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Turkey - The Gas Producers.

There are seven gas-producing JVs with TPAO in Turkey. In addition to TPAO's own operations which account for 52% of the country's total output. The seven JVs are operated by the following firms:

The Thrace Basin consortium led by TPAO, accounting for 26% of total output.
Amity Oil, providing 7% of the total production.
Petrol Ofisi, providing 5%.
TransAtlantic (TEMI), providing 3%.
Tiway Turkey, providing 3%.
Petrogas, providing 2%.
Foinavon Energy (Toreador), providing 2%.

TPAO's Thrace-Gallipoli Gas Basin, a promising area offshore in the Marmara Sea, has been taken by TPAO for exploration and development with US help under a service contract. A major gas find made there in 1988, Marmara Kuzey, was put on stream in 1997. This was Turkey's first find of non-associated gas. The field's recoverable reserves in 1997 were put at 105-140 BCF, after two successful appraisal wells drilled in 1995. The gas output is linked by pipeline to the Turkish market in and around the Marmara region and some of the suburbs of Istanbul.

Marmara Kuzey lies at a depth of 1,262 metres, below 40 metres of water, and is about 2.5 km from the shore. It is 6 km south-west of Silivri town, near the small gas field of Silivri and 120 km west of Istanbul. TPAO's plan was that, after all the 140 BCM gas reserves at Marmara Kuzey had been produced, the field will be used as a storage facility similar to that of the depleted Degirmenkoy gas field in Thrace. Gas storage sites are being built in salt lakes near Ankara.

A search for other such fields on the Sea of Marmara was launched in 1996. TPAO in 1996 found two non-associated gas fields in that region: Silivri-2 and Yulafli-1. These were developed and put on stream but their production is small. TPAO's other producing fields include Hamitabat, Degirmenkoy, Karacali, Karacaoglan, Umurca, and the two Silivri wells. The quantities produced from these and many smaller fields are being purchased from TPAO by users in Thrace.

TPAO produces some non-associated gas from the onshore Camurlu field in the Batman region of southern Anatolia. A part of this is bought by the Mardin Cement Factory and Nusaybin Regional Boarding School, with some used in TPAO oilfields.

Amity Oil, a small Perth-based firm, in March 2002 had a gas find in its second appraisal in the Thrace Basin. Gocerler-3, drilled in Block 3589 to 1,405 metres, had what it called "excellent gas shows" in three Fms. Its first find through Gocerler-1 well in October 2000 tested 12.4 MCF/d of gas and some condensate from a Tertiary Danishmen Fm at 1,656 metres. Amity has since made several finds. It began production in early 2002 at 5 MCF/d. This was later raised to 12 MCF/d. Now it is producing about 30 MCF/d. Gocerler's output of 20 MCF/d ended in 2011 as the field was depleted. Amity gas is sold in the Thrace region. Amity and TPAO hold 50% in Blocks 3589 and 3648 where several fields have been developed.

Otto Energy of Australia in early 2010 announced with its partners, TransAtlantic Exploration Mediterranean Int'l (TEMI), and the Turkish firm Petraco, that first sales gas had been delivered to the Bota? grid. That completed the first phase of development of eight gas accumulations in the Edirne Licence in the Thrace Basin, Turkey's European part. The Edirne gas plant was commissioned weeks later with output of 11 MCF/d. Gas is sold via a dedicated sales arrangement to AKSA Dogalgaz Toptan Satis AS. Otto is not participating in the gas plant's ownership and pays a processing fee to the joint operators. In late 2010 Valeura Energy of Canada got a non-operating stake in the Otto-led JV from Edirne Enerji Petrol Arama Uretim Ve Ticaret Ltd, which is a 100%-owned Otto unit.

TPAO on Oct. 6, 2009, began drilling on the Bati Ayazli-1 exploration well in the South Akcakoca sub-basin in the Black Sea. Stratic Energy of Canada has 12.25% in this. Bati Ayazli-1 is west of the producing Ayazli gas field.

TransAtlantic operates four wells in the Edirne gas field in Thrace which in late 2009 began selling the gas. It is also exploring for non-conventional petroleum.

TPAO Gas Operations Background: Until the early 1990s, gas production in Turkey was negligible and mostly associated with oil output onshore. Nearly all the associated gas now is re-injected into the oilfields in EOR systems. But the remaining gas reserves in Turkey are depleting. Production will not last long unless big offshore gas reserves are found in the Black Sea, where ExxonMobil and Petrobras, as well as BP, now are exploring deep prospects in JV with TPAO.

The Energy Ministry's Natural Resources Department owns the associated gas lying in reservoirs operated by firms other than TPAO. These firms' use of associated gas for re-injection must be approved by the Department and TPAO.
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Publication:APS Review Gas Market Trends
Date:May 5, 2014
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