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Two new Araeoschizus species from the Vizcaino Peninsula of Baja California sur, Mexico and discussion of species groups: (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae).


Two new species are described and illustrated. The existing six species groups of the genus Araeoschizus LeConte (1851) are renamed. The species complex groups includes a list of all species, including the presently known distribution records: 29 species are known only from the United States; 17 only from Mexico; 3 known from the U.S. and Mexico, a total of 47 species and 2 subspecies. Since Araeoschizus is associated with ants, the name of the appropriate ant species are included. The types of the species groups are also illustrated.


During the past years I received a large number of specimens of Araeoschizus LeConte for identification from the Orma J. Smith Museum of Natural History, Albertson College of Idaho, Caldwell. The specimens were collected chiefly by William H. Clark. The first time I reported on his findings was in 1989, when I had a chance to see a large number of specimen collected in a wide area of the original collection site of A. antennatus Blaisdell (Papp 1989).

The genus is well represented in Baja California, Mexico. However, as I pointed out in my Revision (1981) there were no specimens collected in the Vizcaino Peninsula. On one occasion when Mr. Clark visited me in Sacramento (on the way home from Baja California), I mentioned this fact to him and he decided to search for these little "critters", which he did. In early 1992, when he curated the specimens collected, he notified me about his find. Sure enough, with 18 specimens of Araeoschizus he became the first collector of the genus in the Vizcaino Desert. Among the material I found two new species which are described below.

Araeoschizus clarkorum Papp, n. sp.

(Figures 1 and 2)

Belongs to the limbatus complex (Group). Resembles elegantulus Papp (1981:325, Fig. 27) from which easily be differentiated by the shape of the prothorax and the unique shape of the marginal squamules of the elytra. Uniformly colored dark brown, elytra occasionally slightly lighter.

Head. - Almost twice as long as the prothorax; about one-third longer than wide across ocular lobes. Shiny; roughly puntured with irregularly shaped uneven-sized punctures; sharply covered with erect, short squamules. Occipital angle narrowly rounded, occipital impression prominent, triangular in shape. Sides almost parallel, slightly broader at the level of occipital lobe which is slightly elevated and covered with large punctures. Ocular ridge short, shallow; however highly elevated at eye level with dense, erect squamules. Eyes prominent, 18-19 facets on dorsal, 4-5 on ventral side. - Antennae somewhat robust, with forewardly decumbent longer squamules, especially on the anterior edge of all segments except 10 and 11 which are sparsely covered with hair-like squamules.

Prothorax. - Slightly longer as wide on the broadest point. Longitudinal groove prominent. Surface with large irregular punctures and with few and very short erect squamules. Margin with dense row of larger squamules; the two longitudinal ridge and anterior margin with erect, posterior margin with posteriorly decumbent squamules. Surface with only a few, short, erect squamules.

Elytra. - About four times as long as prothorax, sides not parallel. Interspaces with a line - sometimes hardly detectable - very short, erect squamules. Corda 1 longer than 2;3 (viewing from top) covers the margin. Ridges with posteriorly decumbent squamules; those on the margin somewhat longer. Sutural line very narrow, with very few short squamules. Puncture lines in the interspaces are prominent, with much smaller punctures between. Slightly lighter brown than head.


Head. - Mentum rounded, margin with prominent suberect squamules. Margin of sublabial plate straight, with long, prominent proboscis, as long as half of the distance between them; basal groove deep, and along the entire base deeply inpressed. Gular area flat. Surface shiny, finely punctured and very sparsely covered with short, forewardly decumbent squamules.

Thorax. - Prosternal ridge well elevated; between episternum and ridge deeply inpressed, more so toward anterior carina. Surface punctured, not squamulose. Prosternal process broad, margin with decumbent squamules. Abdomen. - Shiny, with deep punctures, their size decreasing toward anal end. Mesosternal apophysis narrow, facing a sharply rounded frontal apophysis of metasternum. Intercoxal process narrow. Third abdominal segment sparsely, 4th and 5th densely covered with posteriorly decumbent narrower squamules.

Abdomen. - Shiny, surface covered with deep punctures; size of punctures decreasing toward anal end. Mesosternal apophysis narrow, facing a sharply rounded frontal apophysis of mentum. Intercoxal process narrow. The 3rd abdominal segment sparsely, 4th and 5th densely covered with posteriorly decumbent narrow squamules.

Legs. - Same color as elytra. Middle pair shortest, hind pair longest. Densely covered with suberect narrow squamules, which are somewhat longer and broader on tibia and femur, more so on their anterior end.

Length: 4.2 - 5.0 mm.

Holotype: Mexico, Baja California Sur, Vizcaino Peninsula, 7 km North of Rancho Tablon, Lat. 27**37' N., Long. 113**21' W. Elevation 130 m. In pitfal trap with ethylene glycol. March 12, 1986 - March 18, 1991. William H. Clark and Ellen M. Clark collectors. In the California Academy of Sciences, San Francisco, CA.

Paratypes: 5 specimens. Same location, also in pitfall traps. Collection dates: August 18, 1982 - January 1984, and March 18, 1991 - July 13, 1991. William H., Mary, and Cynthia J. Clark, and Jane C. Luther collectors. In the same museum as Holotype.

Additional specimens: 11 km SE from San Jose de Castro, Lat. 27**27' N., elevation 300 m. In pitfal traps, March 17,1991 - July 7, 1991, total of 3 specimens, collected by W.H. Clark. SE base of Mesa el Tecolote. Lat. 26**59' L., Long. 113**26' W., elevation 120 m. Same date, total of 5 specimens, collected by W.H. Clark.

Named in honor of the William H. and Mary Clark family, for their inspirational support and tireless work in the past 25 years in the Orma J. Smith Museum of Natural History; also in the field.

Araeoschizus peregrinus Papp, n. sp. (Figures 3 and 4)

A new member of the regularis complex (Group IV), the first representative of the Group ever collected in Baja California. Somewhat resembles to dolenterus Papp (1981:349, Fig. 36) from Acatlan Province, Mexico. The major differences are in the structural composition of the head and the prothorax, both are more elongated in dolenterus. Very dark brown, almost black; shiny.

Head. - Almost as long as broad across occipital lobes; in form resembles the outline of a vertically compressed egg; very coarsely punctured; covered with short, dark colored, forewardly decumbent squamules, more so along the center axis of head. Occipital angle broadly rounded, occipital impression more deep and forewardly protruding in the form of a sharp triangle. Ocular ridge long, extended behind eyes and gave a distinct margin of the posterior half of the ocular groove; squamulose; squamules somehow more densely placed on ridges. Eyes prominent, however deeply set; 18-20 facets dorsally, 4-6 ventrally. - Antennae more robust; individual joints with squamules; joints 9-11 with hair-like squamules, those are shortest on the 11th.

Prothorax. - About as long as wide at the widest point. Anterior angle broadly, margin slightly rounded with a light inpression of the anterior end of the longitudinal groove, which gradually deepens posteriorly. Densely covered with round, almost even-sized deep punctures, with sparsely spaced forewardly decumbent short squamules on sides. Longitudinal ridges slightly elevated anteriorly, more so posteriorly; covered with suberect club-shaped squamules, which were densely spaced at posterior end. Frontal margin sparsely, sides densely squamulose. Anterior pronotal angle broadly rounded, posterior sharply and outwardly pointed; sides constricted before posterior pronotal angles.

Elytra. - Sides parallel in middle half, 2.25-times longer than broad at middle, 3.2 times longer than prothorax. Corda 1 slightly longer than 2, 3 the longest. Interspaces are deep, shiny; punctures are deep and closely spaced. Sutural line broader, on its elevated margin with row of small, posteriorly decumbent squamules. Marginal squamules are relatively small; broader and narrower in proportion (see a and b on Fig. 3).


Head. - Mentum lighter in color, round in shape, with densely shaped squamules radiating from center toward the round margin. Margin of labial plate slightly rounded in middle, with deep indentation at the interior base of proboscis of sublabial plate; basal groove deep, gradually leveling posteriorly. Surface coarsely punctured, very sparsely covered with anteriorly decumbent short squamules.

Thorax. - Prostemal ridge rounded, broadly elevated, at anterior end broadly flattened. Deeply punctured, not squamulose. The broad prosternal process with short, decumbent squamules.

Abdomen. - Also shiny, dark brown; uniformly punctured, each puncture with a thin, posteriorly decumbent narrow squamula; punctures are more dense on abdominal segments, most dense on the 5th. Mesosternal apophysis narrow. Intercoxal process of abdomen is broad, somewhat triangularly rounded. Posterior edges of the 1st to 4th abdominal segments with orderly placed line of shorter squamules.

Legs. - Are long and narrow; hind pair longest, middle shortest. Same color as abdomen. Very finely punctured and covered with narrow decumbent squamules which are much finer on all tarsi.

Length: 5.6 - 6.0 mm.

Holotype: Mexico, Baja California Sur, Vizcaino Desert, Lat. 27**34' N., Long. 113**34' W. Elevation 40 m. Collected in ethylne glycol pitfall traps, March 18,1991 - June 6, 1991, William H., Mary, Cynthia J. & Karen D. Clark and Jane C. Luther collector. In the collection of the California Academy of Sciences, San Francisco, CA.

Paratypes: Vizcaino Desert, Arroyo San Lorenzo, Lat. 26**56' N., Long. 113**47' Elevation 20 m. In ethylene glycol pitfall traps, July 8, 1991 - May17, 1992. William H. Clark, Paul E. Blom and Ellen Clark collectors. In the same museum as holotype.

The six species groups of Araeoschizus LeConte (1851).

The following short key help you to identify the six major groups in the genus:

1 Femora toothed 2

Femora not toothed 3

2 Prothorax with longitudinal groove:

a) Elytral interspaces with squamules Group I.

b) Elytral interspaces without squamules Group II.

3 Prothorax with longitudinal groove:

a) Elytral interspaces with squamules Group III.

b) Elytral interspaces without squamules Group IV.

Prothorax without longitudinal groove:

a) Elytral interspaces with squamules Group V.

b) Elytral interspaces without squamules Group VI.

It is obvious that the combined differences in external morphology (Papp 1981:295) within the six established groups do not warrant further separations, e.g. to split the genus into subgenera. However, selecting a typical species for each group (as type of the species complex) somewhat will further the recognition of specimen on hand. Those selected species are illustrated; I made those illustrations directly from the type specimens.

Following is information regarding certain species association with ants; the names of the ant species are recorded. This association first was noted by Horn (1 870:274) after the description of his new species, sulcicollis: "Collected in Owens' Valley, California, under stones in very dry places, and frequently, though probably merely incidentally, with ants." - No doubt, many collectors made the same observation since. Some of them suspect that this association is not "coincidental". Therefore, I included all available information from the literature and collections regarding this unsolved problem which sure warrant more detailed field studies - and more.

Group I: The armatus Horn (1870) complex:

Femora toothed. Prothorax with longitudinal groove. Elytral interspaces with squamules (Fig. 5).

airmeti Tanner (1945). - IDAHO: Canyon, Bonneville, Elmore, Cassia, Owyhee in association with Pogonomyrmex owyheei; Butte, Jerome and Fremont Counties. - OREGON: Malheur and Harney Counties. - NEVADA: Humboldt and Pershing Counties found in association with Pogonomyrmex sp., Pheidole sp., Pheidole creightoni, P. oregonica, Vermanessor lobognatus and V lariversi.

armatus Horn (1870). - CALIFORNIA: Inyo and Mono Counties. - NEVADA: Curchill and Washoe Counties. - IDAHO: Ada County in the nest of Pogonomyrmex salinus.

duplicatus Casey (1907). - IDAHO: Ada County. - WYOMING: Freemont and Sweetwater Counties. - Reported in association with the ant Pogonomyrmex salinus, R occidentalis.

lariversi Papp (1981). - CALIFORNIA: San Bernardino County.

Group II: The hardyi Papp (1981) complex:

Femora toothed. Prothorax with longitudinal groove. Elytral interspaces without squamules (Fig. 6).

hardyi Papp (1981).- CALIFORNIA: San Bernardino, Riverside and Imperial Counties. - ARIZONA: Yuma County (specimens in the collection of the University of Arizona, Tucson, with added label: "ant hill").

parcellosus Papp (1981). - MEXICO: Baja California.

rufus Dajoz (1991). - CALIFORNIA: Mono County. (I had no chance to see the type specimen; it is possibly synonym to armatus Horn of Group I.).

Group III: The limbatus Blaisdell (1943) complex:

Femora not toothed. Prothorax with longitudinal groove. Elytral interspaces with squamules (Fig. 7).

aalbui Papp (1981). - MEXICO: Baja California Sur.

andrewsi Papp (1981). - CALIFORNIA: Imperial County.

antennatus Blaisdell (1943). - MEXICO: Baja California. Collected in the nest of Pheidole grallipes (Clark et al. 1986).

antennatus blaisdelli Papp (1989). - MEXICO: Baja California.

antennatus clarki Papp (1989). - MEXICO: Baja California. Found in foraging columns of Neivamyrmex nigrescens.

elegantulus Papp (1981). - MEXICO: Baja California Sur.

fimbriatus Casey (1890). - "ARIZONA". No further information.

hystrix Papp (1981). - CALIFORNIA: Riverside and San Diego Counties. - ARIZONA: Extreme SW Yuma County (in the Tinajas Altas Mtn.; Hall, et al. 1988:292).

interlectus Papp (1981). - MEXICO: Baja California Sur. W.H. Clark collected this species in association with Pheidole hyatti.

leconteiPapp (1981). -ARIZONA: Cochise County.

limbatus Blaisdell (1943). - MEXICO: Baja California Sur.

squamulissimus Papp (1981).- MEXICO: Baja California.

wasbauerorum Papp (1981).- MEXICO: The extreme NW end of Sonora Province.

Group IV: The regularis Horn (1870) complex:

Femora not toothed. Prothorax with longitudinal groove. Elytral interspaces without squamules (Fig. 8).

colossalls Papp (1981). - ARIZONA: Pima County.

disjunctus Papp (1981).- CALIFORNIA: Kings, San Benito and Fresno Counties. Collected in association with the following species of ants: Pheidole hiatti, P. barbata and Pogonomyrmex sp.

dolenterus Papp (1981). - MEXICO: Acatlan Province.

expeditionis Papp (1981). - MEXICO: Cuencame Province.

mexicanus Champion (1892). - MEXICO: Guerrero Province.

regularis Horn (1870). - ARIZONA: Navajo, Graham, Pinal, Santa Cruz, Cochise and Maricopa Counties, observed in association with Aphaenogaster sp., and Pheidole vistana. Specimens in various collections labeled as "with ants", "with ants and termites", and "with termites and no ants". -MEXICO: Sonora Province in association with Iridomyrmex pruinosus analis.

simulans Casey (1907).- CALIFORNIA: Known from the type specimen only; labeled: "S. Cal.".

sulcicollis Horn (1870). - CALIFORNIA: Kern and lnyo Counties. - NEVADA: Nye County collected in nests of Pogonomyrmex sp., Pogonomyrmex occidentalis, Pheidole bicarinata, P. barbata, and P hyatti.

Group V: The costipennis LeConte (1851) complex:

Femora not toothed. Prothorax without longitudinal groove. Elytral interspaces with squamules (Fig. 9).

alinae Dajoz (1984). - UTAH: Grand County.

apachensis Papp (1981). - ARIZONA: Apache County.

arizonicus Dajoz (1989). - ARIZONA: Cochise County. - NEW MEXICO: Hidago County (from Rodeo, on the Arizona border).

costipennis LeConte (1851). - CALIFORNIA: San Diego, Imperial an Riverside Counties.

decipiens Horn (1890). (= costipennis Champion 1884, not LeConte 1851) - TEXAS: Culberson County associated with Pogonomyrmex rugosus; El Paso County with Myrmecocystus depilis, Solenopsis xyloni, Pheidole desertorum; Hudspeth County with Solenopsis (Diplorhoptrum) sp.; and Pheidole xerophila xerophila; Reeves County with Conomyrma sp.; Ward County with Aphaenogaster cockerelli. Also from Jeff Davis and Gaines Counties. - NEW MEXICO: Dona Ana, Otero and Bernalillo Counties (collection data "with ants"). - ARIZONA: Cochise and Graham Counties. - COLORADO: Arapahoe County. - UTAH: Kane County. - MEXICO: Sonora and Durango Provinces.

doyeni Papp (1981). - CALIFORNIA: Riverside County.

exiguus Casey (1907). - CALIFORNIA: San Diego and San Bernardino Counties.

microcephalus Papp (1981). - MEXICO: Chihuahua Province.

setosiformis Papp (1981). - UTAH: Grand County in association with Pognomyrmex ants.

similaris Papp (1981). - NEW MEXICO: Sierra County.

tenuis Casey (1907). - ARIZONA: Pima and Pinal Counties.

utahensis Papp (1981). - UTAH: San Juan County.

Group VI: The simplex Casey (1890) complex:

Femora not toothed. Prothorax without longitudinal groove. Elytral interspaces without squamules (Fig. 10).

giuliani Papp (1981). - MEXICO: Sonora Province.

hardyorum Papp (1981). - UTAH: Washington County.

kaszabi Papp (1981). - CALIFORNIA: San Diego and San Bernardino Counties.

kubai Papp (1981). - ARIZONA: Pima County.

magdae Papp (1989). - MEXICO: Guerrero Province (the southern-most distribution of the genus).

problematicus Papp (1981). - MEXICO: Zacatecas Province.

orientalis Dajoz (1991). - TEXAS: Val Verde County.

simplex Casey (1890). - TEXAS: Presidio County. - NEW MEXICO: Eddy County. - ARIZONA: Maricopa and Pima Counties. - MEXICO: Chihuahua Province.

texanus Dajoz (1989). - TEXAS: Brewster County.

In the following pages you will find a list of publications related to the genus Araeoschizus with my hope that someone may need it to conduct research in this genus, especially its association with ants.

* Between 1982 and 1996 Scarabaeus Associates, Sacramento, CA published The Collected LeConte Papers on Entomology in 10 bound volumes, assembled by A.R. Hardy, F.G. Andrews and D.H. Kavanaugh. The total collection of LXXVII + 5,440 pages is a must for any institutional library where entomological research is conducted. Distributed by BioQuip Products, Inc., 17803 LaSalle Ave., Gardena, CA 90248-3602.


Andrews, F.G., A.L. Hardy and D. Giuliani: 1979. The Coleopterous Fauna of Selected California Sand Dunes. -- California Dept. of Food and Agric., Insect Taxonomy Lab., 142 pp., 21 figs.

Blaisdell, R.E.: 1943. Contribution Toward the Knowledge of the Insect Fauna of Lower California. No. 7 Coleoptera, Tenebrionidae. -- Proc. Calif. Acad. Sci., 24:171-288, p1. 10 and 11 (pp. 214-216, p1. 11).

Casey, T.L.: 1890. Coleopterological Notices, II. -- Ann. New York Acad. Sci., 5:307-504 (pp. 368-370).

Casey, T.L.: 1907. Revision of the North American Components of the Tehebrionid Subfamily Tentyriinae. -- Proc. Washington Acad. Sci., 9:275-522 (pp. 281 and 484-491).

Champion, G.C.: 1884-1893: Biologia Centrali Americana, Coleoptera 4 (1):1-XXXIV + 1-572 pp., 23 plates (see 1884:51 and 1892:490-491).

Clark, W.H., S.D. Farley and D.R. Frohlich: 1979. Use of an olfactometer to examine the relationships between the ant Pogonomyrmex owyheel and its guest Araeoschizus airmeti. -- Abstract of paper presented at "Chemical Communication among the Insects: Biology, Morphology, and Application". NSF, Oregon Graduate Center, Portland. 2 pp.

Clark, W.H., RE. Blom and A.M. Lowman: 1986. Contents of a Nest of the Desert Ant, Pheidole gallipes Wheeler, in Baja California, Mexico. - Pan-Pac. Ent., 62:99-1 02, 2 figs.

Clark, W.H. and RE. Blom: 1988. Observation of the relationship between Ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) and Araeoschizus (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae). -- Journal Idaho Acad. Sci., 24:34-37, 1 fig.

Clark, W.H. and RE. Blom: 1992. An efficient and inexpensive pitfall trap system. -- Ent. News, 103:55-59, 1 fig.

Dajoz, R.: 1984. Une espece nouvelle du genre Araeoschizus Le Conte (Coleo- ptera: Tenebrionidae). -- Bull. Soc. Lin., 53:246-247.

Dajoz, R.: 1989a: Une nouvelle espece du genre Araeoschizus Leconte du Sud-Est de l'Arizona (Etats-Unis) (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae). -- Nouv. Revue Ent. (N.S.) 6:33-36, 1 fig.

Dajoz, R.: 1989b. Une nouvelle espece texane du genre Araeoschizus Le Conte (Col.: Tenebrionidae). -- Bull. Soc. ent. Fr., 93:149-152,1 fig.

Dajoz, R.: 1991. Description de deux especes nouvelles du genre Araeoschizus, de la larve, de la nymphe et notes sur leur biologie (Col. Tenebrionidae), -- Bull. Soc. ent. Fr., 96:165-174, 4 figs.

Hall, W.E., T.R. Van Devender and C.A. Olson: 1988. Late Quaternary Arthropod Remains from Sonoran Packrat Middens, Southwestern Arizona and Northwestern Sonora. -- Quaternary Research, 29:177-193, 2 figs.

Hardy, A.R. and F.G. Andrews: 1979. An Inventory of Selected Coleoptera from the Algodones Dunes. -- A Report to the Land Management, in Fulfilment of Contract Number CA-060-CT-8-68. -- California Dept. of Food and Agric., Insect Taxonomy Lab., 36 pp, figs.

Hatch, M.H.: 1965. The Beetles of the Pacific Northwest. - Univ. of Washington Press, Publ. in Biology, 16, 4:1-268,28 pls. (p. 134, p1. 21, fig. 2).

Horn, G.H.: 1867. Notes on the habits of a few California Coleoptera. - Proc. Ent. Soc. Amer., 6:289-293.

Horn, G.H.: 1870. Revision of the Tenebrionidae of North America, North of Mexico. - Trans. Amer. Philos. Soc., 14(64):253-404.

Horn, G.H.: 1890. Some notes on Araeoschizus. - Trans. Amer. Ent. Soc., 17:339-343.

Lacordaire, T.: 1859. Genera des Coleopteres. - Hist. Nat. Ins., 5(1):103.

Lavigne, R.J.: 1969. Bionomics and Nest Structure of Pogonomyrmex occidentalis (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). -Ann. Ent. Soc. Amer., 62:1,166-175, figs.

LeConte, J.L.: 1851. Description of new species of Coleoptera from California. -Lyceum of Nat. Hist. New York, 5:125-184 (p. 138). *

LeConte, J.L.: 1859. Descriptions of some new genera and species of Coleoptera from the vicinity of the southern boundary of the United States of America. - Arcana Naturae, 3:121-128, 2 pls. (p. 124, pl. XIII, fig. 11). *

Papp, C.S.: 1961. Checklist of Tenebrionidae of America, north of the Panama Canal. - Opusc. Ent., 26:97-140.

Papp, C.S.: 1968. Scientific Illustration, Theory and Practice. - Wm. C. Brown Co. Publishers, Dubuque, Iowa. I-XII + 1-318 pp., 1,342 figs.

Papp, C.S.: 1976. Manual of Scientific Illustration. - Amer. Visual Aid Books, Riverside, CA., 342 pp., 1,407 figs.

Papp, C.S.: 1981. Revision of the genus Araeoschizus LeConte. - Ent. Arb. Mus. Frey, Tutzing by Munchen, Germany, 29:273-420, 68 figs.

Papp, C.S.: 1989. Notes on the Stenosini Genus Araeoschizus LeConte from Baja California, Mexico. - Entomography, 6:335-340, 3 figs.

Papp, C.S.: 1993. The American beetle genus Araeoschizus LeConte. Published lecture notes for the Pannon Agric. Univ., Keszthely (April 6) and the Hungarian Entom. Soc., Budapest (April 16). 16 pp., ill.

Papp, C.S.: 1994. My Coleopterological Research. - Published lecture notes for the Kossuth Lajos University of Debrecen (May 30) and for the Pannon Agric. Univ., Keszthely, Hungary (June 3). 120 pages (pp. 60-77), ill.

Papp, C.S.: 2001. A Comprehensive Guide to North American Insects. With Notes on Other Arthropods of Health Importance. - Publ. by the Prof. Flytrap Div., Gilbert Industries, Inc., Jonesboro AR 72401-6818. 466 (8.5" x 11") pages with more than 2,850 illustrations on 2,080 figs. (see pp. 251-252, and figs. 1,337 to 1,342).

Papp, C.S. and I.M. Somlyai: 1994. Genus Araeoschizus LeConte as indicator of environmental changes in California. - Internat. Symposium on Crop Protection, Univ. of Gent, Belgium, 14:50.

Snelling, R.R.: 1976. A revision of the Honey Ants, Genus Myrmecocystus. - Sci. Bull., Nat. Hist. Museum, Los Angeles, 24:1-63 (p. 10).

Tanner, V.M.: 1945. A new species of Araeoschizus. - Great Basin Nat., 6:125-126.

Tanner, V.M. and W.A. Packham: 1965. Tenebrionidae beetles of the Nevada Test Site. - Bringham Young Univ., Sci. Bull., 4:1-44 (pp. 9 and 20-21). Wheeler, G.C. and J. Wheeler: 1973. Ants of Deep Canyon. - Philip L. Boyd Deep Canyon Desert Res. Center Pub!., pp. I-XIII + 1-162.

Charles S. Papp *

* California Department of Food and Agriculture, Plant Pest Diagnostic center (Entomology), Sacramento. - Retired.

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Author:Papp, Charles S.
Publication:Journal of the Idaho Academy of Science
Date:Jun 1, 2001
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