Turkmenistan - E&P Basins.
The Kara-Kum desert is bounded by oases watered by Amu-Darya River in the north and the Murgap, Tejen, Atrek rivers descending from the Kopetdag Gershi and other mountains in the south. The central and western regions have no significant natural water-ways. The Kara-Kum Canal brings water from Amu-Darya westwards to the Mary Oasis and on to Ashgabat. Years of intensive cotton agriculture based on irrigated waters from the Kara-Kum Canal have resulted in a gradual desiccation of agricultural lands and have contributed to a precipitous decline in the level of the Aral Sea.
Water cycles have affected north-western Turkmenistan's lagoon-like appendage of the Caspian Sea, Garabogazkol Aylagy. The latter became fully enclosed because of a drop in the volume of the sea, but is rising again as the Caspian returns to previous levels.
Turkmenistan's administrative sub-divisions include regions, districts, and cities. Ashgabat (population 770,000), is the capital. Other large cities include Chardzhou (195,000), Tashauz (140,000), Mary (115,000), and Nebit-Dag (105,000). The country's population of 5.372m is 73% Turkmen. Russians account for 6.7%, Uzbeks 9%, Kazakhs 2% and others 6%. The population, 45% urban and 55% rural, is one of the most ethnically homogeneous in Central Asia, although the country's Uzbek community has twice un-successfully sought to secede. The Russians in Turkmenistan have dual citizenship. Turkmen, spoken by 75% of the population, is the official language. About 38% of Turkmen are also Russian speakers. The Turkmen are predominantly Sunni Muslim.
Foreign investment is limited to JVs and exploration & production-sharing agreements (EPSAs) with TurkmenNeft, the state-owned NOC, and has typically been concentrated on offshore oil projects in the Caspian Sea with a few small onshore fields by mid-sized IOCs (see omt13TurkmProd26Sep16 and gmt13TurkmProd26Sep16).