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Two Branches of the Same Tree: A Brief History of Turkish Neuropsychiatric Society (1914-2016).

INTRODUCTION

The late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries witnessed the gradual emergence of neurology and psychiatry as two separate disciplines in the majority of the Western countries. The appearance of the first professional societies and associations in the fields of neurology and psychiatry dates back to the mid-nineteenth century in the world. American Psychiatric Association, for example, took its name in 1921; however it was actually founded in 1844 in Philadelphia after a meeting. The Association of Medical Superintendents of American Institutions for the Insane was established by 13 superintendents and organizers of insane asylums and hospitals (1). New professional societies representing the areas of neurology and psychiatry were established in different countries during the twentieth century For example, The Japanese Society of Psychiatry and Neurology was established in 1902 and the Spanish Association of Neuropsychiatry was established in 1924. The last quarter of the twentieth century witnessed a debate regarding the convergence of the two disciplines, the concept and discipline of neuropsychiatry reappeared (2), and a number of associations including the term "neuropsychiatry" were established.

The Turkish Neuropsychiatric Society was originally founded in 1914 in Istanbul but the birth of modern psychiatry and neurology in Turkey and the first meetings on these areas date back to the mid-nineteenth century The first modern medical school in the Ottoman Empire called Tibhane-i Amire (The Military School of Medicine) was founded in 1827. Cerrahhane-i Amire (The Military School of Surgery) was established subsequently in 1832. These two schools were merged in 1838, and the new school was named as Mekteb-i Tibbiye-i Adiiye-i Sahane (The Imperial School of Medicine), where the French language was the medium of education (3,4,5). The number of students and instructors in the school increased in the following years, and the quality of the education improved considerably

By the mid-nineteenth century there were already many native and foreign physicians in Istanbul. Several physicians and surgeons came to Istanbul during the Crimean War (1853-1856) along with the British, French, and Italian armies who were the allies of Ottoman Empire. In 1856, a group of 40 foreign physicians established the first medical association of Turkey, Societe de Medecine de Constantinople (Cemiyet-i Tibbiye-i Sahane) (6,7). The association held regular conferences, and several articles with regard to different areas of medicine were published in its journal, Gazette Medicale d'Orient. One of the association's founders was an Italian physician/alienist, Luigi Mongeri (1815-1882). Mongeri, who was later called as 'Pinel of Istanbul' (8) or 'Pinel of the Turks' (9), was the pioneer of modern psychiatry in Turkey (10).

In 1856, Mongeri was appointed to Suleymaniye Bimarhanesi (Suleymaniye Asylum), the most significant and central asylum of Istanbul in the nineteenth century The first attempts to institutionalize psychiatry occurred in this asylum (11). As the head physician of the Suleymaniye Asylum and later the Toptasi Asylum, Mongeri referred to the first neuropsychiatric cases in his articles and presented the cases at the association meetings. Mongeri also prepared the first comprehensive regulation in 1876, namely the Regulation of Mental Asylums, which was adapted from the French Mental Health Law of 1838 (11,12).

Turkish neuropsychiatrists of the nineteenth century were evidently influenced by French neurology and psychiatry Mongeri and his assistant, Avram de Castro (1829-1918), who became the Head Physician of the Toptasi Asylum (13) after the death of Mongeri, followed and sent their articles to Annales Medico-Psychologiques (14). Ottoman physicians were sent to France in the second part of the nineteenth century for specialization in medicine. For instance, Hilmi Kadri (1866-1920) completed his education in neurology in Paris and studied with Jean-Martin Charcot. In the same years, Dervish Pasha (1859-1909), a physician at the Toptasi Asylum, began to translate Emmanuel Regis's book, Precis de la Psychiatrie, into Turkish.

Until the beginning of the twentieth century psychiatry and neurology were minimally included in the syllabi of School of Medicine in Ottoman Empire. Subjects of those areas were merely mentioned in the internal medicine courses, and an independent course was not added to the syllabus until 1896. Dr Rasid Tahsin (1870-1936), who studied with Emil Kraepelin (1856-1926) in Germany was the instructor of this first course on neuropsychiatry given at Mekteb-i Tibbiye-i Adliye-i Sahane (The Imperial School of Medicine) (15,16). Soon after this first course on neuropsychiatry Dervish Pasha began lecturing on psychiatry and neurology at Mekteb-i Tibbiye-i Mulkiye (The Civilian Medical School). Finally Rasid Tahsin trained the first Turkish assistants in neuropsychiatry in the beginning of the twentieth century However, the number of psychiatry and neurology specialists in Turkey at the beginning of the twentieth century was a mere handful. (11).

Discussions and publications regarding neuropsychiatry appeared only after the proclamation of the Second Ottoman Constitution in 1908 (11,15). One reason for this delay was Sultan Abdulhamid II (1842-1918). Sultan succeeded Murad V (1840-1904) who was dethroned on the grounds that he was mentally ill. One of the physicians who authorized Sultan's mental illness report and consequently enabled the Sultan's dethronement was Luigi Mongeri (10). Sultan Murad was coerced into staying at Ciragan Palace with his family However after a while there-were rumors that Sultan Murad recovered from his mental illness.

Abdulhamid II therefore began to fear that Sultan Murad would recover from his mental illness (11). Mazhar Osman Uzman (1884-1951) referred to Sultan Abdulhamid's concerns on Murad's mental health in his book (17): The mental aberration of Sultan Murad became a nightmare and an "idee obsedante" for Sultan Abdulhamid. He suspected every term or sentence that could remind him of Sultan Murad... One was not able to say that the insane got better or recovered from their illness simply because the mere mention of such an occurrence could lead Sultan Abdulhamid to think that Sultan Murad recovered from his illness as we11. Naturally, one could easily guess the circumstances of the asylum in such an environment.

Mazhar Osman also added that terms, such as "lunatic," "insane," "asylum," and "frenzy' were forbidden in Sultan Abdulhamid's era (1876-1908). Therefore, Mazhar Osman published his book Tababet-i Ruhiye (Psychiatry) shortly after the proclamation of the Second Ottoman Constitution in 1908, which led to the dethronement of Sultan Abdulhamid (17).

During the Second Constitutional Era, new books, particularly on psychiatry, were published and various writings on neuropsychiatry appeared in newspapers and journals. Several significant reforms were also implemented in Toptasi Asylum. A new administration was appointed to oversee the management of asylum, the infrastructure was renewed, and patient care was improved to a great extent (11,18). The number of neuropsychiatrists was a still a handful; however, they would discuss the recent developments in the field and talk about the steps that the Ottoman Empire had to take. Some of these neuropsychiatrists also wrote down their thoughts on these issues. In an article that was published in 1909, Mazhar Osman pointed out the potential benefits of an Emraz-i Akliye ve Asabiye Cemiyeti (Society for Mental and Neurological Diseases), which would meet every 2 months to discuss the relevant issues. Mazhar Osman referred to the efforts of Avni Mahmud, Hacik Bogosyan, and Yorgo Zilanaki on neuropsychiatry (19). After 1908, certain psychiatrists considered establishing an association that would be called Tababet-i Akliye (Psychiatry); however their vision did not materialize since there was only a handful of "neuropsychiatrists" at the time.

FOUNDATION OF THE SOCIETY OF PSYCHIATRY AND NEUROLOGY

In October 1914, Avni Mahmud (1860-1921) Head Physician of Toptasi Asylum, called a meeting to discuss his idea of founding a new neuropsychiatric society with his colleagues. The meeting was held at Toptasi Asylum on October 16, 1914 (Figure 1) with the participation of the below-stated twelve physicians from various institutions in Istanbul (20):

Rasit Tahsin Bey (Professor of Psychiatry and Neurology at School of Medicine), Mazhar Osman Bey (Head Physician of Haseki Clinic and Psychiatrist at Haydarpasa Hospital), Vasfi Bey (Assistant Professor of Forensic Medicine at School of Medicine), Galip Ata Bey (Neurologist at Haseki Women Hospital), Zilinakis Bey (psychiatrist at Greek Hospital for Mental and Neurological Diseases), Avni Bey (Head Physician of Toptasi Mental Asylum), Ali Muhlis Bey (Psychiatrist at Toptasi Mental Asylum), Niyazi Bey (Physician at Toptasi Mental Asylum), Lutfi Bey (Physician at Toptasi Mental Asylum), Tahir Bey (Physician at Toptasi Mental Asylum), and Suayip Bey (Psychiatrist and Head Physician at Gumussuyu Hospital)

It was Avni Mahmud, the head physician of Toptasi Asylum, who presented the opening speech of the meeting. He highlighted the fact that in almost every European country there were numerous societies established in different branches of medicine. Mahmud observed that the members of these societies made significant contributions to medicine through active engagement in the activities and works of these societies. Mahmud also firmly stated that he and his colleagues were of the opinion that the founding of a society that was similar to the ones in Europe was an urgent need for Turkey. He argued that specialists from both psychiatry and neurology fields should participate in this society Mahmud believed that the connection between psychiatry and neurology was a very strong one and he considered these areas as "two branches of the same tree." (20). Discussions with regard to the process of founding this society and giving it a proper name ensued the opening speech of Avni Mahmud.

The members reached a consensus that the psychiatry and neurology specialists should participate in the society together, and the name of the society should include both psychiatry and neurology Rasid Tahsin also made a speech in the conference stating his support to the ideas purported by Avni Mahmud. Like Mahmud, Rasid Tahsin also emphasized the close connection between the two areas by arguing that the fields of psychiatry and neurology are like twins (20). After extensive discussions with regard to the name of the society, the members finalized on including the term "psychiatry" and not "psychology".. They believed that the term akiiye (mental illnesses) represented psychiatry more properly than ruhiye (psychological, related to the soul), and it was thought that this term would be more comprehensible to the common people. During these discussions, Rasid Tahsin argued that the Turkish equivalents of these terms were actually used quite prevalently in the recent years; he thereby suggested that it would have been better if they had named the society as Akii ve Sinir Hastaiikiari Cemiyeti (Society for Mental and Neurological Diseases) (20). Consequently, Tababeti Akiiye ve Asabiye Cemiyeti (Society of Psychiatry and Neurology) was the chosen name. The interim regulation of the society was discussed in the next meeting with the presence of all the members. In this first meeting, Avni Mahmud was chosen as the president of the society (as the founding chairperson). Rasid Tahsin became the vice president, while Ali Muhlis was assigned to the position of the secretary general.

Nine members attended the second meeting, which was held on 20 November 1914. Under the chair of Ali Muhlis, the interim regulations and the potential members of the society were discussed. The Ottoman Empire had already entered the World War I at that time. Tababet-i Akiiye ve Asabiye Cemiyeti was not able to hold another meeting until the end of war since the Committee of Union and Progress (CUP) government banned meetings of any organization, association, or society Although the name and the regulation of the society were discussed in the two meetings that were held in 1914, the society was officially founded in 1918.

The Society of Psychiatry and Neurology during World War I

The society was not able to conduct official meetings during wartime; however, the neuropsychiatrists managed to convene in various platforms. One of the hospitals that the Ottoman State confiscated during the war was the French La Paix Mentai Hospital in Sisli. Mazhar Osman, who was appointed as the head physician to La Paix, held monthly scientific meetings between the years 1916 and 1918. These meetings were referred to as "Sisli musamereleri (Sisli Meetings)," and the cases presented in those meetings were published in the journal Sisli Muessesesinde Emraz-i Akiiye ve Asabiye Musamereieri (The Meetings of Mental and Neurological Diseases at Sisli/La Paix). This journal was the very first journal on neurology and psychiatry in Turkey (21).

Tababet-i Akiiye ve Asabiye Cemiyeti held a meeting with the participation of fourteen people on 18 May 1918, after 4 years of inactivity. The meeting was led by Mazhar Osman, and Rasid Tahsin, the former's teacher, made a speech praising him (22). The charter of the society was also discussed, and a formal application was submitted to Ministry of Interior for the foundation of the society. The society was then formally established under the name of Osmanli Tababet- i Akiiye ve Asabiye Cemiyeti (Ottoman Society of Psychiatry and Neurology) within the same year The society was named Turk Tababet-i Akiiye ve Asabiye Cemiyeti (Turkish Society of Psychiatry and Neurology) after the foundation of Republic of Turkey. In the following years, the society finally received the name of Turk Noropsikiyatri Dernegi (Turkish Neuropsychiatric Society).

The fourth meeting of the society in June 1918 witnessed certain conflicts and disagreements among the members. Rasid Tahsin, who praised Mazhar Osman's chairmanship in the previous meeting, now opposed his leadership and demanded that Avni Mahmud should lead the meetings instead. Subsequent to the rejection of his proposal on the subject by the members, he left the meeting and stopped attending the meetings (23). This episode was concluded with the establishment of a new society under the name of Tababet-i Ruhiye Cemiyeti (Society of Psychiatry) by Rasid Tahsin and his companions. This new society was short-lived; it remained active until 1926 and organized scientific meetings on various subjects during that period (24,7).

In the final draft of Tababet-i Akiiye ve Asabiye Cemiyeti's constitution, the aim of the society was declared as "supporting the development of psychiatry and neurology fields in Turkey" To achieve this aim, the activities of the society were defined as follows (25):

1- Having reguiar meetings with the members and hoiding discussions on neuroiogy and psychiatry through scientific deciarations and case presentations.

2- Increasing the number of pubiications and works in these fieids and issuing a journai about the Society's activities, works, and agenda.

3- Hoiding a conference in Turkey or attending the conferences in Europe to represent Ottoman Medicai Speciaiist

One could say that Turkish Neuropsychiatric Society has largely succeeded in achieving those objectives over the past century. There were, without doubt, certain problems and conflicts within the society from time to time; however the society was able to hold monthly meetings on a regular basis, publish journals, and organize various conferences and meetings on different subjects from its founding date onward. According to the charter of the society, the regular meetings were held at 2:00 PM on the last Friday of the every month. The first meeting day of the society was the last Friday of October (25).

First Scientific Meetings and Conferences

Osmanli Tababet-i Akiiye ve Asabiye Cemiyeti has held monthly scientific meetings since 1918 October and organized conferences since 1919 October Mazhar Osman, the chairperson of the society at the time, started publishing a journal in 1919. This journal titled Istanbul Seririyati (Istanbul Clinics) was regularly published from 1919 until Mazhar Osman's death in 1951. It functioned as the unofficial journal of Turkish Neuropsychiatric Society. The activities and news regarding the society were extensively included in the journal.

In his introductory piece within the third issue of Istanbul Seririyati, Mazhar Osman expressed his excitement about the first scientific meeting of the society He defined the meeting as part of a historic day and explained the significance of the meetings to his readers in the following manner (26):

By the help of these meetings, we will now be able to monitor the progress of our Society closely. We will, as a Society, gather information about scientific trends. One will work for all, and all will work for one. Our professional companionship will become stronger.

After this particular meeting, the society held meetings on a regular basis. The founding date of the Turkish Neuropsychiatric Society October 16, 1914, was accepted as a milestone and thereby the society began to hold meetings on that very day in the following years as well. The first anniversary activity of the society was in October 1919 (Figure 2).

The first congress organized by the society was held in 1919 at Toptasi Asylum. Avni Mahmud, the head physician of the asylum, became the honorary chairperson of the congress, and Mazhar Osman became the chairperson. In the opening speech of the congress, Avni Mahmud stated the history of the asylums in Istanbul and summarized the developments that were witnessed during his period. Subsequently, Mazhar Osman, the chairman of both congress and the society, praised the works conducted by Avni Mahmud and gave a brief summary with regard to the evolution of the society over the years. Mazhar Osman also talked about the inter-war period and war casualties, and described the actions that would be taken in the future (27).

The second congress of the society was also held at Toptasi Asylum in 1920. More participants attended the congress, and Mazhar Osman, the head physician of the asylum and his young assistants, presented papers there. More people attended this second congress. In his opening speech, Mazhar Osman talked at length about the works and innovations during his period and criticized the period of Avni Mahmud, the former head physician of the asylum (28).

These congresses were organized on a yearly basis in each October until 1925. One of the congresses was held at Gumussuyu Hospital, while the other one at Toptasi Asylum. Many neuropsychiatrists attended the first National Medicine Congress that was organized in Ankara in 1925 (29). The society decided not to hold a separate congress in 1925 and the National Medicine Congress along with a separate congress for Neuropsychiatry were held biennially after this date (30).

In addition to these congresses, the society held monthly meetings on a regular basis at various hospitals by establishing a rotation system. Toptasi Asylum closed down in 1927 and relocated to Bakirkoy where the following meetings were to be held (Figure 3). In 1934, for the twentieth anniversary of the society approximately 100 people attended the conference at Bakirkoy Mental Hospital. The members of the society included psychiatrists and neurologists at this period; however by the beginning of 1930s neurosurgeons were also actively participating in the conferences and presenting their papers in Istanbul Seririyati.

Almost every psychiatrist and neurologist in Turkey was the member of the society in those years, and he/she actively attended the meetings and conferences. Most of the Turkish neuropsychiatrists were supporters of biological psychiatry Issues, such as mental hygiene, eugenics, public hygiene, and neurosyphilis and its treatment were at the top of the society's agenda, especially in 1930s. Some titles from the articles presented and published by the neuropsychiatrists at the national Medicine Congresses (Figure 4) were as follows: 'Fever treatment for Neurosyphilis', 'Alcohol and syphilis' (National Medicine Congress in 1929), 'Suicides in Turkey', 'Malaria treatment for general paralysis' (1931), 'Epidemics of Encephalitis', 'Fever treatment for general paralysis', 'Hot springs of Havza and Hilaz', 'General paralysis and fever treatment at Psychiatric Clinic of Gulhane' (1933), 'The Significance of biology from the perspective of diagnosis and treatment in psychiatry,' 'The new neurological diseases caused by neurotropic viruses', 'Research on pathogenesis of epilepsy' (1938), 'The effects of irgapyrin in painful syndromes', 'General views on eugenic discussion', 'The case of deformative spondylitis under the treatment of ACTH' (1952).

Turkish neuropsychiatry was largely influenced by German neuropsychiatry during 1920s and 1930s. Mazhar Osman's students Fahreddin Kerim Gokay Ihsan Sukru Aksel, and Ahmed Sukru Emed studied in Germany for a couple of years similar to Mazhar Osman. Emil Kraepelin and his institute was a model for Turkish neuropsychiatrists during this period. The Turkish Neuropsychiatric Society awarded Emil Kraepelin with an honorary membership

Restarting the Congresses and New Publications

Turkish Neuropsychiatric Society contributed to the foundation of the World Psychiatric Association in 1950 (Figure 5). After the death of Mazhar Osman Uzman in 1951, Professor ihsan Sukru Aksel (1899-1987) became the president of the society and remained in position until 1973. Following the death of Mazhar Osman, the journal Istanbui Seririyati also ended its publications. A new journal, Acta-Neuropsychiatrica, became the scientific publication organ of the society. Research and studies on neurology and psychiatry were featured in the journal, which was published until 1960.

Similar to the previously held meetings, the National Neuropsychiatry Congress was organized in 1952 under the chair of ihsan Sukru Aksel. After the third National Neuropsychiatry Congress in 1958, no other congress was organized until 1964. Congresses were again organized regularly after 1964 (35). The president of the society Professor Aksel was included in the list of "the 147" (147'ler)- academics who were removed from Turkish universities after the May 27, 1960, military coup d'etat in Turkey The activities of the society temporarily came to a halt as a direct consequence of the banishment. However Aksel was reinstated to his position in the university in 1963, and the society resumed its activities (36,37).

Turkish Neuropsychiatric Society decided to reorganize National Neuropsychiatry Congresses in 1964. As part of this decision, Turkish Neuropsychiatry Organization and Turkiye Akil Hifzissihasi Dernegi (Mental Hygiene Society of Turkey) jointly organized a congress on September 23-25, 1964. The congress was titled as the Cooperated Scientific Congress, and it has been organized annually until now (35). In this first congress, subjects that are still relevant today were discussed including: 'Sexual Disorders and Sexual Education', 'The Results of the Mental Health Survey in Turkey', 'Classification in Psychiatry and Neurology', 'The Influence of Social Environment on Child Development', 'About the Turkey Mental Health Plan', 'Electrolytes in Neuropsychiatry', and 'New Developments in Neuropsychiatry' (38).

With this congress, a new journal named Noropsikiyatri Arsivi (Archives of Neuropsychiatry) was developed. In its first issue, the journal published the transcripts of the symposium texts and the presentations that were made in the congress (Figure 6). The journal experienced some difficulties in finding articles to publish in its early years; however, it was able to carry out its activities.

Turkish Neuropsychiatric Society organized national congresses every year (except 1965) on a regular basis following 1966. Other societies also contributed to the organization of the first three congresses; however, the rest of the congresses were organized by the society The name of the congress was frequently modified in the following years: National Neuropsychiatry Congress (1969-1971), The National Congress of Psychiatry and Neurological Sciences (1972-1982; 1985-1990; and 1992), Neurological Sciences and Psychiatry Congress (1983 and 1984), The National Congress of Psychiatric Sciences (1991), and National Psychiatry Congress (1993-2015) (39) (Figure 7).

One of the significant activities performed by Turkish Neuropsychiatric Society during this period was the international symposium that was held on May 6-8, 1970. With the cooperation of World Psychiatric Association, the congress organized under the name of International Regional Symposium, was held in Istanbul (35). Professor Aksel's presidency has been followed by the below mentioned individuals since 1973: Burhanettin Noyan, Selim Ozaydin, Engin Eker Ozcan Koknel, Rajit Tukel, Peykan Gokalp, Mustafa Sercan, and Betul Yalgner

Participants from the fields of psychiatry neurology, neosurgery, and psychology convened at the congresses that were organized under the name of 'Congress of Psychiatry and Neurological Sciences' until the twenty-third Congress that was held by Bakirkoy Psychiatric and Neurological Hospital in 1987. However certain conflicts arose at the twenty-fourth congress (40, 41). A great number of people attended the Congress and the program was conducted for an extremely long duration. It was thereby decided that the disciplines of neurology, neurosurgery, and psychiatry should organize their own congresses.

The number of physicians in the fields of psychiatry, neurology and neurosurgery showed an increase in the 1980s along with the number of departments that these specialty branches had in the universities and hospitals. Thus, each specialty embarked on a quest to establish its independent society. Turkish Neurosurgical Society was founded in 1985 and its first congress was held in 1987. Neurologists organized a separate Neurology Congress for the first time in 1988, and it was referred to as the First Neurology Congress. The fifth National Neurology Congress was held in 1992 and Neurology Society, which was organized in the name of Turkish Neurological Society later in 1994, was founded in that year The psychiatrists and neurologists began to organize their national congresses, namely National Psychiatry Congress and National Neurology Congress, in 1993 (39, 40). The congress in 1964 was accepted as the first congress both by neurologists and psychiatrists; the numbering of the congresses has continued in this manner to date. The fiftieth National Psychiatry and Neurology congresses were held in 2014.

The Foundation of the Psychiatric Association of Turkey

The number of neurology and psychiatry specialists showed a considerable increase during 1980s. Young specialists and residents in psychiatry demanded improvements in psychiatry training and asked for the establishment of a new professional association. For this purpose, the Society of Psychiatry Residents and Specialists (SPRS) (Psikiyatri Asistanlari ve Uzmanlari Dernegi, PAUD) was founded in 1989. The idea of a professional association focusing on the area of psychiatry was expressed frequently during 1990s (42,43,44,45,46). Meetings were organized to discuss the possibility of establishing a new association with the participation of the members from the following executive committees: Turkish Society for Mental and Neurological Health, Turkish Neuropsychiatric Society, Izmir Psychiatric Society, and Society of Psychiatry Residents and Specialists. These meetings led to the official foundation of the Psychiatric Association of Turkey in 1995. Turkish Neuropsychiatric Society also participated actively in this process.

Turkish Neuropsychiatric Society's future and its activities were also discussed during the establishment of the Psychiatric Association of Turkey. The society proceeded to another stage after 1995. In addition to international conferences, the journal of the society Noropsikiyatri Arsivi was also restructured in the beginning of 2000s; as a result of these changes, the journal made a quick entry to the international indices. In the last decade, the society came up with traditions for meetings, such as 'Neuropsychiatric Days' and 'Cases in Limbo.' Neuropsychiatric Days is organized annually and its ninth meeting was planned for the autumn of 2016. Cases in Limbo is organized three times a year Cases that present difficulties in terms of treatment and diagnosis in the intersection of neurology and psychiatry are presented and examined during these meetings.

CONCLUSION

For the past century Turkish Neuropsychiatric Society has organized various conferences and activities and published scientific journals and publications on neuropsychiatry Toptasi (1914-1925), Bakirkoy (1925-1955), and Capa (Psychiatry Clinic of Istanbul Medicine Faculty of Istanbul University) became the centers for the activities of the society. Psychiatrists and neurologists attended the society's conferences together in the early years. In the following years, neurosurgeons also began to attend the society's meetings. In the course of time, the society largely included psychiatrists and its activities dwelt mainly on psychiatric issues. Nonetheless, by the beginning of 1970s, psychologists and neuropsychologists also began to participate the meetings of the society. Neurology and neuropsychiatry have been closely linked again in the recent years. Since neuropsychiatry is one of the primary issues of the agenda, the Turkish Neuropsychiatric Society has also addressed these issues by organizing multidisciplinary activities. In the centennial symposium of the society, the discussions on the shared experiences of neurology and psychiatry their point of intersection, the implementation of cases, and the future of neuropsychiatry were carried out.

Peer-review: Externally peer-reviewed.

Acknowledgements: The authors thank Dr. Dennis Kinney for language editing and Fatih Artvinli acknowledges the support of Fogarty International Center / National Institutes of Health grant (5R25TW009248; KM Munir, PI) at the Boston Children's Hospital, Division of Developmental Medicine, Harvard Medical School.

Conflict of Interest: No conflict of interest was declared by the authors.

Financial Disclosure: The authors declared that this study has received no financial support.

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Fatih ARTVINLI (1), Sahap ERKOC (2), Fulya KARDES (3)

(1) Department of History of Medicine and Ethics, Acibadem Mehmet Ali Aydinlar University School of Medicine, Istanbul, Turkey

(2) Department of Psychiatry, Bakirkoy Training and Research Hospital for Psychiatry, Neurology and Neurosurgery, Istanbul, Turkey

(3) Former Museum Coordinator Bakirkoy Mental Hospital Museum, Istanbul, Turkey

Correspondence Address: Fatih Artvinli, Acibadem Mehmet Ali Aydinlar Universitesi Tip Fakultesi, Tip Tarihi ve Etik Anabilim Dali, Istanbul, Turkiye E-mail: fatihartvinli@gmail.com

Author Contributions: Concept - F.A., S.E.; Design - F.A., F.K.; Supervision - F.K.; Resource - F.A.; Materials - S.E., F.A., F.K.; Data Collection and/or Processing - F.A., S.E., F.K.; Analysis and/or Interpretation - F.A., S.E., F.K.; Literature Search - F.A., S.E., F.K.; Writing - F.A.; Critical Reviews - S.E.

Cite this article as: Artvinli F, Erkoc S, Kardes. F, Two Branches of the Same Tree: A Brief History of Turkish Neuropsychiatric Society (1914-2016). Arch Neuropsychiatry 2017; 54:364-371.

Received: 29.03.2016 Accepted: 22.07.2016 Available Online Date: 25.04.2017

DOI: 10.5152/npa.2017.17046
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Author:Artvinli, Fatih; Erkoc, Sahap; Kardes, Fulya
Publication:Archives of Neuropsychiatry
Article Type:Report
Geographic Code:7TURK
Date:Dec 1, 2017
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