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Two New Species of Family Acaridae Infesting Stored Products from District Gujranwala, Punjab, Pakistan.

Byline: Muhammad Hamid Bashir, Sabyan Faris Honey, Shaukat Ali, Muhammad Kamran, Bilal Saeed Khan and Muhammad Afzal

Abstract

In the existing environment of this fast growing world, food scarcity is becoming major concern to be addressed due to considerable losses of food commodities not only during growth span but also post - harvest stage of any commodity is susceptible to number of losses. Mite pests are one of major concerning factors, which boost up such losses including both quantitative and qualitative. Family Acaridae is the major family of mites round the world, which not only possess great threat to stored commodities but also cause number of diseases in humans including asthma and skin allergies etc. During this study a comprehensive survey of different stored commodities from District Gujranwala was made to observe the influence of mite pests over these commodities, which resulted in discovery of two new species of family Acaridae belonging to genera Rhizoglyphus and Tyrophagus namely Rhizoglyphus iftikhari and Tyrophagus bisetosis infesting stored commodities. The types were deposited in the Acarology Research Laboratory, University of Agriculture, Faisalabad. Copyright 2014 Friends Science Publishers

Keyword: Acaridae; Tyrophagus; Rhizoglyphus; Stored wheat; PunjabIntroduction

From Pakistan the existence of mite pests belonging to family Acaridae have been recorded continuously (Ashfaq and Chaudhri, 1983, 1984, 1986; Ashfaq et al., 1985, 1986,1999, 2000; Sher et al., 1991; Sarwar et al., 1998; Ashfaq and Sarwar, 1999, 2001; Ashfaq and Sher, 2002; Sarwar and Ashfaq, 2002, 2004). The Acaridae includes about 400 species of acarid mites belonging to some 90 genera known in the world. Among this huge expanse of Acaridae very important two genera Tyrophagus and Rhizoglyphus are considered as severe pests of number of stored commodities all over the world (Darvishzadeh and Kamali, 2009). Number of authors worldwide worked on Tyrophagus and confirmed its status as a stored products pest (Robertson,1959; Johnston and Bruce, 1965; Fain, 1976, 1977, 1985; Lynch, 1989; Fan and Zhang, 2003, 2004; Bashir et al.,2009; Mahmood et al., 2012). Tyrophagus was erected by Oudemans (1924), and till now about 35 species of this genus have been reported worldwide. After the very first revision of this genus by Zachvatkin (1941), Robertson (1959) and Samsinak (1962) also elevated this genus to some extent. Mites of the genus Rhizoglyphus (Acari: Acaridae) are also cosmopolitan and can cause damage to crops and ornamental plants, both in greenhouses and in the field (Diaz et al., 2000). Many species of the genus Rhizoglyphus have been reported worldwide damaging number of stored commodities (Ho and Chen, 1987, 2000,2001; Bu and Li, 1998; Diaz et al., 2000; Chen et al., 2002; Fan and Zhang, 2003, 2004; Rojas and Klimov, 2007; Darvishzadeh and Kamali, 2009; Bashir et al., 2011). During this study a comprehensive survey of different stored commodities from District Gujranwala was made to observe the influence of mite pests over these commodities. This survey resulted in discovery of two new mite species namely Rhizoglyphus iftikhari n.sp. and Tyrophagus bisetosis n.sp., infesting stored commodities.

Materials and Methods

A comprehensive survey of district Gujranwala was carried out to explore the mite pests from stored grains. Different stored grains were sampled for mite pests. For on spot collection, sieve method was used. The stored grains were shaken on the sieve held over a white paper. The mites received on the paper were sorted and stored in the small

vials containing 70% alcohol. The samples were brought to the laboratory and processed through Berlese's funnel. Pest mites were sorted under a binocular microscope and permanent slides were prepared in Hoyer's medium. Diagrams were made with the help of grid by using a phase contrast microscope. The mounted specimens were identified with the help of available literature and keys of Diaz et al. (2000) and Fan and Zhang (2003, 2004). Measurements of different body parts were done with the help of ocular micrometer. All the measurements are given in micrometer.

Results and Discussion

Adult Female

Diagnosis of Tyrophagus bisetosis n.sp: Body oval shape with only two adenal setae i.e., ad1 and ad2. Grandjean's

organ elongate with scx having long pectinations over it. iaabsent in it

Gnathosoma

Chelicera 61, cha 7 (Fig. 1D), infracapitular Setae m 24.

Dorsum

Idiosoma 323 long, 206 wide. Prodorsal shield 69 long and59 wide, pentagonal in shape, posterior margins slightly concave with lateral margins parallel. Setae vi thick, pointed and serrated 61 long, distance between vi-vi 15. Seta ve 32 long, distance between ve-ve 49. Setae sci obliviously long,110; distance between sci-sci 24, sce 64 long and serrated, distance between sce-sce 69 and sci-sce 29. Grandjean's organ 37 long and blunt ended. scx 24 long (Fig. 1D), Setae c1 24 long, c2 132, cp 123, c3 24; d1 54, e1 216 e2 162, f2 245, h1 220, h2 235, h3225 long, distance between c1-c1 81, d1-d139, c1-d1 64, e1-e1 69, d1-e1 39, e1-e2 61 (Fig. 1A).

Venter

Setae 1a 24, distance between 1a-1a 42, 3a 10, distance between 3a-3a 20, 3b42, g 34, distance between g-g 67. Anal opening with 4 pairs of long and strong setae, ps1 122 long, ps2 12, ad132, ad224 long. Copulatory opening ring shaped. Spermathecal duct thin and long, slightly expanded near base of inner base of spermatheca (Fig. 1B).

Legs

Leg I: 122 long, PR 17, Femur I 32 long, vf whip-like 42 long. Genu I 17, s' 22, s" 17, cG 27 whip-like, mG slender24. Tibia I 17 long, solenidium f 78, gT whip-like 17, hT17. Tarsus I 39 long, ba 13, ?1 thin and long 12, ?2 7, ?312, wa24 long, la17, f 10, d 24.Leg II: 122 long, PR 24, Femur II 34, vf whip-like 37. Genu II 26, s 15, cG24, mG slender 37. Tibia II 17, f 103 long, gT slender 17, hT20. Tarsus II 40 long, ?1 12, ba 5, wa7, f12, d 12, la 12, ra 20.Leg III: 122 long, SR 17, Femur III 24 long, Genu III 22, s15, nG 27, Tibia III 23, f 78, kT 27. Tarsus III 40 long, r 17,d18, f 12, seta 5.Leg IV: 144 long, Femur IV 29 long, vF 24. Genu IV 30 long, Tibia IV 24 long, f 59, kT15. Tarsus IV 45 long, ?17, r15, f 15, d 11 (Fig. 1C).

Type

Holotype adult female was collected from Gujranwala from Wheat (Triticum aestivum) grains on 22-07-2010 and deposited in the Department of Agri. Entomology, University of Agriculture, Faisalabad.

Etymology

The species name is described for the presence of two adrenal seta i.e. ad1 and ad2.

Remarks

This new species is very close to already known species Tyrophagus curvipensis but this new species can be separated from T. curvipensis on the basis of following feature:In T. curvipensis cha is conical, while in this new species cha is simple and pointed.In T. curvipensis Grandjeans organ is fingure like;smooth, while in this new species Grandjeans organ is elongate.In T. curvipensis seta scx is slender or slightly widened, tapering from base to tip with moderate or short pectinations, while in this new species setae scx is slender with long or short pectinations.In T. curvipensis ia is present, while in this new species ia is absent.

Adult Female

Diagnosis of Rhizoglyphus iftikhari n.sp: Body light brown with only three anal setae. Grandjean's organ bifurcated. Setae c1, c2, d1, e1, e2, h1 and h2 serrated, while setae f2 absent.

Gnathosoma

Chelicera 74, cha 7, palpal elcp 10, infracapitular Setae m27 (Fig. 1: D, F).

Dorsum

Idiosoma 431 long, 294 wide. Prodorsal shield 50 long and57 wide, smooth, posterior margins slightly concave. Setae vi thick and pionted, 49 long, distance between vi-vi 12. Seta ve 12 long and distance between ve-ve 59. Setae sci obliviously long, 37; distance between sci-sci 44, sce prominently long, 100, distance between sce-sce 88 and distance between sci-sce 24. Grandjean's organ 49 long and bifurcate, scx 27 (Fig. 2E), Setae c1 24 long, distancebetween c1-c1 89, c2 29, cp 86, c3 22; d1 27, distance between d1-d1 74, d2 29, distance between d2-d2 152, e1 42 long, distance between e1-e1 74, e2 37 long, f2 98, h1 34, h2 39 (Fig. 2A).

Venter

Setae 1a 24, distance between 1a-1a 49, 3a 15, distance between 3a-3a 39, 3b 15, distance between 3b-3b 100, g 12, distance between g-g 27, 4a 12, distance between 4a- 4a 64. Anal opening with 3 pairs of long and strong setae, ps1 27 long, ps2 22, ps3 12, h3 49. Copulatory opening ring shaped. Spermathecal duct thin and long, slightly expanded near base of inner base of spermatheca (Fig. 2B).

Legs

Leg I: 166 long, PR 25, Femur I 42 long, vf whip-like 44 long. Genu I 32, s' 12, s'' 24, cG 34 whip-like, mG slender22. Tibia I 30 long, solenidium f 61, gT whip-like 12, hT15. Tarsus I 49 long, ba 10, ?1 thin and long 12, ?2 7.Leg II: 169 long, PR 12 long, Femur II 43, vf whip-like 33.Genu II 3, s' 7, cG 10, mG slender 20. Tibia II 27, f 50, gTslender 15, hT 10. Tarsus II 48.Leg III: 156 long, SR 12, Femur III 37 long, Genu III 25, s7, nG 27, Tibia III 25, f 66, kT 12. Tarsus III 42 long.Leg IV: 167 long, Femur IV 32 long, vF 27. Genu IV 29 long, Tibia IV 28 long, f 24, kT 15. Tarsus IV 49 long (Fig.2C).

Type

Holotype adult female was collected from Ali Pur Chatta(Gujranwala) from Wheat (Triticum aestivum) grain on 09-02-2010 and deposited in the Department of Agri. Entomology, University of Agriculture, Faisalabad.

Etymology

The species name is described on the name of author'sfather.

Remarks

This new species is very close to already known species Rhizoglyphus caladii (Manson) but this new species can be separated from R. caladii due to following features:In R. caladii cha is branched while in this new species it cha is pointed and simple.In R. caladii setae vi is thick and pointed while in this new species setae vi is serrated.In R. caladii setae scx is slender and pointed, while in this new species setae scx is moderate or short pectinated on one side.In R. caladii setae e1and e2 are prominently long, while in this new species setae e1 and e2 are obviously long.In R. caladii setae c1, c2, d1, e1, e2, h1 and h2 are smooth, while in this new species setae c1, c2, d1, e1, e2, h1 and h2 are serrated.In R. caladii setae f2 is present on venter, while in this new species setae f2 is absent.This new species can also be compared with alreadyknown species Rhizoglyphus columbianus (Oudemans) and this new species differs from R. columbianus due to following features.Posterior margins of prodorsal shield in R. columbianus are not concave, while in this new species posterior margins of prodorsal shield are slightlyconcave.In R. columbianus setae scx is minute and small, while in this new species seta scx is serrated.In R. columbianus gla is present, while in this new species gla is absent.In R. columbianus anal opening has 4 pairs of setae around it while in this new species anal opening has only 3 pairs of setae.

Acknowledgement

The authors acknowledge Higher Education Commission, Islamabad, Pakistan for financial support.

References

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Article Details
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Author:Bashir, Muhammad Hamid; Honey, Sabyan Faris; Ali, Shaukat; Kamran, Muhammad; Khan, Bilal Saeed; Afza
Publication:International Journal of Agriculture and Biology
Article Type:Report
Geographic Code:9PAKI
Date:Apr 30, 2014
Words:2790
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