Turkey - The Coal Market.
At end-2012, Turkey had total recoverable coal reserves of 2.3bn short tons, according to BP's Statistical Review of World Energy 2013. Only 529m short tons (MMst), or about 23%, were "hard coal" (anthracite and bituminous). The remaining 1,814 MMst consist of lignite coal reserves. In 2012, Turkey produced 81 MMst of total coal and consumed 106 MMst.
About 40% of Turkey's lignite is located in the Afsin-Elbistan basin of south-eastern Anatolia, while hard coal is mined only in one location, the Zonguldak basin of north-western Turkey. Almost all of Turkey's coal imports are hard coal, which Turkey does not produce in sufficient quantities. Russia, Australia, and the US are the main suppliers of Turkey's hard coal.