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True (A) or false (B).

Post-caesarean section hematometra

1. A plausible mechanism of hematometra formation post caesarean section is the placement of haemostatic sutures to control bleeding associated with placenta previa, which causes uterine outlet obstruction.

Knowledge of emergency contraception (EC) among secondary school learners

2. A quoted 2015 study from South Korea demonstrated that ~88% of respondents at a university knew about EC.

3. A quoted 2013 study from Laos demonstrated that ~22% of respondents knew of EC.

4. The accepted prescribed limit for hormonal EC to be effective post unprotected intercourse is 48 hours.

5. The mechanism of action of levonorgestrel-containing EC is not conclusively known.

Thyroid disease in pregnancy

6. The prevalence of hyperthyroidism in pregnancy in developed nations is ~1 in 150 pregnancies.

7. Of all cases of hyperthyroidism reported in developed nations, ~25% are due to Graves' disease

Primary umbilical endometriosis (PUC)

8. PUC is defined as the finding of endometriosis at the umbilicus, without a previous history of surgery, and some definitions report the absence of pelvic disease.

Bereaved mothers' attitudes regarding autopsy of a stillbirth

9. A survey quoted a South African stillbirth rate of 26 per 1 000 deliveries.

10. The same survey quoted the neonatal death rate as being 52 per 1 000 deliveries.

11. In the study published here, 25% of respondents said that information from an autopsy might be beneficial to the management of a future pregnancy.

12. In the study published here, 72% of respondents reported a positive experience of information gained from an autopsy, including fewer feelings of self-blame and a feeling of relief.

Uterine artery embolisation (UAE)

13. A recent systematic review gave the estimated first-world annual total cost of fibroids per patient, from diagnosis or surgery, to be ~USD17 000-USD23 000.

14. The study published here showed an increase in complications of UAE in HIV-positive patients compared with HIV-negative patients.

15. Further intervention, mainly hysterectomy, was reported in the study published here in 10% following UAE, which is typical of the world literature.

Difficult implant removal

16. Implanon NXT provides contraception for 2 years.

17. Jadelle provides contraception for 5 years.

18. Concerns have been raised about the decreased efficacy of Implanon in the presence of enzyme-inducing antiretroviral medication.

Reduction of subacute uterine inversion

19. Correction of uterine inversion by placing a cupped hand in the vagina and applying upward pressure is known as the Johnson method.

20. Correction of uterine inversion at laparotomy, by cutting a posterior vertical incision in the uterus and releasing the constriction that prevents reduction, is known as the Haldane technique.

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Publication:South African Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology
Date:Dec 1, 2017
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