMENT: Indoor Motor Activities. Eric Strickland. Early Childhood Today, Vol. 19, No. 5 (2005): 6-7. In this article, the author features creative ways to fit a lot of movement and fun inside the classroom when bad weather prevents outdoor activities. He suggests creating crawling tunnels for children by moving chairs away from tables and draping sheets or towels over their tops and sides. Or, develop an obstacle course throughout the room, using furniture and props (such as a balance beam and a hula hoop) that children can crawl through, under, and over. The author also recommends indoor motor activities that promote motor planning, eye-hand coordination, and balance for toddlers, preschoolers, and kindergartners.

THE EFFECT OF SOCIAL DISADVANTAGE ON MOTOR DEVELOPMENT IN YOUNG CHILDREN: A Comparative Study. Martin McPhillips & JulieAnne Jordan-Black. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, Vol. 48, No. 12 (2007): 1214-1222. The primary purpose of this study was to investigate the impact of social disadvantage on motor development in young children. In addition, the study explored a possible link between an early neuromotor indicator and attainments in language and reading in two age groups (children 4 to 5 years and 7 to 8 years). The study found that children from areas of social disadvantage had significant deficits in motor and receptive language attainments relative to their more advantaged peers.

ADAPTING PHYSICAL ACTIVITIES TO PROMOTE OVERALL HEALTH AND DEVELOPMENT: Suggestions for Interventionists and Families. Kristi Sayers Menear & Laura Davis. Young Exceptional Children, Vol. 10, No. 2 (2007): 11-16. In this article, the authors suggest activities that can be used by early educators and families to promote early learning goals for young children. Early movement successes for young children are related to performing activities of daily living without assistance or with minimum assistance, recreational opportunities, and overall wellness, growth, and development. As children are provided with frequent opportunities to participate in everyday fun and engaging physical activities, they gain foundational skills that lead to success in task-specific skills. The combined benefits from physical activity can improve a child's self-concept, self-esteem, and socialization skills, which are aspects of the affective developmental domain. The child may develop peer relationships, learn to control aggressive behaviors, practice conflict resolution, and engage in leadership activities through play and recreation. These social skills can be transferred to classroom activities, such as learning to work in a group, learning to take turns, and other cooperative behaviors. Many therapeutic and early learning goals can be reached through interventions that are implemented during movement times.

MEETING LEARNING CHALLENGES: Working With Children Who Have Motor Difficulties. Stanley I. Greenspan. Early Childhood Today, Vol. 19, No. 4 (2005): 24-25. In this article, the author suggests ideas for teachers on how they can help children who have motor difficulties, defined as the inability to carry out actions that require five or six steps. For example, many children can take off their coats, hang them in their cubbies, walk back to a table, sit at the table, and get ready for an activity. A child with coordination problems is likely to have a harder time with this series of movements, leading to difficulty following instructions and participating in many learning tasks. Even more problematic is how poor motor planning and sequencing affect social skills.

A COMPARISON OF MOTOR DELAYS IN YOUNG CHILDREN: Autism Spectrum Disorder, Developmental Delay, and Developmental Concerns. Beth Provost, Brian R. Lopez, & Sandra Heimerl. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, Vol. 37, No. 2 (2007): 321-328. This study assessed motor delay in young children 21-41 months of age with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and compared motor scores in children with ASD to those of children without ASD. Fifty-six children (42 boys, 14 girls) were placed in three groups: children with ASD, children with developmental delay (DD), and children with developmental concerns without motor delay. Descriptive analysis showed that all children with ASD had delays in gross motor skills, fine motor skills, or both. Children with ASD and children with DD showed significant impairments in motor development compared to children who had developmental concerns without motor delay. Motor scores of young children with ASD did not differ significantly on motor skill measures when compared to young children with DD.

Web Resources

INTERLIMB COORDINATION: An Important Facet of Gross-Motor Skill Ability. Tatiana Bobbio, Carl Gabbard, & Priscila Canola. Early Childhood Research & Practice, Vol. 11, No. 2 (Fall 2009). http://ecrp. This article provides an overview of the literature on interlimb coordination (movements requiring sequential and simultaneous use of both sides of the body with a high degree of "rhythmicity") and describes the development of interlimb coordination in young children. It also provides examples of potential test items and activities that early childhood educators can use to identify children with coordination problems and to design a movement program for all children that addresses the development of interlimb coordination.

FIVE WAYS TO GROW: Motor. The Talaris Institute website provides a timeline for typical development in children from birth through 5 years of age, including motor development. Motor development describes a child's overall ability to move his or her body. It includes both gross motor movement (such as learning to walk) and fine motor control (such as learning to write).

ACTIVITY IDEAS FOR STUDENTS WITH PROFOUND[ SEVERE/MULTIPLE DISABILITIES. Christine Stopka, Ann Goodman, & Claudia Siders. Noting that effectively teaching students who have severe, profound, and multiple disabilities can be quite challenging, the authors provide six units of instruction: 1) cause and effect, 2) balls, 3) group activities, 4) music, 5) movement activities, and 6) recreational activities. Although these ideas are ideal for self-contained classes, the authors note that most should work well in inclusive settings as well.

GROWING UP FIT: Preschool Fitness Activities. (March 2000). In this online publication from Iowa State University Extension, parents and teachers can find movement and balance activities for preschoolers. Organized movement helps children build motor skills and learn about physical fitness. It also lays the groundwork for an active, healthy lifestyle.

Support ACEI's Preschool Project in Tanzania

ACEI is proud to be supporting the building of a preschool for young girls in Tanzania--a nation where nearly half of school-age children never set foot in a classroom, especially girls. As is the case in some African countries, girls as young as 10 in rural areas are often already married and have no access to educational opportunities.

We will need your help to ensure that this school becomes a reality. The entire cost of a classroom and playground for these children is around $15,000. ACEI has already pledged $5,000 to start the process.

If you wish to donate to this project as a gift to honor a friend or a loved one, write the person's name and address on a short note when you send your check to ACEI. We will send them a thank you and let them know that you have donated to this project in their name.

Please send contributions to ACEI Headquarters, 17904 Georgia Avenue, Suite 215, Olney MD 20832. Make checks payable to ACEI, and write "Tanzania Project" in the memo line of the check.
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Title Annotation:ecap report
Author:McEntire, Nancy
Publication:Childhood Education
Geographic Code:1USA
Date:Mar 10, 2010
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