Tribal cross-talk as an effective way for ethnobotanical knowledge transfer--inference from Costus specious as a case study.
Costus speciosus (J. Koenig) Sm. (Family: Costaceae, English: Crepe ginger, Bengali: Keu) is a plant native to Southeast Asia and several islands of the Pacific. The plant is widely available in the Indian sub-continent, including Bangladesh, and is considered as an important medicinal plant in traditional medicinal systems. In Ayurveda, which dates back to possibly more than 5,000 years ago, the plant is known as kebuka, and is prescribed by Ayurvedic practitioners as astringent, purgative, depurative, anti-inflammatory, anthelmintic, and antifungal . Various indigenous communities of India, Nepal and Bangladesh, as well as folk medicinal practitioners and herbalists of these countries are known to use the plant for a variety of medicinal purposes including treatment of rheumatism, diabetes, fever, respiratory tract illnesses, gastrointestinal disorders, leprosy, infertility, pain, urinary disorders, helminthiasis, eye and ear infections, hepatic problems, and sexually transmitted diseases.
A high degree of consensus of use of any given plant by traditional medicinal practitioners for treatment of any specific ailment always suggests that the plant has a high probability of containing particular phytochemical components, which may prove scientifically useful in the treatment of the ailment. Allopathic medicine can gain a lot from traditional medicinal systems, for indigenous communities from centuries or even millennia long experiences in treatment with plants, has acquired extensive knowledge on medicinal properties of various plant species. In fact, a number of important allopathic drugs are the result of close observations of indigenous medicinal practices [4,22,30]. From this view point, any ethnomedicinal review of a given plant can point out the whole gamut of ailments treated by that plant among indigenous communities spread throughout the world, especially where the plant is cultivated or can be found in the wild. The consensus of opinion among the indigenous medicinal practitioners for treatment of a given disease with the plant can further serve as a pointer to the scientific community about possible research on the pharmacological and phytochemical research, that can be conducted with the plant towards a fruitful discovery of possibly newer and more efficacious drug from the plant to combat that given disease.
The objective of the present study was to conduct an ethnomedicinal review of Costus speciosus to determine which diseases against which the plant is used by indigenous communities throughout the world. It is expected that such a review can help the researcher in determining ways to conduct scientific research on the plant, and which research can have specific target diseases and pharmacological activities. This in turn can form the basis of isolation of bioactive components and lead compounds leading to discovery of possibly novel drugs against target diseases.
Any ethnomedicinal use of a plant can stem from either of two factors. The knowledge of the plant's medicinal value may have been acquired locally, i.e. discovered independently by the medicinal practitioners of a given indigenous community. Alternately, the medicinal property of the plant and its use against specific ailments may have been acquired through interactions with other indigenous communities, who already possessed that knowledge. The latter again can be achieved through either of two ways. In the first possible way, the knowledge may have come from an adjoining or far off ethnic group through various modes of interaction, which may include discussions, social interactions, trade, or even achieving direct control by one community over another through warfare. The second possible way is tribal migration, where any indigenous community has migrated to a new region and has acquired the knowledge either independently in their new surroundings, or has obtained the knowledge from any adjoining community through any of the means discussed above. Thus, ethnomedicinal reviews covering ethnomedicinal uses of any given plant species can also be of use to anthropologists as well as the other way around; anthropological data of a tribe's migration and settling in new lands can help the ethnomedicinal researcher in determining how a given plant has come to be used in a particular mode by an indigenous community.
Materials and Methods
A total of 83 ethnomedicinal reports on the uses of Costus speciosus throughout different regions of the world were collected from various data bases and scientific journal reports. Only published papers were taken into account; any unpublished anecdotal reports were not included in the present review. Particular attention was paid to the Indian subcontinent and to the countries of India, Nepal, and Bangladesh, because the sheer number of available scientific reports suggested that the plant is mostly used by indigenous societies or folk medicinal practitioners of these three countries.
Results and Discussion
The summarized data from the available reports on ethnomedicinal uses of the plant is presented in Table 1. Several factors emerge from the reports. The plant, reportedly, has a wide range of ethnomedicinal uses. Moreover, a number of the ethnomedicinal uses reported of the plant has high consensus value, i.e. that particular use has been reported from multiple indigenous or ethnic communities. For instance, the use of the plant against leucorrhea and urinary trouble has been reported from remote areas of Madhya Pradesh, India; folk medicinal practitioners of Natore and Rajshahi districts, Bangladesh; Chakma and Tonchongya tribes of Chittagong Hill Tracts Region, Bangladesh; folk medicinal practitioners of Naogaon district, Bangladesh; tribal communities of Kamrup district in Assam, India; people of Almora district, Uttarakhand, India; and Bhilala tribals in Buldhana district, Maharashtra State, India. It is interesting that although the plant has not been scientific reported for any pharmacological activity against leucorrhea or urinary tract infections (which may cause leucorrhea), aqueous and alcoholic extracts of rhizomes of the plant have been shown to exert diuretic activity in Wistar rats . This may explain the use of the plant by Assamese and Bodo communities of Gohpur, Sonitpur District, Assam, India, against strangury.
The use of the plant against diabetes is greater considering the number of ethnic communities involved. Ethnomedicinal uses of the plant against diabetes has been reported for Naogaon district, Bangladesh; Jessore district, Bangladesh; Sikkim and Darjeeling Himalayan tribes of India including Nepalese healers (Jhankris, Bijuwas, Fedangwas), Lepcha healers (Bonthings, Mon-Bonthings), and Lamas (Bhutia priest); villagers in Nalbari district, Assam, India; Paliyar tribes in Madurai district of Tamil Nadu, India; local herbal practitioners of Darjeeling district of Eastern Himalaya in India; ethnic people of Semi-Malnad area of Hassan district, Karnataka, India (Kuruba, Jenu kuruba, Bettakuruba, Kadukuruba, Mullukuruba, Urali kuruba, Lambani, Hakkibikki, Kurumba); local aboriginal people of Velliangiri Hills in the Southern Western Ghats of Tamil Nadu, India (Malasars); and tribal people of Golaghat district, Assam, India. The antihyperglycemic and hypolipidemic effects of the plant have been reported in alloxan-induced diabetic rats . The normalizing effects of crude extracts of Costus speciosus have been reported in diabetic complications in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats . The plant reportedly contains eremanthin, which reportedly may be responsible for the observed antidiabetic and antilipidemic effects . The plant reportedly contains another constituent, costunolide, which may also contribute to the normoglycemic and hypolipidemic effects in STZ-diabetic rats .
An ethnomedicinal point of interest is how a particular ethnic group learned the use of a particular plant against a particular ailment. Such learning can be either original or acquired. Discussions on this point may be to a large extent speculative (in the absence of proper historical data of the origins, migrations, and communications of a particular ethnic group with other ethnic groups); even then, such speculations may still prove valuable in opening up new avenues for researches. This discussion shall consider possible ways of how several similar ethnomedicinal uses of Costus speciosus regarding various ailments could have occurred between diverse ethnic groups of the Indian sub-continent.
Regarding ethnic uses of the plant against diabetes, the Paliyar tribe belongs to the Proto-Australoid group of tribal people, and inhabits a narrow strip of Western Ghats in the districts of Madurai, Dindigul, Theni, Tirunelveli, and Virudhunagar in Tamil Nadu State, India . They probably are one of the original peoples of the region. The Malasars are also considered as one of the original settlers and can be found in Coimbatore district in Tamil Nadu State of India . Since the habitats of the two tribes are in the same State, and since they have possibly inhabited this region for millennia, there is a possibility that the similar use of Costus speciosus for treatment of diabetes can be a result of interaction between the two tribes. Although the possibility of independent discovery of antidiabetic potential of the plant by tribal practitioners of both tribes cannot be ignored, there is an equal or more probability that the tribal practitioner(s) of one tribe explored the antidiabetic potential of the plant, and which then got transmitted to the other. In fact, the Malasars have been described as exceptional healers and keepers of traditional aboriginal knowledge . Tamil Nadu and Karnataka are adjoining States in India (see Fig 1), and that is in agreement with published reports on ethnomedicinal use of the plant against diabetes among a number of ethnic communities like the Kurubas and the Lambanis of Karnataka State. Whether the knowledge of the antidiabetic potential of the plant was independently discovered by all tribal communities, or passed from ethnic groups in Karnataka to ethnic groups in Tamil Nadu or ethnic groups in Tamil Nadu to ethnic groups in Karnataka remains a question for anthropologists to determine. But it is possible that communications over land may have existed between tribal communities of the two States. It is also interesting to note that various Kuruba communities (Jenu Kuruba, Betta Kuruba, Kadu Kuruba) have been described as original inhabitants of Tamil Nadu, and who moved to other areas because of deforestation and urbanization . This raises the possibility of the Paliyars, Malasars, and the Kurubas being in a position to communicate with each other easily and through land routes, because they were the original inhabitants in the same region.
Both Tamil Nadu and Karnataka are in the southern most part of India. Although the similar ethnomedicinal antidiabetic use of the plant can be explained among the tribes of Tamil Nadu and Karnataka, this tribal inter-communication does not explain how the plant came to have similar ethnomedicinal antidiabetic use among ethnic and local communities of Bangladesh and the northeastern part of India, including Assam State and Darjeeling district of eastern Himalaya. It may be noted that these are adjoining regions. As a result, this similar ethnomedicinal use pattern can be explained on the basis of tribal inter-communication. But that does not explain the connection between southern India and northeastern Indian sub-continental regions, like Assam. One possible explanation can be that land-based intercommunication between southern and northeast India could have been established through migration of the Lambani tribe from Marwar region of north central India to Karnataka. But that would imply that a land connection had been present in ancient times between the Lambanis in north central India and ethnic groups in northeastern India, which would have been difficult considering the enormous distances, and difficult and possibly forested terrains present in ancient times in these intermediary regions between the two parts of India. However, the possibility of land communications cannot totally be ignored. The ancient Indian epic Mahabharata (circa 400 BCE), mentions that an Assamese king, King Bhagadatta (Pragjyotisha Empire) participated in a Great War (Kurukshetra War) with an army, which included "dwellers of the eastern sea", meaning inhabitants of present day Bangladesh. Also Assam tribes can be considered a 'mixed bag', i.e. settlers have come into present day Assam from east, west, and north.
If there had been no land communications between southern and northeastern Indian regions (including present day Bangladesh), and barring the possibility of independent discoveries, the similar ethnomedicinal use of Costus speciosus as an antidiabetic agent among these ethnic communities in far-off diverse regions could be explained through possible sea communications as depicted in Fig 1. It may be mentioned in this connection that the three great empires of Tamil Nadu in pre-historic and historic times, namely the Chera, Chola and the Pandya, had extensive maritime contacts with the Roman Empire. At the height of its rule, the Chola Empire straddled the Bay of Bengal, with the Chola navy having control over this Bay, and the Chola Empire had an area of more than a million square miles in land parts bordering the Bay of Bengal. As such, contacts could have been made with northeastern Indian regions through present day Bangladesh or the Arakan region of present day Myanmar via sea route through the Bay of Bengal. Although the actual existence of such communications, if any, needs to be unearthed by anthropologists and archaeologists, ethnomedicinal studies can provide a valuable means for corroboration of findings from other disciplines.
Rheumatoid arthritis and rheumatic pain are other ailments for which the plant has wide ethnomedicinal uses. Such uses have been reported for folk medicinal practitioners of Jessore and Dinajpur districts, Bangladesh; ethnic people of Kalahandi district of Orissa, India; Khasi tribe of Khasi Hills of Meghalaya, India; local tribal people of Eastern Ghats, India; Bhoxa tribe of Dehradun district, Uttarakhand, India; tribals of Madhya Pradesh and Chhattisgarh; Chutia, Deori, Ahoms, Sonowal-Kocharis, and tea-tribes of Mahmora Area, Sivasagar district, Assam, India; aborigines (Bhumijs, Birhores Kherias, Mundas, Oraons, Santals) of Purulia district, West Bengal, India; Baiga, Gond, Korku and other tribals of Balaghat district, Madhya Pradesh, India; and Korku, Gond, Bhil, Bhilala, Naik, Mankar, and Nihar tribals of East Nimar region, Madhya Pradesh, India. Antinociceptive activity of rhizomes of the plant has been reported , which may explain its use for alleviating rheumatic pain by various tribal groups. Both constituents reported from the plant, namely costunolide and eremanthin, has been shown to have antioxidant properties, which may be useful in inhibiting progression of rheumatoid arthritis and inflammation . Costunolide has been further shown to inhibit proinflammatory cytokines and iNOS in activated murine BV2 microglia . The anti-arthritic potential of methanolic extract of aerial parts of the plant has been reported .
Ethnomedicinal uses of Costus speciosus against rheumatoid arthritis and rheumatic pain covers areas spanning the central and northern regions (Madhya Pradesh, Chhattisgarh, Uttarakhand) of the Indian sub-continent along with eastern and northeastern regions of the sub-continent (Bangladesh, Orissa, West Bengal, Meghalaya, Assam). Unlike that of diabetes, in the case of rheumatoid arthritis, ethnomedicinal groups of these various regions can form a contiguous landmass, and so inter-tribal communications could have been achieved by land. This is shown in Fig 2. The Kalahandi district of Orissa alone has reportedly 62 ethnic communities, including scheduled tribes like the Bhunjas, Kandhas, Gands (Gonds), Banjaras (Kurubas), Sabars, Bhottadas and Dals . The Gonds can also be found in Chhattisgarh and Madhya Pradesh  and as such can form a linkage with other tribes in three States of India (Chhattisgarh, Madhya Pradesh, and Orissa). Notably, Orissa borders West Bengal, which in turn borders Bangladesh and the northeastern States, Meghalaya and Assam of India. The Gonds are also said to be present in Bangladesh in Sylhet region of the country, which adjoins Meghalaya State of India. In this discussion, we have selected Orissa as the possible point of origin of the ethnomedicinal use, because this State forms the center between the north central and northeastern States of India. This is speculative and may or may not be true that ethnomedicinal use of Costus speciosus against rheumatoid arthritis began with the Gonds of Orissa. This could have happened among any other tribes in any of the Indian States or Bangladesh, but since the Gonds are the most spread-out ethnic group of this region, the likelihood of the Gonds being the first ethnomedicinal users of the plant against rheumatoid arthritis may come out to be true. However, the Gonds are said to be more numerous in Madhya Pradesh, and so this particular ethnomedicinal use could have arisen with the Gonds of Madhya Pradesh.
The above account does not preclude the passage of ethnomedicinal information from Orissa to Bengal through sea route. Orissa had a flourishing maritime trade in ancient times and gold coins from the Roman Empire have been discovered at Tamralipti, the then most famous port of Orissa. In the recent past, Orissa was a part of Greater Bengal Empire comprising of undivided Bengal, Orissa, Bihar, and parts of Assam, and communication flourished between Orissa and Bengal both by land and sea. In fact, the ancient name of Orissa, i.e. Kalinga has been mentioned by a number of Greek, Roman, Arab, and Chinese sources regarding maritime trade .
The use of the plant against fever is more widespread and ranges across several countries in the southeastern part of Asia, including Bangladesh, India, Nepal, Thailand, and Malaysia. It may be noted that treatment of fever with this plant is practiced by several ethnic communities on humans, and others on cattle. Reported instances of use against fever in humans include use by folk medicinal practitioners of seven villages of Ishwardi Upazila, Pabna District, Bangladesh; Temuan tribe in Kampung Jeram Kedah, Negeri Sembilan, Malaysia; Khasi, Garo and Jaintia tribals of Meghalaya State, India; Magar tribe of Bukini, Baglung, Western Nepal; local people of Bilaspur, Chhattisgarh, India; aboriginal tribes (Nicobarese, Shompen, Jarawas, Sentinels, Ongese, Great Andamanese) of Bay Islands (Andaman and Nicobar islands), India; traditional healers of Darjeeling Himalayas, India; herbalists of Southern Thailand; local people (including tribals) of Sikkim State and adjoining Darjeeling Hill District of West Bengal, India; Mahadev, Koli and Thakar tribes of Western Ghats, India; and local people (Gond, Bhil, Baiga, Korku, Bhadia, Halba, Kaul, Mariya tribes) of Amarkantak Region, Madhya Pradesh, India. Ethnoveterinary uses include use by the Bhutias, Lepchas and Nepalese of Sikkim Himalayas, India, and Bhil tribe of Jhabua District, Madhya Pradesh, India, against cattle fever. The antipyretic effect of aerial parts of the plant has been reported . Antiinflammatory and antipyretic effect of ethanolic extract of rhizomes of the plant has also been demonstrated . Costunolide, isolated from Magnolia ovata, and which is also present in Costus speciosus, has been shown to have antipyretic properties .
The possible passage of information of the ethnomedicinal use of the plant as a febrifuge could have been both land- and sea-based. That the plant is used as a febrifuge in India, Bangladesh, Thailand, and Malaysia suggests either sea-based passage of ethnomedicinal information, or actual tribal migrations between the countries (the latter could be by land or by sea). The passage to or from Andaman and Nicobar islands could only have been achieved through sea route. On the other hand, Nepal being a land-locked country, the information could have been discovered there independently or arrived at Nepal (also could come out of Nepal) only through land. In the Indian sub-continent, the plant is used for treatment of fever in humans in Bangladesh, Nepal, and the Indian States of Meghalaya, Chhattisgarh, Darjeeling (West Bengal), Sikkim, and Madhya Pradesh. Notably, Madhya Pradesh and Chhattisgarh (two adjoining States in India) are separated from the Indian States of West Bengal, Sikkim and Meghalaya by the Indian States of Orissa, Jharkand, and Bihar. It remains an open question as to why this particular use of the plant was not reported from Orissa, like that of rheumatoid arthritis, for Orissa State borders Chhattisgarh State. Also to be noted is that Madhya Pradesh and Chhattisgarh States do not have access to sea. However, the plant is used as a febrifuge by tribes of Western Ghats (Mahadev, Koli, Thakar). The Thakar tribe belongs to the Nepali-Pahari group of people. This fact, along with the use of the plant in Nepal and Sikkim suggests that use of the plant as a febrifuge may have originated in the Himalayan regions (which would include Nepal, Sikkim, and Darjeeling district in West Bengal). Since the Thakar tribe are of Rajput descent and migrated to their present habitat in Maharashtra from possibly Rajasthan in India, they could have brought this ethnomedicinal information with them. In fact, tribal migration has been pointed out to be an important way for transfer of ethnomedicinal information. The Lepcha tribe (present habitat in Sikkim, India), before coming to their present habitat moved through and settled in various places like Thailand, Myanmar, Bhutan, and Assam (India) during their migration . As a result, during their course of migration, they could have enriched other tribes as well as gotten themselves enriched from other tribes regarding ethnomedicinal knowledge.
The use of Costus speciosus for various types of gastrointestinal disorders is also wide-spread. Folk medicinal practitioners of three villages of Natore and Rajshahi Districts, Bangladesh use the rhizomes of the plant as an appetizer (generally it means when a person has lost desire for eating). Tribal people of Sitamata wildlife sanctuary, Rajasthan, India use roots of the plant against diarrhea, dysentery, and stomach ache. Aboriginal tribes (Nicobarese, Shompen, Jarawas, Sentinels, Ongese, Great Andamanese) of Bay Islands (Andaman and Nicobar islands), India uses the rhizomes for stomach disorders, including diarrhea. Tribes of Upper Assam, India uses the plant against gastrointestinal diseases. Kannikar tribals of Kanyakumari district, Tamil Nadu, India uses the tubers against diarrhea. Munda tribe of West Dinajpur district, West Bengal, India uses the rhizome against diarrhea. Indigenous people of Manokwari, West Papua uses the stem against food poisoning and stomach ache. Folk medicinal practitioners of three villages of Jessore District, Bangladesh use leaves of the plant against acidity and resultant stomach ache. Folklore herbalists and Tripuri tribal practitioners of south and west districts of Tripura State, India use rhizomes against dyspepsia. Aqueous extract of rhizomes of the plant has been found to inhibit Staphylococcus aureus , a bacterium that can colonize the intestine, and has been linked to certain gastrointestinal diseases, including food poisoning .
The ethnomedicinal use against gastrointestinal disorders within the Indian sub-continent is practically limited to the southern portion (Tamil Nadu) and the eastern regions (Bangladesh and the Indian States of Tripura, West Bengal, and Assam, all the eastern regions adjoining each other). An exception is Rajasthan, which is at the northern part of India. Thus this ethnomedicinal information possibly followed a sea route, since the plant has similar ethnomedicinal uses in Andaman and Nicobar Islands as well as West Papua.
The use of Costus speciosus for treatment of jaundice and liver-related diseases is practically limited to India as per the various ethnomedicinal reports. The various ethnic communities or traditional practitioners utilizing the plant for this purpose include local herbal practitioners of Darjeeling District of Eastern Himalaya in India; tribal people of Golaghat District, Assam, India; local people (including tribals) of Sikkim State and adjoining Darjeeling Hill District of West Bengal, India; Mahadev Koli, Thakar, Ramoshi, Bhil tribes of Akole Tehasil of Ahmednagar District, Maharashtra State, India; local traditional healers of Arunachal Pradesh, India; Memba tribe of DehangDebang Biosphere Reserve of Arunachal Pradesh, India; tribals (Oraon, Bhrior, Agaria, Korwa, Nagesia, Baiga, Gondiya) of Raigarh (Chhattisgarh State), India; and tribal and non-tribal healers of Vellore district, Tamil Nadu, India. Again, it is difficult to envision how in the absence of any tribal migration or independent ethnomedicinal discoveries, similar ethomedicinal uses have been reported in the southern coastal states of Maharashtra and Tamil Nadu and the northeastern regions (Sikkim, Assam, West Bengal, Arunachal Pradesh) of India, unless by sea route. The exception is Chhatisgarh State, but that adjoins Maharashtra State, and so ethnomedicinal information could have been carried from Maharashtra to Chhattisgarh or the opposite through a land route. It may be reemphasized here that we are assuming that ethnomedicinal discovery was first made by one or more adjoining tribes and which later got transmitted to other ethnic groups in distant regions.
Consensus also exists on the use of the plant to treat helmintic infections. Use of the plant as an anthelmintic agent has been reported for folk medicinal practitioners of three villages of Natore and Rajshahi Districts, Bangladesh; folk medicinal practitioners of seven villages of Ishwardi Upazila, Pabna District, Bangladesh; tribal people of Sitamata wildlife sanctuary, Rajasthan, India; aboriginal tribes (Nicobarese, Shompen, Jarawas, Sentinels, Ongese, Great Andamanese) of Bay Islands (Andaman and Nicobar islands), India; Gond tribe of Adilabad district, Andhra Pradesh, India; and local people (including tribals) of Sikkim State and adjoining Darjeeling Hill District of West Bengal, India.
Overall, existing ethnomedicinal reports strongly point to the medicinal value of Costus speciosus and suggests that the plant can be more researched upon by scientists towards possible discovery of newer drugs against a variety of diseases. And although the discussion is very speculative considering the dearth of anthropological reports on the origins and interactions between indigenous communities of the Indian sub-continent, the review at least points out that valuable anthropological information can be gleaned from ethnomedicinal studies as well as the other way around. Such information is important for it can provide a clue as to how and why people throughout the centuries have chosen certain plants and not others for therapeutic purposes.
[1.] Acharyya, B.K. and H.K. Sharma, 2004. Folklore medicinal plants of Mahmora area, Sivasagar district, Assam. Indian Journal of Traditional Knowledge, 3: 365-372.
[2.] Ahmad, F.B. and G. Ismail, 2003. Medicinal plants used by Kadazandusun communities around Crocker Range. ASEAN Review of Biodiversity and Environmental Conservation (ARBEC), [http://www.arbec.com.my/pdf/art1janmar03.pdf, accessed October 19, 2012].
[3.] Ayyanar, M., K. Sankarasivaraman and S. Ignacimuthu, 2008. Traditional healing potential of Paliyars in Southern India. Ethnobotanical Leaflets, 12: 311-317.
[4.] Balick J.M. and P.A. Cox, 1996. Plants, People and Culture: the Science of Ethnobotany, Scientific American Library, New York, pp: 228.
[5.] Barukial, J. and J.N. Sarmah, 2011. Ethnomedicinal plants used by the people of Golaghat District, Assam, India. International Journal of Medicinal and Aromatic Plants, 1: 203-211.
[6.] Bavarva, J.H. and A.V.R.L. Narasimhacharya, 2008. Antihyperglycemic and hypolipidemic effects of Costus speciosus in alloxan induced diabetic rats. Phytotherapy Research, 22: 620-626.
[7.] Begum, D. and S.C. Nath, 2000. Ethnobotanical review of medicinal plants used for skin diseases and related problems in Northeastern India. Journal of Herbs, Spices and Medicinal Plants, 7: 55-93.
[8.] Bharat, K.P. and K.H. Badola, 2008. Ethnomedicinal plant use by Lepcha tribe of Dzongu valley, bordering Khangchendzonga Biosphere Reserve, in north Sikkim, India, Journal of Ethnobiology and Ethnomedicine, 4: 22.
[9.] Bharati, K.A. and B.L. Sharma, 2012. Plants used as ethnoveterinary medicines in Sikkim Himalayas. Ethnobotany Research and Applications, 10: 339-356.
[10.] Bhaskar, A. and L.R. Samant, 2012. Traditional medication of Pachamalai Hills, Tamilnadu, India. Global Journal of Pharmacology, 6: 47-51.
[11.] Bhattacharya, S. and U. Nagaich, 2010. Assessment of antinociceptive efficacy of Costus speciosus rhizome in Swiss albino mice. Journal of Advanced Pharmaceutical Technology & Research, 1: 34-40.
[12.] Binny, K., S. Kumar and D. Thomas, 2010. Antiinflammatory and antipyretic properties of the rhizome of Costus speciosus (Koen.) Sm. Journal of Basic and Clinical Pharmacy, 1: 177-181.
[13.] Biswas, A., M.A. Bari, M. Roy and S.K. Bhadra, 2010. Inherited folk pharmaceutical knowledge of tribal people in the Chittagong Hill tracts, Bangladesh. Indian Journal of Traditional Knowledge, 9: 77-89.
[14.] Borah, P.K., P. Gogoi, A.C. Phukan and J. Mahanta, 2006. Traditional medicine in the treatment of gastrointestinal diseases in Upper Assam. Indian Journal of Traditional Knowledge, 5: 510-512.
[15.] Chakraborty, M.K. and A. Bhattacharjee, 2006. Some common ethnomedicinal uses for various diseases in Purulia district, West Bengal. Indian Journal of Traditional Knowledge, 5: 554-558.
[16.] Chakravorty, S. and J.C. Kalita, 2012. An investigation on anti diabetic medicinal plants used by villagers in Nalbari district, Assam, India. International Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences and Research, 3: 1693-1697.
[17.] Chhetri, D.R., 2004. Medicinal plants used as antipyretic agents by the traditional healers of Darjeeling Himalayas. Indian Journal of Traditional Knowledge, 3: 271-275.
[18.] Chhetri, D.R., P. Parajuli and G.C. Subba, 2005. Antidiabetic plants used by Sikkim and Darjeeling Himalayan tribes, India. Journal of Ethnopharmacology, 99: 199-202.
[19.] Chuakul, W., P. Saralamp and A. Boonpleng, 2002. Medicinal plants used in the Kutchum district, Yasothon Province, Thailand. Thai Journal of Phytopharmacy, 9: 22-49.
[20.] Chuakul, W. and A. Boonplkeng, 2004. Survey on medicinal plants in Ubon Ratchathani Province (Thailand). Thai Journal of Phytopharmacy, 11: 33-54.
[21.] Chuakul, W., N. Soonthornchareonnon, T. Boonjaras and A. Boonpleng, 2004. Survey on medicinal plants in Southern Thailand. Thai Journal of Phytopharmacy, 11: 29-52.
[22.] Cotton, C.M., 1996. Ethnobotany: Principle and Application, John Wiley and Sons, New York, pp: 399.
[23.] Das, S., T.E. Sheeja and A.B. Mandal, 2006. Ethnomedicinal uses of certain plants from Bay Islands. Indian Journal of Traditional Knowledge, 5: 207-211.
[24.] Deka, J. and J.C. Kalita, 2013. Ethnobotanically important medicinal plants of Kamrup district, Assam, India, used in fertility treatment. International Research Journal of Pharmacy, 4: 229-232.
[25.] Eliza, J., P. Daisy, S. Ignacimuthu and V. Duraipandiyan, 2009a. Antidiabetic and antilipidemic effect of eremanthin from Costus speciosus (Koen.) Sm., in STZ-induced diabetic rats. Chemico-Biological Interactions, 182: 67-72.
[26.] Eliza, J., P. Daisy, S. Ignacimuthu and V. Duraipandiyan, 2009b. Normo-glycemic and hypolipidemic effect of costunolide isolated from Costus speciosus (Koen ex. Retz.)Sm. in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Chemico-Biological Interactions, 179: 329-334.
[27.] Eliza, J., P. Daisy and S. Ignacimuthu, 2010. Antioxidant activity of costunolide and eremanthin isolated from Costus speciosus (Koen ex. Retz) Sm. Chemico-Biological Interactions, 188: 467-472.
[28.] Eliza, J., M. Rajalakshmi, S.J. Ignacimuthu and P. Daisy, 2011. Normalizing effects of Costus speciosus rhizome crude extracts and its fractions on diabetic complications in STZ-induced diabetic rats. Medicinal Chemistry Research, 20: 1111-1118.
[29.] Esha, R.T., M.R. Chowdhury, S. Adhikary, K.Md.A. Haque, M. Acharjee, Nurunnabi, Md., Z. Khatun, Y.K. Lee and M. Rahmatullah, 2012. Medicinal plants used by traditional medicinal practitioners of three clans of the Chakma tribe residing in Rangamati District, Bangladesh. American Eurasian Journal of Sustainable Agriculture, 6: 74-84.
[30.] Gilani, A.H. and A.U. Rahman, 2005. Trends in ethnopharmacology. Journal of Ethnopharmacology, 100: 43-49.
[31.] Haque, Md.A., M.K. Shaha, S.U. Ahmed, R. Akter, H. Rahman, S. Chakravotry, A.H.M.N. Imran, Md.T. Islam, R.C. Das and M. Rahmatullah, 2011. Use of inorganic substances in folk medicinal formulations: a case study of a folk medicinal practitioner in Tangail District, Bangladesh. American Eurasian Journal of Sustainable Agriculture, 5: 415-423.
[32.] Hasan, M.M., Mst.E.A. Annay, M. Sintaha, H.N. Khaleque, F.A. Noor, A. Nahar, S. Seraj, R. Jahan, M.H. Chowdhury and M. Rahmatullah, 2010. A survey of medicinal plant usage by folk medicinal practitioners in seven villages of Ishwardi Upazilla, Pabna District, Bangladesh. American Eurasian Journal of Sustainable Agriculture, 4: 326-333.
[33.] Hussain, S. and D.K. Hore, 2007. Collection and conservation of major medicinal plants of Darjeeling and Sikkim Himalayas. Indian Journal of Traditional Knowledge, 6: 352-357.
[34.] Ignacimuthu, S., M. Ayyanar and K. Sankara Sivaraman, 2006. Ethnobotanical investigations among tribes in Madurai District of Tamil Nadu (India). Journal of Ethnobiology and Ethnomedicine, 2: 25-31.
[35.] Islam, N., R. Afroz, A.F.M.N. Sadat, S. Seraj, F.I. Jahan, F. Islam, A.R. Chowdhury, Md.S. Aziz, K.R. Biswas, R. Jahan and M. Rahmatullah, 2011. A survey of medicinal plants used by folk medicinal practitioners in three villages of Jessore District, Bangladesh. American Eurasian Journal of Sustainable Agriculture, 5: 219-225.
[36.] Jain, A., S.S. Katewa, P.K. Galav and P. Sharma, 2005a. Medicinal plant diversity of Sitamata wildlife sanctuary, Rajasthan, India. Journal of Ethnopharmacology, 102: 143-157.
[37.] Jain, A., S.S. Katewa and P.K. Galav, 2005b. Some phytotherapeutic claims by tribals of southern Rajasthan. Indian Journal of Traditional Knowledge, 4: 291-297.
[38.] Jain, J.B., S.C. Kumane and S. Bhattacharya, 2006. Medicinal flora of Madhya Pradesh and Chhattisgarh - a review. Indian Journal of Traditional Knowledge, 5: 237-242.
[39.] Jain, S.P. and J. Singh, 2010. Traditional medicinal practices among the tribal people of Raigarh (Chhatisgarh), India. Indian Journal of Natural Products and Resources, 1: 109-115.
[40.] Jain, S.P., S. Srivastava, J. Singh and S.C. Singh, 2011. Traditional phytotherapy of Balaghat district, Madhya Pradesh, India. Indian Journal of Traditional Knowledge, 10: 334-338.
[41.] Jeeva, S., B.P. Mishra, N. Venugopal, L. Kharlukhi and R.C. Laloo, 2006. Traditional knowledge and biodiversity conservation in the sacred groves of Meghalaya. Indian Journal of Traditional Knowledge, 5: 563-568.
[42.] Jena, M., S. Sahoo and R.K. Sahu, 2011. Some ethno medicinal plants for treatment of common health problems in Mayurbhanj District, Orissa, India. New York Science Journal, 4: 87-92.
[43.] Johnsy, G., S.D. Sargunam and V. Kaviyarasan, 2012. Indigenous knowledge of medicinal plants used for the treatment of skin diseases by the Kaani tribe of Kanyakumari District. International Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, 4: 309-313.
[44.] Kala, C.P., 2009. Aboriginal uses and management of ethnobotanical species in deciduous forests of Chhattisgarh state in India. Journal of Ethnobiology and Ethnomedicine, 5: 20-28.
[45.] Kamalkishor, H.N. and K.M. Kulkarni, 2009. Fish stupefying plants used by the Gondh tribal of Mendha village of Central India. Indian Journal of Traditional Knowledge, 8: 531-534.
[46.] Kashanipour, R.A. and R.J. McGee, 2004. Northern Lacandon Maya medicinal plant use in the communities of Lacanja Chan Sayab and Naha', Chiapas, Mexico. Journal of Ecological Anthropology, 8: 47-66.
[47.] Kassuya, C.A.L., A. Cremoneze, L.F.L. Barros, A.S. Simas, F. da Rocha Lapa, R. Mello-Silva, M.E.A. Stefanello and A.R. Zampronio, 2009. Antipyretic and anti-inflammatory properties of the ethanolic extract, dichloromethane fraction and costunolide from Magnolia ovata (Magnoliaceae). Journal of Ethnopharmacology, 124: 369-376.
[48.] Kayang, H., B. Kharbuli, B. Myrboh and D. Syiem, 2005. Medicinal plants of Khasi Hills of Meghalaya, India. Proc. WOCMAP III, vol. 1: Bioprospecting and Ethnopharmacology (Eds. J. Bernath, E. Nemeth, L.E. Craker and Z.E. Gardner). Acta Horticulturae 675, ISHS 2005.
[49.] Khare, C.P., 2007. Indian Medicinal Plants: An Illustrated Dictionary. Springer-Verlag, Berlin/Heidelberg.
[50.] Khisha, T., R. Karim, S.R. Chowdhury and R. Banoo, 2012. Ethnomedical studies of Chakma communities of Chittagong Hill Tracts, Bangladesh. Bangladesh Pharmaceutical Journal, 15: 59-67.
[51.] Khongsai, M., S.P. Saikia and H. Kayang, 2011. Ethnomedicinal plants used by different tribes of Arunachal Pradesh. Indian Journal of Traditional Knowledge, 10: 541-546.
[52.] Khumbongmayum, A.D., M.L. Khan and R.S. Tripathi, 2005. Ethnomedicinal plants in the sacred groves of Manipur. Indian Journal of Traditional Knowledge, 4: 21-32.
[53.] Khyade, M.S., U.D. Awasarkar, R.R. Deshmukh and A.S. Petkar, 2010. Ethnobotanical Reports about few important diseases from Akole Tehasil of Ahmednagar District (MS) India. Asian Journal of Experimental Biological Sciences, 1: 393-403.
[54.] Korpenwar, A.N., 2012. Ethnomedicinal plants used by Bhilala tribals in Buldhana District (M. S.). DAV International Journal of Science, 1: 60-65.
[55.] Kumari, P., G.C. Joshi and L.M. Tewari, 2012. Biodiversity status, distribution and use pattern of some ethno-medicinal plants. International Journal of Conservation Science, 3: 309-318.
[56.] Lense, O., 2012. The wild plants used as traditional medicines by indigenous people of Manokwari, West Papua. Biodiversitas, 13: 98-106.
[57.] Maheshwari, J.K., B.S. Kalakoti and B. Lal, 1986. Ethnomedicine of Bhil tribe of Jhabua district, M.P. Ancient Science of Life, 5: 255-261.
[58.] Majumdar, K. and B.K. Datta, 2007. A study on ethnomedicinal usage of plants among the folklore herbalists and Tripuri medical practitioners: Part II. Natural Product Radiance, 6: 66-73.
[59.] Mallik, B.K., T. Panda and R.N. Padhy, 2012a. Traditional herbal practices by the ethnic people of Kalahandi District of Odisha, India. Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Biomedicine, S988-S994.
[60.] Mallik, B.K., T. Panda and R.N. Padhy, 2012b. Ethnoveterinary practices of aborigine tribes in Odisha, India. Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Biomedicine, S1520-S1525.
[61.] Mia, Md. Manzur-ul-Kadir, M.F. Kadir, Md.S. Hossan and M. Rahmatullah, 2009. Medicinal plants of the Garo tribe inhabiting the Madhupur forest region of Bangladesh. American Eurasian Journal of Sustainable Agriculture, 3: 165-171.
[62.] Mitra, S. and S.K. Mukherjee, 2005. Root and rhizome drugs used by the tribals of West Dinajpur in Bengal. Journal of Tropical Medicinal Plants, 6: 301-315.
[63.] Mohanty, P.C., 2011. Maritime trade of ancient Kalinga. Orissa Review, pp: 40-42.
[64.] Mollik, Md.A.H., Md.S. Hossan, A.K. Paul, M. Taufiq-Ur-Rahman, R. Jahan and M. Rahmatullah, 2010. A comparative analysis of medicinal plants used by folk medicinal healers in three districts of Bangladesh and inquiry as to mode of selection of medicinal plants. Ethnobotany Research and Applications, 8: 195-218.
[65.] Murthy, E.N., 2012. Ethno medicinal plants used by gonds of Adilabad district, Andhra Pradesh, India. International Journal of Pharmacy & Life Sciences, 3: 2034-2043.
[66.] Negi, C.S., S. Nautiyal, L. Dasila, K.S. Rao, R.K. Maikhuri, 2003. Ethnomedicinal plant uses in a small tribal community in a part of Central Himalaya, India. Journal of Human Ecology, 14: 23-31.
[67.] Ong, H.C., S. Chua and P. Milow, 2011. Ethno-medicinal plants used by the Temuan villagers in Kampung Jeram Kedah, Negeri Sembilan, Malaysia. Ethno Med., 5: 95-100.
[68.] Padal, S.B., P. Chandrasekhar and Y. Vijakumar, 2013. Traditional uses of plants by the tribal communities of Salugu Panchayati, Visakhapatnam district, Andhra Pradesh, India. International Journal of Computational Engineering Research, 3: 98-103.
[69.] Patel, D.K., 2012. Medicinal plants in G.G.V. Campus, Bilaspur, Chhattisgarh in central India. International Journal of Medicinal and Aromatic Plants, 2: 293-300.
[70.] Pattanaik, C., C.S. Reddy and K.N. Reddy, 2009. Ethno-medicinal survey of threatened plants in Eastern Ghats, India. Our Nature, 7: 122-128.
[71.] Pradhan, B.K. and H.K. Badola, 2008. Ethnomedicinal plant use by Lepcha tribe of Dzongu valley, bordering Khangchendzonga Biosphere Reserve, in north Sikkim, India. Journal of Ethnobiology and Ethnomedicine, 4: 22-39.
[72.] Ragupathy, S., N.G. Steven, M. Maruthakkutti, B. Velusamy and M.M. Ul-Huda, 2008. Consensus of the 'Malasars' traditional aboriginal knowledge of medicinal plants in the Velliangiri holy hills, India. Journal of Ethnobiology and Ethnomedicine, 4: 8.
[73.] Rahmatullah, M., Md.S. Hossan, A. Hanif, P. Roy, R. Jahan, M. Khan, M.H. Chowdhury and T. Rahman, 2009. Ethnomedicinal applications of plants by the traditional healers of the Marma tribe of Naikhongchhari, Bandarban District, Bangladesh. Advances in Natural and Applied Sciences, 3: 392-401.
[74.] Rahmatullah, M., Md.A.H. Mollik, Md.A. Jilani, M.A. Hossain, M.S. Hossain, Md.M. Rahman, D. Nasrin, Z. Khatun, F.I. Jahan, F. Jamal, Mst.A. Khatun and R. Jahan, 2010a. Medicinal plants used by folk medicinal practitioners in three villages of Natore and Rajshahi Districts, Bangladesh. Advances in Natural and Applied Sciences, 4: 132-138.
[75.] Rahmatullah, M., R. Jahan, Md.S. Hossan, S. Seraj, Md.M. Rahman, A.R. Chowdhury, R. Begum, D. Nasrin, Z. Khatun, M.S. Hossain, Mst.A. Khatun and F.I. Jahan, 2010b. A comparative analysis of medicinal plants used by three tribes of Chittagong Hill Tracts region, Bangladesh to treat leucorrhea. Advances in Natural and Applied Sciences, 4: 148-152.
[76.] Rahmatullah, M., Md.R. Hasan, Md.S. Hossan, R. Jahan, M.H. Chowdhury, S. Seraj, Z.U.M.E.U. Miajee, A.K. Azad, A.B.M.A. Bashar and F. Islam, 2010c. A survey of medicinal plants used by folk medicinal practitioners of six villages in Greater Naogaon District, Bangladesh. American Eurasian Journal of Sustainable Agriculture, 4: 309-325.
[77.] Rahmatullah, M., Md.E. Hasan, Md.A. Islam, Md.T. Islam, F.I. Jahan, S. Seraj, A.R. Chowdhury, F. Jamal, Md.S. Islam, Z.U.M.E.U. Miajee, R. Jahan and M.H. Chowdhury, 2010d. A survey on medicinal plants used by the folk medicinal practitioners in three villages of Panchagarh and Thakurgaon District, Bangladesh. American Eurasian Journal of Sustainable Agriculture, 4: 291-301.
[78.] Rahmatullah, M., R. Jahan, A.K. Azad, S. Seraj, Md.M. Rahman, A.R. Chowdhury, R. Begum, D. Nasrin, Z. Khatun, M.S. Hossain, Mst.A. Khatun and Z.U.M.E. Miajee, 2010e. A randomized survey of medicinal plants used by folk medicinal practitioners in six districts of Bangladesh to treat rheumatoid arthritis. Advances in Natural and Applied Sciences, 4: 124-127.
[79.] Rahmatullah, M., Md.A. Rahman, Md.Z. Haque, Md.A.H. Mollik, Z.U.M.E.U. Miajee, R. Begum, Md.M. Rahman, D. Nasrin, S. Seraj, A.R. Chowdhury, Z. Khatun and Mst.A. Khatun, 2010f. A survey of medicinal plants used by folk medicinal practitioners of Station Purbo Para Village of Jamalpur Sadar Upazila in Jamalpur District, Bangladesh. American Eurasian Journal of Sustainable Agriculture, 4: 122-135.
[80.] Rahmatullah, M., M.A.H. Mollik, M. Ali, M.F.B. Abbas, R. Jahan, M.H. Chowdhury, S. Seraj, Z.U.M.E.U. Miajee, A.K. Azad, A.B.M.A. Bashar, A.R. Chowdhury and F.I. Jahan, 2011a. An ethnomedicinal survey of Vitbilia village in Sujanagar sub-district of Pabna district, Bangladesh. American Eurasian Journal of Sustainable Agriculture, 4: 302-308.
[81.] Rahmatullah, M., R. Jahan, S. Seraj, F. Islam, F.I. Jahan, Z. Khatun, S. Sanam, M.N. Monalisa, T. Khan and K.R. Biswas, 2011b. Medicinal plants used by folk and tribal medicinal practitioners of Bangladesh for treatment of gonorrhea. American Eurasian Journal of Sustainable Agriculture, 5: 276-281.
[82.] Rai, P.K. and Lalramnghinglova, 2010. Ethnomedicinal plants from agroforestry systems and home gardens of Mizoram, North East India. Herba Polonica, 56: 81-93.
[83.] Ravikumar, B.S. and B.S. Theerthavathy, 2012. Ethno-botanical survey of medicinal plants in Semi-Malnad area of Hassan District, Karnataka. Journal of Pharmacognosy, 3: 75-78.
[84.] Ray, S., M. Sheikh and S. Mishra, 2011. Ethnomedicinal plants used by tribals of East Nimar region, Madhya Pradesh. Indian Journal of Traditional Knowledge, 10: 367-371.
[85.] Rayan, N.A., N. Baby, D. Pitchai, F. Indraswari, E.A. Ling, J. Lu and T. Dheen, 2011. Costunolide inhibits proinflammatory cytokines and iNOS in activated murine BV2 microglia. Frontiers in Bioscience (Elite Ed), 3: 1079-1091.
[86.] Renuga, F.B. and S.M.M. Bai, 2013. Natural products used by the Kanikkars of Kanyakumari district, Tamil Nadu, India. Journal of Pharmacognosy and Phytochemistry, 2: 255-261.
[87.] Rethy, P., B. Singh, R. Kagyung and P.R. Gajurel, 2010. Ethnobotanical studies of Dehang-Debang Biosphere Reserve of Arunachal Pradesh with special reference to Memba tribe. Indian Journal of Traditional Knowledge, 9: 61-67.
[88.] Saikia, B., 2006. Ethnomedicinal plants from Gohpur of Sonitpur district, Assam. Indian Journal of Traditional Knowledge, 5: 529-530.
[89.] Samydurai, P., S. Jagatheshkumar, V. Aravinthan and V. Thangapandian, 2012. Survey of wild aromatic ethnomedicinal plants of Velliangiri Hills in the Southern Western Ghats of Tamil Nadu, India. International Journal of Medicinal and Aromatic Plants, 2: 229-234.
[90.] Sapkota, P.P., 2008. Ethno-ecological observation of Magar of Bukini, Baglung, Western Nepal. Dhaulagiri Journal of Sociology and Anthropology, 2: 227-251.
[91.] Saraf, A., 2010. Phytochemical and antimicrobial studies of medicinal plant Costus speciosus (Koen.). E-Journal of Chemistry, 7(S1): S405-S413.
[92.] Seema, K.N. and K. Begum, 2008. Childrearing practices among Kurubas and Soliga tribes from South India. Studies of Tribes and Tribals, 6: 59-62.
[93.] Shankar, R., M.S. Rawat, S. Deb and B.K. Sharma, 2012. Jaundice and its traditional cure in Arunachal Pradesh. Journal of Pharmaceutical and Scientific Innovation, 1: 93-97.
[94.] Sharma, J. and R.M. Painuli, 2011. Plants used for the treatment of rheumatism by the Bhoxa tribe of District Dehradun, Uttarakhand, India. International Journal of Medicinal and Aromatic Plants, 1: 28-32.
[95.] Singh, E.A., S.Y. Kamble, N.K. Bipinraj and S.D. Jagtap, 2012. Medicinal plants used by the Thakar tribes of Raigad district, Maharashtra for the treatment of snake-bite and scorpionbite. International Journal of Phytotherapy Research, 2: 26-35.
[96.] Sivaraj, N., S.R. Pandravada, R. Jairam, N. Sunil, K.S. Varaprasad, P. Ramesh, I.S. Bisht and S.K. Pareek, 2012. An indigenous cost effective innovation for bird scares by the Gond tribe in Adilabad district, Andhra Pradesh. Indian Journal of Traditional Knowledge, 11: 714-718.
[97.] Sonawane, V.B., R.S. Saler, M.D. Sonawane and V.B. Kadam, 2012. Ethnobotanical studies of Mokhada, District Thane. International Journal of Life Science and Pharma Research, 2: L88-L93.
[98.] Srivastava, A., S.P. Patel, R.K. Mishra, R.K. Vashistha, A. Singh and A.K. Puskar, 2012. Ethnomedicinal importance of the plants of Amarkantak region, Madhya Pradesh, India. International Journal of Medicinal and Aromatic Plants, 2: 53-59.
[99.] Srivastava, S., P. Singh, K.K. Jha, G. Mishra, S. Srivastava and R.L. Khosa, 2012. Evaluation of anti-arthritic potential of the methanolic extract of the aerial parts of Costus speciosus. Journal of Ayurveda and Integrative Medicine, 3: 204-208.
[100.] Srivastava, S., P. Singh, K.K. Jha, G. Mishra, S. Srivastava and R.L. Khosa, 2013. Antiinflammatory, analgesic and antipyretic activities of aerial parts of Costus speciosus Koen. Indian Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences, 75: 83-88.
[101.] Subbaiah, K.P.V. and N. Savithramma, 2012. Bio-prospecting and documentation of traditional medicinal plants used to treat ringworms by ethnic groups of Kurnool District, Andhra Pradesh, India. International Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, 4: 251-254.
[102.] Subodh, D., V.K. Verma, A.K. Sahu, A.K. Jain and A. Tiwari, 2010. Evaluation of diuretic activity of aqueous and alcoholic rhizomes extracts of Costus speciosus Linn in Wister albino rats. International Journal of Research in Ayurveda & Pharmacy, 1: 648-652.
[103.] Thirunarayanan, T. and S. Rajkumar, 2012. Ethnobotanical survey regarding the management of liver disorders by traditional healers of Vellore district, Tamil Nadu, India. International Journal of Pharmacology and Clinical Sciences, 1: 24-31.
[104.] Tripathi, R., R.P. Mishra, A.R. Singh and S.N. Dwivedi, 2011. Folk lore uses of some medicinal plants in the treatment of UTI infections. International Journal of Drug Discovery and Herbal Research, 1: 58-60.
[105.] Venkataswamy, R., H.M. Mubarack, A. Doss, T. K. Ravi and M. Sukumar, 2010. Ethnobotanical study of medicinal plants used by Malasar tribals in Coimbatore district of Tamil Nadu (South India). Asian Journal of Experimental Biological Sciences, 1: 387-392.
[106.] Vesterlund, S., M. Karp, S. Salminen and A.C. Ouwehand, 2006. Staphylococcus aureus adheres to human intestinal mucus but can be displaced by certain lactic acid bacteria. Microbiology, 152: 1819-1826.
[107.] Vijayan, A., V.B. Liju, J.V. Reena John, B. Parthipan and C. Renuka, 2007. Traditional remedies of Kani tribes of Kottoor reserve forest, Agasthyavanam, Thiruvananthapuram, Kerala. Indian Journal of Traditional Knowledge, 6: 589-594.
[108.] Wabale, A.S., M.N. Kharde, K.J. Salunke and A.S. Petkar, 2011. Asian Journal of Experimental Biological Sciences, 2: 169-170.
[109.] Yonzone, R., S. Rai and R.B. Bhujel, 2012. Ethnomedicinal and aromatic plant diversity and resources of Darjeeling District of Eastern Himalaya in India. International Journal of Advances in Pharmaceutical Research, 3: 859-871.
Sophia Hossain, Shahnaz Rahman, Md. Tanvir Morshed, Mahbuba Haque, Sharmin Jahan, Rownak Jahan, Mohammed Rahmatullah Faculty of Life Sciences, University of Development Alternative, Dhanmondi, Dhaka-1209, Bangladesh.
Received: November 03, 2013; Revised: January 13, 2014; Accepted: January 17, 2014
Corresponding Author: Professor Dr. Mohammed Rahmatullah, Pro-Vice Chancellor, University of Development Alternative, House No. 78, Road No. 11A (new), Dhanmondi R/A, Dhaka-1209, Bangladesh. Phone: 88-01715032621 Fax: 88-02-8157339 E-mail: email@example.com
Table 1: Ethnomedicinal uses of Costus speciosus (J. Koenig) Sm. (Costaceae). Serial Tribe/people and location Ailment(s) treated Number 1 Folk medicines of remote areas Leucorrhea, of Madhya Pradesh, India. clearing of urine. 2 Folk medicinal practitioners of Leucorrhea, three villages of Natore and helminthiasis, Rajshahi Districts, Bangladesh. dermatitis, appetizer, impotency, glassiness of skin. 3 Chakma and Tonchongya tribes Leucorrhea. of Chittagong Hill Tracts Region, Bangladesh. 4 Folk medicinal practitioners of Leucorrhea, urinary six villages in Greater Naogaon problems arising District, Bangladesh. from endocrinological disorders or diabetes (meho), to keep head cool, burning sensations in the body. 5 Used by tribals of Kamrup Leucorrhea, district, Assam, India. impotency. 6 Bhilala tribals in Buldhana Aphrodisiac, District, Maharashtra State, urinary tract India. infections. 7 Folk medicinal practitioners of Fever, seven villages of Ishwardi helminthiasis, Upazila, Pabna District, asthma. Bangladesh. 8 Temuan tribe in Kampung Jeram Fever, influenza. Kedah, Negeri Sembilan, Malaysia. 9 Khasi, Garo and Jaintia tribal Fever. sacred groves of Meghalaya State, India. 10 Magar tribe of Bukini, Baglung, Fever, pain, coughs, Western Nepal. and as tonic. 11 Bilaspur, Chhattisgarh, India. Burning, stimulant, skin diseases, bronchitis, fever. 12 Kadazandusun communities Asthma, influenza. living around the Crocker Range Sabah, Malaysia. 13 Tribal people of Sitamata Asthma, sexual wildlife sanctuary, Rajasthan, debility, nematode India. infections, diarrhea, dysentery, stomach ache. 14 Aboriginal tribes (Nicobarese, Stomach disorders, Shompen, Jarawas, Sentinels, headache, Ongese, Great Andamanese) of purgative, tonic, Bay Islands (Andaman and helminthiasis, Nicobar islands), India. diarrhea, eye trouble, sudorific, high fever, snake bite, ear ache. 15 Thakar tribe of Raigad district, Snake bite, Maharashtra, India. headache. 16 Tribes of Upper Assam, India. Gastrointestinal diseases. 17 Kannikar tribals of Kanyakumari Pain from decayed district, Tamil Nadu, India. tooth, diarrhea. 18 Munda tribe of West Dinajpur Diarrhea, district, West Bengal, India. spermatorrhea. 19 Gond tribe of Adilabad district, Helminthiasis, Andhra Pradesh, India. tonic. 20 Northern Lacandon Maya Eye irritation. community of Lacanja Chan Sayab and Naha', Chiapas, Mexico. 21 Local population of Kutchum Otitis media. district, Yasothon Province, Thailand. 22 Bhil, Garasia, Damor and Asthma, sexual Kathadia tribes of southern debility. Rajasthan, India. 23 Indigenous people of Ear pain, stomach Manokwari, West Papua. ache, food poisoning. 24 Bhutias, Lepchas and Nepalese Fever and of Sikkim Himalayas, India. inflammation in cattle. 25 Bhil tribe of Jhabua District, Fever in cattle. Madhya Pradesh, India. 26 Traditional healers of Darjeeling Fever. Himalayas, India. 27 Herbalists of Southern Thailand. Fever. 28 Sikkim and Darjeeling Diabetes. Himalayan tribes of India - Nepalese healers (Jhankris, Bijuwas, Fedangwas), Lepcha healers (Bongthings, Mon- Bonthings), Lamas (Bhutia priest). 29 Folk medicinal practitioners of Diabetes, acidity, three villages of Jessore District, rheumatic pain, Bangladesh. ordinary pain. 30 Villagers in Nalbari District, Diabetes. Assam, India. 31 Paliyar tribes in Madurai District Diabetes. of Tamil Nadu, India. 32 Local herbal practitioners of Burning sensations Darjeeling District of Eastern during urination, Himalaya in India. jaundice, diabetes, kidney diseases. 33 Ethnic people of Semi-Malnad Diabetes. area of Hassan District, Karnataka, India. 34 Local aboriginal people of Bronchitis, Velliangiri Hills in the Southern diabetes, asthma. Western Ghats of Tamil Nadu, India. 35 Tribal people of Golaghat Jaundice, diabetes. District, Assam, India. 36 People of Almora district, Boils, ventral Uttarakhand, India. disease, urinary tract infection, diabetes. 37 Folk medicinal practitioners of Body pain. three villages of Panchagarh and Thakurgaon District, Bangladesh. 38 Malayali tribe of Pachamalai Wounds. Hills, Tamil Nadu, India. 39 Chakma communities of To stop bleeding. Chittagong Hill Tracts, Bangladesh. 40 Tribal people (mostly Santal and Joint swelling, Kolha) of Mayurbhanj District, germicidal, Orissa, India. toothache. 41 Folk medicinal practitioners of Rheumatoid Dinajpur District, Bangladesh. arthritis. 42 Ethnic people of Kalahandi Rheumatism. District of Odisha (Orissa), India. 43 Khasi tribe of Khasi Hills of Bronchitis, Meghalaya, India. inflammation, anemia, rheumatism. 44 Local tribal people of Eastern Rheumatism. Ghats, India. 45 Bhoxa tribe of Dehradun Rheumatism. District, Uttarakhand, India. 46 Tribals of Madhya Pradesh and Rheumatism, Chhattisgarh. asthma/ bronchitis. 47 Folklore herbalists and Tripuri Coughs in children; tribal practitioners of south and cold, coughs, west districts of Tripura State, dyspepsia, and India. asthma in adults. 48 Folklore medicinal plants of Viral hepatitis, Chutia, Deori, Ahoms, Sonowal- rheumatoid arthritis. Kocharis, Tea-tribes of Mahmora Area, Sivasagar District, Assam, India. 49 Aborigines (Bhumijs, Birhores Rheumatic pain. Kherias, Mundas, Oraons, Santals) of Purulia District, West Bengal, India. 50 Baiga, Gond, Korku and other Rheumatism, gout, tribals of Balaghat District, worm repellent. Madhya Pradesh, India. 51 Korku, Gond, Bhil, Bhilala, Rheumatism, pain Naik, Mankar and Nihal tribals in bones, bronchial of East Nimar region, Madhya asthma. Pradesh, India. 52 Local people (including tribals) Gout, jaundice, of Sikkim State and adjoining anemia, bronchitis, Darjeeling Hill District of West fever, stimulant, Bengal, India. helminthiasis, anti- inflammatory, urinary stones. 53 Folk medicinal practitioners of Impotency. Vitbilia village in Sujanagar sub- district of Pabna District, Bangladesh. 54 Folk medicinal practitioners of Erectile Station Purbo Para Village of dysfunction, Jamalpur Sadar Upazila in low sperm count. Jamalpur District, Bangladesh. 55 Folk medicinal practitioner of Sexual disorders Tangail District, Bangladesh. (low density semen, erectile dysfunction, and premature ejaculation), blood in urine, kidney stone (symptoms: weakness, lower abdominal pain, 1-2 drops of urine coming out only, burning sensations during urination). 56 Sinpho tribe of Arunachal Respiratory Pradesh, India. blockage, burning sensations during urination. 57 Indigenous medicinal Kidney trouble, practitioners of Mizoram, North leprosy, kidney/gall East India. bladder stones, tonsillitis. 58 Plain tribes of Assam, India. Leprosy. 59 Mahadev Koli, Thakar, Jaundice. Ramoshi, Bhil tribes of Akole Tehasil of Ahmednagar District, Maharashtra State, India. 60 Local traditional healers of Jaundice. Arunachal Pradesh, India. 61 Memba tribe of Dehang-Debang Jaundice, thirst, Biosphere Reserve of Arunachal nutrition. Pradesh, India. 62 Tribals (Oraon, Bhrior, Agaria, Liver related Korwa, Nagesia, Baiga, diseases. Gondiya) of Raigarh (Chhatisgarh), India. 63 Mahadev, Koli and Thakar tribes Mucus, asthma, of Western Ghats, India. fevers, bronchitis, leprosy, skin diseases, urinary complaints, otorrhea, deafness, ear complaints. 64 Local people (Gond, Bhil, Baiga, Burning sensations, Korku, Bhadia, Halba, Kaul, constipation, Mariya tribes) of Amarkantak leprosy, worm Region, Madhya Pradesh, India. infections, skin diseases, fever, asthma, bronchitis, inflammations, anemia. 65 Marma tribe of Naikhongchhari, Ear pain, formation Bandarban District, Bangladesh. of pus in ears, eczema or itches around the nails. 66 Kani tribes of Kottoor Reserve Otalgia (ear pain). Forest, Agasthya Vanam, Thiruvananthapuram District, Kerala State, India. 67 Thakur, Mahadev, Koli, Varli, Protection of crop Katkari and Kokana tribes of plants. Tal-Mokhada, Thane District, India. 68 Chakma tribe of Rangamati Hydrocele. District, Bangladesh. 69 Garo tribe of Madhupur Forest Inflammation of region, Bangladesh. eye. 70 Folk medicinal practitioners Gonorrhea. of several Districts of Bangladesh. 71 Folk medicinal practitioners of Respiratory tract Puthia Upazila in Rajshahi disorders, sexually District, Bangladesh. transmitted diseases like syphilis or gonorrhea. 72 Lepcha tribe of Dzongu valley, Venereal disease, bordering Khangchendzonga urinary tract Biosphere Reserve, in north infection. Sikkim, India. 73 Tribal and non-tribal Fish poison to stun communities of south Surguja and catch fish. District of Chhattisgarh State, India. 74 Gond tribal of Mendha village of Fish poison to Central India. stupefy and catch fish, nutritious delicacy. 75 Chenchu, Yerukala, Sugali Ringworm (Lambadas) and Yanadi ethnic infections. groups of Kurnool District, Andhra Pradesh, India. 76 Kaani tribe of Kanyakumari Skin diseases. District, Tamil Nadu, India. 77 Sacred groves of the Meitei Dog bite. community in Manipur, India. 78 Chakma, Marma, and Tripura Contraceptive. tribe of Chittagong Hill Tracts, Bangladesh. 79 Assamese and Bodo Strangury. communities of Gohpur, Sonitpur District, Assam, India. 80 Herbalists of Ubon Ratchathani Infectious diseases Province, Thailand. in early childhood. 81 Raji tribal community of Boils. Champawat and Pithoragarh Districts of Uttaranchal Pradesh, India. 82 Tribal communities of Salagu Used as a Panchayati of Paderu Mandalam, galactogue. Visakhapatnam district, Andhra Pradesh, India. 83 Tribal and non-tribal healers Liver disorders. of Vellore district, Tamil Nadu, India. Serial Part of plant used with formulation, if Number any 1 Roots. 2 Tuber (rhizome) juice is taken. 3 Root juice is mixed with equal amount of water in which rice has been washed. One teaspoonful of the mixture is taken twice daily for one week (Chakma tribe). About an inch portion of root is crushed, mixed with molasses, and taken in the morning on an empty stomach for 5-7 days (Chakma and Tonchonga tribes). 4 For leucorrhea, macerated roots are taken with sugar twice daily on an empty stomach for 7 days. For meho, 2-3 pieces of root are taken with sugar twice daily on an empty stomach for 7 days. To keep head cool and for burning sensations in the body, roots of Costus speciosus are macerated with roots of Coccinia grandis, stems of Ipomoea aquatica and Enydra fluctuans and applied to the head to keep head cool and reduce burning sensations in the body. 5 Tuber. 6 Spoonful rhizome powder with a glass of water in empty stomach is taken as an aphrodisiac. Juice of rhizome is taken to cure urinary tract infections. 7 Root juice is orally administered. 8 Infusion of stem base is taken orally. 9 Roots are used. 10 Root. 11 Root, rhizome. 12 Peeled stems are steeped in hot water and taken by patient. 13 One teaspoon root powder is taken twice a day for 3-4 days for asthma and sexual debility. Two teaspoon of root powder is taken once a day in the morning for 3 days for nematode infections. Decoction of root powder is given to children for two days twice a day for diarrhea, dysentery and stomach ache. 14 Rhizomes are cooked and eaten as purgative and tonic. Roots are used as a tonic and eaten with sugar as anthelmintic. Crushed stem sap is given for diarrhea and eye trouble. Leaf infusion or decoction is used as a sudorific or in a bath for patients with high fever. Fresh rhizome juice is considered purgative, and is also used in snake bites, headache, and ear ache. 15 Whole plant. 16 Not reported. 17 Tuber. Paste of tuber with common salt is applied on decayed tooth to relieve pain. Paste of tuber with common salt and garlic is a remedy taken for diarrhea. 18 Rhizome. Rhizome paste along with a little 'gur' (jaggary) is taken early morning on an empty stomach for 7 days to cure diarrhea. Rhizome paste along with a little honey and a cup of warm goat milk is taken at bedtime for 7-14 days to cure spermatorrhea. 19 Rhizome. Rhizome is taken for helminthiasis and as a tonic. 20 Plant sap is applied directly to eyes. 21 Stem. 22 One teaspoonful tuber powder is taken twice a day for 3-4 days. 23 Stem is used. 24 Rhizome powder (about 20g) is given twice daily to cattle. 25 Root paste is given to cattle once a day for two days. 26 Root (5-10g) is made into paste and taken with jaggery in empty stomach for 4-6 days. 27 Rhizomes are used. 28 Decoction of rhizome (10-20 ml) is taken 2-3 times daily for 2-4 weeks. 29 Leaves of Costus speciosus are chewed with one leaf of Piper betle to immediately reduce sugar during diabetes. Juice from macerated leaves of Costus speciosus and Mikania cordata are taken for flatulence or stomach pain during acidity. Leaves, alternately, whole plants of Hemidesmus indicus are mixed with leaves of Costus speciosus and rokto- katari plant (unidentified), soft pulp (musabbar) from leaves of Aloe vera, and oil from Gangetic river dolphin (Platanista gangetica) and then boiled with ghee (clarified butter) or mustard oil and then applied to areas affected with common or rheumatic pain. 30 Rhizome paste taken orally. 31 Powdered leaves are taken with cow's milk. 32 Rhizomes, roots and stems are used. 33 Leaves. 34 Leaves and rhizomes are used. 35 Rhizome is used. 36 Not mentioned. 37 Juice obtained from crushed roots is applied to affected areas for 3-4 days. 38 Leaf of the plant is mixed with the leaves of Cynodon dactylon, Glycyrrhiza glabra, Canna indica and stem bark of Punica granatum. The juice extracted from this mixture is applied topically on affected places to heal wounds. 39 Root extract is used. 40 Rhizome paste is directly applied to joint swellings and used as germicidal. Rhizomes are chewed for toothache. 41 Juice obtained from macerated leaves and stems is taken orally. 42 Rhizomes of Vitis auriculata and Costus speciosus are grounded together and the paste taken orally. 43 Rhizome is cut and ground into pieces and the powder is eaten. 44 Tuber. 45 The roots are grounded, mixed with mustard oil and made into paste, which is applied externally to get relief from rheumatism. 46 Roots are used. 47 Young shoot, rhizome. Young shoot is crushed and boiled with a pinch of salt and given orally (1-2 cups) twice a day for 15 days to cure coughs in children. Fresh rhizome is crushed and the extract is mixed with a glass of boiled milk for adult ailments. 48 Fresh root (50g) is mixed with goat milk (50 ml) and sugar (25g) and is taken orally in empty stomach for viral hepatitis. Fresh root (2-3g) is mixed with rhizome of Curcuma domestica (8-10g), common salt (5g) and cow milk (50 ml). It is then boiled and strained. The filtrate (15 ml) is taken orally twice a day for 3-4 days for treatment of rheumatoid arthritis. 49 Warm rhizome paste is applied on waist and legs to cure rheumatic pain. 50 Infusion of root is given internally. 51 Rhizome extract is taken in rheumatism and pain in bones. Crushed leaves are inhaled in bronchial asthma. 52 Rhizome decoction is given in urinary stones. For other ailments, roots and rhizomes are used. 53 Root paste along with honey is applied to sex organ. 54 Juice obtained from the base of the plant (locally called motha) is taken orally. 55 For sexual disorders, leaves or tubers of Costus speciosus are mixed with stems of Abroma augusta, macerated to obtain juice, and syrup prepared from juice. One cup of syrup is taken twice daily for one month. For blood in urine or kidney stones, juice obtained from macerated stems of Costus speciosus and roots of Thespesia lampas is mixed with makardhwaj (*) to prepare syrup. 2-3 2-teaspoonfuls of the syrup are taken 3 times daily for 7 days. (*) Makardhwaj is prepared by blending 4 tolas (1 tola approximates 11.6g) of purified gold with 8 tolas of purified mercury. 16 tolas of purified sulfur is added gradually to the above mixture in small quantities over a period of 7 days and blended for 6-7 hours each day to form Kajjali. Kajjali is then treated three times with juice obtained from red flowers of Bombax ceiba. The mixture is then dried and transferred to a glass flask. The flask is then layered 7 times with cloth plastered with wet mud/clay and boiled for 24 hours. On cooling, red-colored makardhwaj is obtained. 56 Fresh roots are taken during respiratory blockage and stems are eaten for burning sensations during urination. 57 Cold infusion of the rhizome is taken orally for kidney trouble and leprosy; crushed juice of roots is taken internally for the removal of stones in kidney/gall bladder; the leaves are boiled and the water taken as remedy for tonsillitis. 58 Rhizome in the form of paste is applied locally. 59 Decoction is prepared by adding 10g of rhizome along with water and a cup of this decoction is taken orally early in the morning for three days. Also the root juice of the plant is mixed with leaves of Azadirachta indica crushed in water and taken orally for 3-4 days. 60 Fresh juice of rhizome is taken orally. 61 Rhizome and stem are eaten. Stem juice is taken to get relief from jaundice and thirst. 62 Rhizomes are crushed with rhizomes of Zingiber officinale and half teaspoon expressed juice is taken internally for seven days. 63 Rhizomes are used as expectorant, and used in asthma, fevers, bronchitis, leprosy, and topically in skin diseases. Rhizomes are given orally during urinary complaints, otorrhoea (discharge from the ear), deafness, and other ear complaints. 64 Rhizomes are used. 65 Juice obtained from macerated leaves and stems is topically applied. 66 Stem is heated to high temperature and lukewarm juice extract is used as ear drops. 67 Plants are planted around fields of crop plants to protect crop plants from various diseases. 68 Boiled leaves are macerated and applied to scrotum. 69 Juice of rhizome along with sugar is administered for inflammation of eye. The dose is 1/2-1 chatak (29-58g) twice daily in the morning. The rhizome is also eaten boiled. 70 Not reported. 71 Not reported. 72 Root/rhizome is taken. 73 Rhizome. 74 Crushed tuberous rootstock is mixed in water for fish poisoning. Tubers are consumed as nutritious delicacy after boiling. 75 The rhizome and leaf (1:1 ratio) is made into paste with water and externally applied once a day. 76 Rhizome is made into paste and applied externally. 77 Not reported. 78 Seed powder is used as contraceptive. 79 Root juice (200 ml) is given for a week. 80 Rhizomes are used. 81 Paste of rhizome is applied on boils. 82 Rhizomes. 83 Whole plant. Decoction of Phyllanthus amarus, Glycyrrhiza glabra, and Costus speciosus is mixed with 500 ml sesame oil and boiled to dehydrate and then filtered. The oil is applied to the patient's head, and the patient given bath twice a week. Serial References Number 1 Tripathy et al., . 2 Rahmatullah et al., . 3 Rahmatullah et al., . 4 Rahmatullah et al., . 5 Deka and Kalita, . 6 Korpenwar, . 7 Hasan et al., . 8 Ong et al., . 9 Jeeva et al., . 10 Sapkota, . 11 Patel, . 12 Ahmad and Ismail, . 13 Jain et al., . 14 Das et al., . 15 Singh et al., . 16 Borah et al., . 17 Renuga and Bai, . 18 Mitra and Mukherjee, . 19 Murthy, . 20 Kashanipour and McGee, . 21 Chuakul et al., . 22 Jain et al., . 23 Lense, . 24 Bharati and Sharma, . 25 Maheshwari et al., . 26 Chhetri, . 27 Chuakul et al., . 28 Chhetri et al., . 29 Islam et al., . 30 Chakravarty and Kalita, . 31 Ignacimuthu et al., 2006 32 Yonzone et al., . 33 Ravikumar and Theerthavathy, . 34 Samydurai et al., . 35 Barukial and Sarmah, . 36 Kumari et al., . 37 Rahmatullah et al., . 38 Bhaskar and Samant, . 39 Khisha et al., . 40 Jena et al., . 41 Rahmatullah et al, . 42 Mallik et al, . 43 Kayang et al., . 44 Pattanaik et al., . 45 Sharma and Painuli, . 46 Jain et al., . 47 Majumdar and Datta, . 48 Acharyya and Sharma, . 49 Chakraborty and Bhattarcharjee, . 50 Jain et al., . 51 Ray et al., . 52 Hussain and Hore, . 53 Rahmatullah et al., . 54 Rahmatullah et al., . 55 Haque et al., . 56 Khongsai et al., . 57 Rai and Lalramnghinglova, . 58 Begum and Nath, . 59 Khyade et al., . 60 Shankar et al., . 61 Rethy et al., . 62 Jain and Singh, . 63 Wabale et al., . 64 Srivastava et al., . 65 Rahmatullah et al., . 66 Vijayan et al., . 67 Sonawane et al., . 68 Esha et al., . 69 Mia et al., . 70 Rahmatullah et al, . 71 Mollik et al, . 72 Pradhan and Badola, . 73 Kala, . 74 Kamalkishor and Kulkarni, . 75 Subbaiah and Savithramma, . 76 Johnsy et al., . 77 Khumbongmayum et al., . 78 Biswas et al, . 79 Saikia, . 80 Chuakul and Boonpleng, . 81 Negi et al., . 82 Padal et al., . 83 Thirunarayanan and Rajkumar, .
|Printer friendly Cite/link Email Feedback|
|Title Annotation:||Research Article|
|Author:||Hossain, Sophia; Rahman, Shahnaz; Morshed, Tanvir; Haque, Mahbuba; Jahan, Sharmin; Jahan, Rownak; Ra|
|Publication:||American-Eurasian Journal of Sustainable Agriculture|
|Date:||Dec 1, 2013|
|Previous Article:||A review on a mangrove species from the Sunderbans, Bangladesh: Barringtonia racemosa (L.) Roxb.|
|Next Article:||Ethnomedicines used by the Oraon and Gor tribes of Sylhet district, Bangladesh.|