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Tribal cross-talk as an effective way for ethnobotanical knowledge transfer--inference from Costus specious as a case study.

INTRODUCTION

Costus speciosus (J. Koenig) Sm. (Family: Costaceae, English: Crepe ginger, Bengali: Keu) is a plant native to Southeast Asia and several islands of the Pacific. The plant is widely available in the Indian sub-continent, including Bangladesh, and is considered as an important medicinal plant in traditional medicinal systems. In Ayurveda, which dates back to possibly more than 5,000 years ago, the plant is known as kebuka, and is prescribed by Ayurvedic practitioners as astringent, purgative, depurative, anti-inflammatory, anthelmintic, and antifungal [49]. Various indigenous communities of India, Nepal and Bangladesh, as well as folk medicinal practitioners and herbalists of these countries are known to use the plant for a variety of medicinal purposes including treatment of rheumatism, diabetes, fever, respiratory tract illnesses, gastrointestinal disorders, leprosy, infertility, pain, urinary disorders, helminthiasis, eye and ear infections, hepatic problems, and sexually transmitted diseases.

A high degree of consensus of use of any given plant by traditional medicinal practitioners for treatment of any specific ailment always suggests that the plant has a high probability of containing particular phytochemical components, which may prove scientifically useful in the treatment of the ailment. Allopathic medicine can gain a lot from traditional medicinal systems, for indigenous communities from centuries or even millennia long experiences in treatment with plants, has acquired extensive knowledge on medicinal properties of various plant species. In fact, a number of important allopathic drugs are the result of close observations of indigenous medicinal practices [4,22,30]. From this view point, any ethnomedicinal review of a given plant can point out the whole gamut of ailments treated by that plant among indigenous communities spread throughout the world, especially where the plant is cultivated or can be found in the wild. The consensus of opinion among the indigenous medicinal practitioners for treatment of a given disease with the plant can further serve as a pointer to the scientific community about possible research on the pharmacological and phytochemical research, that can be conducted with the plant towards a fruitful discovery of possibly newer and more efficacious drug from the plant to combat that given disease.

The objective of the present study was to conduct an ethnomedicinal review of Costus speciosus to determine which diseases against which the plant is used by indigenous communities throughout the world. It is expected that such a review can help the researcher in determining ways to conduct scientific research on the plant, and which research can have specific target diseases and pharmacological activities. This in turn can form the basis of isolation of bioactive components and lead compounds leading to discovery of possibly novel drugs against target diseases.

Any ethnomedicinal use of a plant can stem from either of two factors. The knowledge of the plant's medicinal value may have been acquired locally, i.e. discovered independently by the medicinal practitioners of a given indigenous community. Alternately, the medicinal property of the plant and its use against specific ailments may have been acquired through interactions with other indigenous communities, who already possessed that knowledge. The latter again can be achieved through either of two ways. In the first possible way, the knowledge may have come from an adjoining or far off ethnic group through various modes of interaction, which may include discussions, social interactions, trade, or even achieving direct control by one community over another through warfare. The second possible way is tribal migration, where any indigenous community has migrated to a new region and has acquired the knowledge either independently in their new surroundings, or has obtained the knowledge from any adjoining community through any of the means discussed above. Thus, ethnomedicinal reviews covering ethnomedicinal uses of any given plant species can also be of use to anthropologists as well as the other way around; anthropological data of a tribe's migration and settling in new lands can help the ethnomedicinal researcher in determining how a given plant has come to be used in a particular mode by an indigenous community.

Materials and Methods

A total of 83 ethnomedicinal reports on the uses of Costus speciosus throughout different regions of the world were collected from various data bases and scientific journal reports. Only published papers were taken into account; any unpublished anecdotal reports were not included in the present review. Particular attention was paid to the Indian subcontinent and to the countries of India, Nepal, and Bangladesh, because the sheer number of available scientific reports suggested that the plant is mostly used by indigenous societies or folk medicinal practitioners of these three countries.

Results and Discussion

The summarized data from the available reports on ethnomedicinal uses of the plant is presented in Table 1. Several factors emerge from the reports. The plant, reportedly, has a wide range of ethnomedicinal uses. Moreover, a number of the ethnomedicinal uses reported of the plant has high consensus value, i.e. that particular use has been reported from multiple indigenous or ethnic communities. For instance, the use of the plant against leucorrhea and urinary trouble has been reported from remote areas of Madhya Pradesh, India; folk medicinal practitioners of Natore and Rajshahi districts, Bangladesh; Chakma and Tonchongya tribes of Chittagong Hill Tracts Region, Bangladesh; folk medicinal practitioners of Naogaon district, Bangladesh; tribal communities of Kamrup district in Assam, India; people of Almora district, Uttarakhand, India; and Bhilala tribals in Buldhana district, Maharashtra State, India. It is interesting that although the plant has not been scientific reported for any pharmacological activity against leucorrhea or urinary tract infections (which may cause leucorrhea), aqueous and alcoholic extracts of rhizomes of the plant have been shown to exert diuretic activity in Wistar rats [102]. This may explain the use of the plant by Assamese and Bodo communities of Gohpur, Sonitpur District, Assam, India, against strangury.

The use of the plant against diabetes is greater considering the number of ethnic communities involved. Ethnomedicinal uses of the plant against diabetes has been reported for Naogaon district, Bangladesh; Jessore district, Bangladesh; Sikkim and Darjeeling Himalayan tribes of India including Nepalese healers (Jhankris, Bijuwas, Fedangwas), Lepcha healers (Bonthings, Mon-Bonthings), and Lamas (Bhutia priest); villagers in Nalbari district, Assam, India; Paliyar tribes in Madurai district of Tamil Nadu, India; local herbal practitioners of Darjeeling district of Eastern Himalaya in India; ethnic people of Semi-Malnad area of Hassan district, Karnataka, India (Kuruba, Jenu kuruba, Bettakuruba, Kadukuruba, Mullukuruba, Urali kuruba, Lambani, Hakkibikki, Kurumba); local aboriginal people of Velliangiri Hills in the Southern Western Ghats of Tamil Nadu, India (Malasars); and tribal people of Golaghat district, Assam, India. The antihyperglycemic and hypolipidemic effects of the plant have been reported in alloxan-induced diabetic rats [6]. The normalizing effects of crude extracts of Costus speciosus have been reported in diabetic complications in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats [27]. The plant reportedly contains eremanthin, which reportedly may be responsible for the observed antidiabetic and antilipidemic effects [25]. The plant reportedly contains another constituent, costunolide, which may also contribute to the normoglycemic and hypolipidemic effects in STZ-diabetic rats [26].

An ethnomedicinal point of interest is how a particular ethnic group learned the use of a particular plant against a particular ailment. Such learning can be either original or acquired. Discussions on this point may be to a large extent speculative (in the absence of proper historical data of the origins, migrations, and communications of a particular ethnic group with other ethnic groups); even then, such speculations may still prove valuable in opening up new avenues for researches. This discussion shall consider possible ways of how several similar ethnomedicinal uses of Costus speciosus regarding various ailments could have occurred between diverse ethnic groups of the Indian sub-continent.

Regarding ethnic uses of the plant against diabetes, the Paliyar tribe belongs to the Proto-Australoid group of tribal people, and inhabits a narrow strip of Western Ghats in the districts of Madurai, Dindigul, Theni, Tirunelveli, and Virudhunagar in Tamil Nadu State, India [3]. They probably are one of the original peoples of the region. The Malasars are also considered as one of the original settlers and can be found in Coimbatore district in Tamil Nadu State of India [105]. Since the habitats of the two tribes are in the same State, and since they have possibly inhabited this region for millennia, there is a possibility that the similar use of Costus speciosus for treatment of diabetes can be a result of interaction between the two tribes. Although the possibility of independent discovery of antidiabetic potential of the plant by tribal practitioners of both tribes cannot be ignored, there is an equal or more probability that the tribal practitioner(s) of one tribe explored the antidiabetic potential of the plant, and which then got transmitted to the other. In fact, the Malasars have been described as exceptional healers and keepers of traditional aboriginal knowledge [72]. Tamil Nadu and Karnataka are adjoining States in India (see Fig 1), and that is in agreement with published reports on ethnomedicinal use of the plant against diabetes among a number of ethnic communities like the Kurubas and the Lambanis of Karnataka State. Whether the knowledge of the antidiabetic potential of the plant was independently discovered by all tribal communities, or passed from ethnic groups in Karnataka to ethnic groups in Tamil Nadu or ethnic groups in Tamil Nadu to ethnic groups in Karnataka remains a question for anthropologists to determine. But it is possible that communications over land may have existed between tribal communities of the two States. It is also interesting to note that various Kuruba communities (Jenu Kuruba, Betta Kuruba, Kadu Kuruba) have been described as original inhabitants of Tamil Nadu, and who moved to other areas because of deforestation and urbanization [92]. This raises the possibility of the Paliyars, Malasars, and the Kurubas being in a position to communicate with each other easily and through land routes, because they were the original inhabitants in the same region.

Both Tamil Nadu and Karnataka are in the southern most part of India. Although the similar ethnomedicinal antidiabetic use of the plant can be explained among the tribes of Tamil Nadu and Karnataka, this tribal inter-communication does not explain how the plant came to have similar ethnomedicinal antidiabetic use among ethnic and local communities of Bangladesh and the northeastern part of India, including Assam State and Darjeeling district of eastern Himalaya. It may be noted that these are adjoining regions. As a result, this similar ethnomedicinal use pattern can be explained on the basis of tribal inter-communication. But that does not explain the connection between southern India and northeastern Indian sub-continental regions, like Assam. One possible explanation can be that land-based intercommunication between southern and northeast India could have been established through migration of the Lambani tribe from Marwar region of north central India to Karnataka. But that would imply that a land connection had been present in ancient times between the Lambanis in north central India and ethnic groups in northeastern India, which would have been difficult considering the enormous distances, and difficult and possibly forested terrains present in ancient times in these intermediary regions between the two parts of India. However, the possibility of land communications cannot totally be ignored. The ancient Indian epic Mahabharata (circa 400 BCE), mentions that an Assamese king, King Bhagadatta (Pragjyotisha Empire) participated in a Great War (Kurukshetra War) with an army, which included "dwellers of the eastern sea", meaning inhabitants of present day Bangladesh. Also Assam tribes can be considered a 'mixed bag', i.e. settlers have come into present day Assam from east, west, and north.

If there had been no land communications between southern and northeastern Indian regions (including present day Bangladesh), and barring the possibility of independent discoveries, the similar ethnomedicinal use of Costus speciosus as an antidiabetic agent among these ethnic communities in far-off diverse regions could be explained through possible sea communications as depicted in Fig 1. It may be mentioned in this connection that the three great empires of Tamil Nadu in pre-historic and historic times, namely the Chera, Chola and the Pandya, had extensive maritime contacts with the Roman Empire. At the height of its rule, the Chola Empire straddled the Bay of Bengal, with the Chola navy having control over this Bay, and the Chola Empire had an area of more than a million square miles in land parts bordering the Bay of Bengal. As such, contacts could have been made with northeastern Indian regions through present day Bangladesh or the Arakan region of present day Myanmar via sea route through the Bay of Bengal. Although the actual existence of such communications, if any, needs to be unearthed by anthropologists and archaeologists, ethnomedicinal studies can provide a valuable means for corroboration of findings from other disciplines.

Rheumatoid arthritis and rheumatic pain are other ailments for which the plant has wide ethnomedicinal uses. Such uses have been reported for folk medicinal practitioners of Jessore and Dinajpur districts, Bangladesh; ethnic people of Kalahandi district of Orissa, India; Khasi tribe of Khasi Hills of Meghalaya, India; local tribal people of Eastern Ghats, India; Bhoxa tribe of Dehradun district, Uttarakhand, India; tribals of Madhya Pradesh and Chhattisgarh; Chutia, Deori, Ahoms, Sonowal-Kocharis, and tea-tribes of Mahmora Area, Sivasagar district, Assam, India; aborigines (Bhumijs, Birhores Kherias, Mundas, Oraons, Santals) of Purulia district, West Bengal, India; Baiga, Gond, Korku and other tribals of Balaghat district, Madhya Pradesh, India; and Korku, Gond, Bhil, Bhilala, Naik, Mankar, and Nihar tribals of East Nimar region, Madhya Pradesh, India. Antinociceptive activity of rhizomes of the plant has been reported [11], which may explain its use for alleviating rheumatic pain by various tribal groups. Both constituents reported from the plant, namely costunolide and eremanthin, has been shown to have antioxidant properties, which may be useful in inhibiting progression of rheumatoid arthritis and inflammation [25]. Costunolide has been further shown to inhibit proinflammatory cytokines and iNOS in activated murine BV2 microglia [85]. The anti-arthritic potential of methanolic extract of aerial parts of the plant has been reported [98].

Ethnomedicinal uses of Costus speciosus against rheumatoid arthritis and rheumatic pain covers areas spanning the central and northern regions (Madhya Pradesh, Chhattisgarh, Uttarakhand) of the Indian sub-continent along with eastern and northeastern regions of the sub-continent (Bangladesh, Orissa, West Bengal, Meghalaya, Assam). Unlike that of diabetes, in the case of rheumatoid arthritis, ethnomedicinal groups of these various regions can form a contiguous landmass, and so inter-tribal communications could have been achieved by land. This is shown in Fig 2. The Kalahandi district of Orissa alone has reportedly 62 ethnic communities, including scheduled tribes like the Bhunjas, Kandhas, Gands (Gonds), Banjaras (Kurubas), Sabars, Bhottadas and Dals [59]. The Gonds can also be found in Chhattisgarh and Madhya Pradesh [96] and as such can form a linkage with other tribes in three States of India (Chhattisgarh, Madhya Pradesh, and Orissa). Notably, Orissa borders West Bengal, which in turn borders Bangladesh and the northeastern States, Meghalaya and Assam of India. The Gonds are also said to be present in Bangladesh in Sylhet region of the country, which adjoins Meghalaya State of India. In this discussion, we have selected Orissa as the possible point of origin of the ethnomedicinal use, because this State forms the center between the north central and northeastern States of India. This is speculative and may or may not be true that ethnomedicinal use of Costus speciosus against rheumatoid arthritis began with the Gonds of Orissa. This could have happened among any other tribes in any of the Indian States or Bangladesh, but since the Gonds are the most spread-out ethnic group of this region, the likelihood of the Gonds being the first ethnomedicinal users of the plant against rheumatoid arthritis may come out to be true. However, the Gonds are said to be more numerous in Madhya Pradesh, and so this particular ethnomedicinal use could have arisen with the Gonds of Madhya Pradesh.

The above account does not preclude the passage of ethnomedicinal information from Orissa to Bengal through sea route. Orissa had a flourishing maritime trade in ancient times and gold coins from the Roman Empire have been discovered at Tamralipti, the then most famous port of Orissa. In the recent past, Orissa was a part of Greater Bengal Empire comprising of undivided Bengal, Orissa, Bihar, and parts of Assam, and communication flourished between Orissa and Bengal both by land and sea. In fact, the ancient name of Orissa, i.e. Kalinga has been mentioned by a number of Greek, Roman, Arab, and Chinese sources regarding maritime trade [63].

The use of the plant against fever is more widespread and ranges across several countries in the southeastern part of Asia, including Bangladesh, India, Nepal, Thailand, and Malaysia. It may be noted that treatment of fever with this plant is practiced by several ethnic communities on humans, and others on cattle. Reported instances of use against fever in humans include use by folk medicinal practitioners of seven villages of Ishwardi Upazila, Pabna District, Bangladesh; Temuan tribe in Kampung Jeram Kedah, Negeri Sembilan, Malaysia; Khasi, Garo and Jaintia tribals of Meghalaya State, India; Magar tribe of Bukini, Baglung, Western Nepal; local people of Bilaspur, Chhattisgarh, India; aboriginal tribes (Nicobarese, Shompen, Jarawas, Sentinels, Ongese, Great Andamanese) of Bay Islands (Andaman and Nicobar islands), India; traditional healers of Darjeeling Himalayas, India; herbalists of Southern Thailand; local people (including tribals) of Sikkim State and adjoining Darjeeling Hill District of West Bengal, India; Mahadev, Koli and Thakar tribes of Western Ghats, India; and local people (Gond, Bhil, Baiga, Korku, Bhadia, Halba, Kaul, Mariya tribes) of Amarkantak Region, Madhya Pradesh, India. Ethnoveterinary uses include use by the Bhutias, Lepchas and Nepalese of Sikkim Himalayas, India, and Bhil tribe of Jhabua District, Madhya Pradesh, India, against cattle fever. The antipyretic effect of aerial parts of the plant has been reported [99]. Antiinflammatory and antipyretic effect of ethanolic extract of rhizomes of the plant has also been demonstrated [12]. Costunolide, isolated from Magnolia ovata, and which is also present in Costus speciosus, has been shown to have antipyretic properties [47].

The possible passage of information of the ethnomedicinal use of the plant as a febrifuge could have been both land- and sea-based. That the plant is used as a febrifuge in India, Bangladesh, Thailand, and Malaysia suggests either sea-based passage of ethnomedicinal information, or actual tribal migrations between the countries (the latter could be by land or by sea). The passage to or from Andaman and Nicobar islands could only have been achieved through sea route. On the other hand, Nepal being a land-locked country, the information could have been discovered there independently or arrived at Nepal (also could come out of Nepal) only through land. In the Indian sub-continent, the plant is used for treatment of fever in humans in Bangladesh, Nepal, and the Indian States of Meghalaya, Chhattisgarh, Darjeeling (West Bengal), Sikkim, and Madhya Pradesh. Notably, Madhya Pradesh and Chhattisgarh (two adjoining States in India) are separated from the Indian States of West Bengal, Sikkim and Meghalaya by the Indian States of Orissa, Jharkand, and Bihar. It remains an open question as to why this particular use of the plant was not reported from Orissa, like that of rheumatoid arthritis, for Orissa State borders Chhattisgarh State. Also to be noted is that Madhya Pradesh and Chhattisgarh States do not have access to sea. However, the plant is used as a febrifuge by tribes of Western Ghats (Mahadev, Koli, Thakar). The Thakar tribe belongs to the Nepali-Pahari group of people. This fact, along with the use of the plant in Nepal and Sikkim suggests that use of the plant as a febrifuge may have originated in the Himalayan regions (which would include Nepal, Sikkim, and Darjeeling district in West Bengal). Since the Thakar tribe are of Rajput descent and migrated to their present habitat in Maharashtra from possibly Rajasthan in India, they could have brought this ethnomedicinal information with them. In fact, tribal migration has been pointed out to be an important way for transfer of ethnomedicinal information. The Lepcha tribe (present habitat in Sikkim, India), before coming to their present habitat moved through and settled in various places like Thailand, Myanmar, Bhutan, and Assam (India) during their migration [8]. As a result, during their course of migration, they could have enriched other tribes as well as gotten themselves enriched from other tribes regarding ethnomedicinal knowledge.

The use of Costus speciosus for various types of gastrointestinal disorders is also wide-spread. Folk medicinal practitioners of three villages of Natore and Rajshahi Districts, Bangladesh use the rhizomes of the plant as an appetizer (generally it means when a person has lost desire for eating). Tribal people of Sitamata wildlife sanctuary, Rajasthan, India use roots of the plant against diarrhea, dysentery, and stomach ache. Aboriginal tribes (Nicobarese, Shompen, Jarawas, Sentinels, Ongese, Great Andamanese) of Bay Islands (Andaman and Nicobar islands), India uses the rhizomes for stomach disorders, including diarrhea. Tribes of Upper Assam, India uses the plant against gastrointestinal diseases. Kannikar tribals of Kanyakumari district, Tamil Nadu, India uses the tubers against diarrhea. Munda tribe of West Dinajpur district, West Bengal, India uses the rhizome against diarrhea. Indigenous people of Manokwari, West Papua uses the stem against food poisoning and stomach ache. Folk medicinal practitioners of three villages of Jessore District, Bangladesh use leaves of the plant against acidity and resultant stomach ache. Folklore herbalists and Tripuri tribal practitioners of south and west districts of Tripura State, India use rhizomes against dyspepsia. Aqueous extract of rhizomes of the plant has been found to inhibit Staphylococcus aureus [91], a bacterium that can colonize the intestine, and has been linked to certain gastrointestinal diseases, including food poisoning [106].

The ethnomedicinal use against gastrointestinal disorders within the Indian sub-continent is practically limited to the southern portion (Tamil Nadu) and the eastern regions (Bangladesh and the Indian States of Tripura, West Bengal, and Assam, all the eastern regions adjoining each other). An exception is Rajasthan, which is at the northern part of India. Thus this ethnomedicinal information possibly followed a sea route, since the plant has similar ethnomedicinal uses in Andaman and Nicobar Islands as well as West Papua.

The use of Costus speciosus for treatment of jaundice and liver-related diseases is practically limited to India as per the various ethnomedicinal reports. The various ethnic communities or traditional practitioners utilizing the plant for this purpose include local herbal practitioners of Darjeeling District of Eastern Himalaya in India; tribal people of Golaghat District, Assam, India; local people (including tribals) of Sikkim State and adjoining Darjeeling Hill District of West Bengal, India; Mahadev Koli, Thakar, Ramoshi, Bhil tribes of Akole Tehasil of Ahmednagar District, Maharashtra State, India; local traditional healers of Arunachal Pradesh, India; Memba tribe of DehangDebang Biosphere Reserve of Arunachal Pradesh, India; tribals (Oraon, Bhrior, Agaria, Korwa, Nagesia, Baiga, Gondiya) of Raigarh (Chhattisgarh State), India; and tribal and non-tribal healers of Vellore district, Tamil Nadu, India. Again, it is difficult to envision how in the absence of any tribal migration or independent ethnomedicinal discoveries, similar ethomedicinal uses have been reported in the southern coastal states of Maharashtra and Tamil Nadu and the northeastern regions (Sikkim, Assam, West Bengal, Arunachal Pradesh) of India, unless by sea route. The exception is Chhatisgarh State, but that adjoins Maharashtra State, and so ethnomedicinal information could have been carried from Maharashtra to Chhattisgarh or the opposite through a land route. It may be reemphasized here that we are assuming that ethnomedicinal discovery was first made by one or more adjoining tribes and which later got transmitted to other ethnic groups in distant regions.

Consensus also exists on the use of the plant to treat helmintic infections. Use of the plant as an anthelmintic agent has been reported for folk medicinal practitioners of three villages of Natore and Rajshahi Districts, Bangladesh; folk medicinal practitioners of seven villages of Ishwardi Upazila, Pabna District, Bangladesh; tribal people of Sitamata wildlife sanctuary, Rajasthan, India; aboriginal tribes (Nicobarese, Shompen, Jarawas, Sentinels, Ongese, Great Andamanese) of Bay Islands (Andaman and Nicobar islands), India; Gond tribe of Adilabad district, Andhra Pradesh, India; and local people (including tribals) of Sikkim State and adjoining Darjeeling Hill District of West Bengal, India.

Overall, existing ethnomedicinal reports strongly point to the medicinal value of Costus speciosus and suggests that the plant can be more researched upon by scientists towards possible discovery of newer drugs against a variety of diseases. And although the discussion is very speculative considering the dearth of anthropological reports on the origins and interactions between indigenous communities of the Indian sub-continent, the review at least points out that valuable anthropological information can be gleaned from ethnomedicinal studies as well as the other way around. Such information is important for it can provide a clue as to how and why people throughout the centuries have chosen certain plants and not others for therapeutic purposes.

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Sophia Hossain, Shahnaz Rahman, Md. Tanvir Morshed, Mahbuba Haque, Sharmin Jahan, Rownak Jahan, Mohammed Rahmatullah Faculty of Life Sciences, University of Development Alternative, Dhanmondi, Dhaka-1209, Bangladesh.

Received: November 03, 2013; Revised: January 13, 2014; Accepted: January 17, 2014

Corresponding Author: Professor Dr. Mohammed Rahmatullah, Pro-Vice Chancellor, University of Development Alternative, House No. 78, Road No. 11A (new), Dhanmondi R/A, Dhaka-1209, Bangladesh. Phone: 88-01715032621 Fax: 88-02-8157339 E-mail: rahamatm@hotmail.com

Table 1: Ethnomedicinal uses of Costus speciosus (J. Koenig) Sm.
(Costaceae).

Serial         Tribe/people and location          Ailment(s) treated
Number

1            Folk medicines of remote areas           Leucorrhea,
               of Madhya Pradesh, India.          clearing of urine.

2           Folk medicinal practitioners of           Leucorrhea,
              three villages of Natore and          helminthiasis,
            Rajshahi Districts, Bangladesh.           dermatitis,
                                                      appetizer,
                                                      impotency,
                                                  glassiness of skin.
3             Chakma and Tonchongya tribes            Leucorrhea.
               of Chittagong Hill Tracts
                  Region, Bangladesh.

4           Folk medicinal practitioners of       Leucorrhea, urinary
            six villages in Greater Naogaon        problems arising
                 District, Bangladesh.                   from
                                                   endocrinological
                                                     disorders or
                                                  diabetes (meho), to
                                                    keep head cool,
                                                  burning sensations
                                                     in the body.

5              Used by tribals of Kamrup              Leucorrhea,
                district, Assam, India.               impotency.

6             Bhilala tribals in Buldhana            Aphrodisiac,
              District, Maharashtra State,           urinary tract
                         India.                       infections.

7           Folk medicinal practitioners of             Fever,
               seven villages of Ishwardi           helminthiasis,
                Upazila, Pabna District,                asthma.
                      Bangladesh.

8            Temuan tribe in Kampung Jeram         Fever, influenza.
                Kedah, Negeri Sembilan,
                       Malaysia.

9            Khasi, Garo and Jaintia tribal             Fever.
               sacred groves of Meghalaya
                     State, India.

10          Magar tribe of Bukini, Baglung,      Fever, pain, coughs,
                     Western Nepal.                  and as tonic.

11           Bilaspur, Chhattisgarh, India.       Burning, stimulant,
                                                    skin diseases,
                                                  bronchitis, fever.

12              Kadazandusun communities          Asthma, influenza.
            living around the Crocker Range
                    Sabah, Malaysia.

13             Tribal people of Sitamata            Asthma, sexual
             wildlife sanctuary, Rajasthan,       debility, nematode
                         India.                  infections, diarrhea,
                                                  dysentery, stomach
                                                         ache.

14           Aboriginal tribes (Nicobarese,       Stomach disorders,
              Shompen, Jarawas, Sentinels,             headache,
              Ongese, Great Andamanese) of         purgative, tonic,
                Bay Islands (Andaman and            helminthiasis,
                Nicobar islands), India.             diarrhea, eye
                                                  trouble, sudorific,
                                                   high fever, snake
                                                    bite, ear ache.

15          Thakar tribe of Raigad district,          Snake bite,
                  Maharashtra, India.                  headache.

16           Tribes of Upper Assam, India.         Gastrointestinal
                                                       diseases.

17          Kannikar tribals of Kanyakumari        Pain from decayed
              district, Tamil Nadu, India.         tooth, diarrhea.

18            Munda tribe of West Dinajpur             Diarrhea,
             district, West Bengal, India.          spermatorrhea.

19          Gond tribe of Adilabad district,        Helminthiasis,
                 Andhra Pradesh, India.                 tonic.

20               Northern Lacandon Maya             Eye irritation.
               community of Lacanja Chan
               Sayab and Naha', Chiapas,
                        Mexico.

21            Local population of Kutchum            Otitis media.
              district, Yasothon Province,
                       Thailand.

22              Bhil, Garasia, Damor and            Asthma, sexual
              Kathadia tribes of southern              debility.
                   Rajasthan, India.

23                Indigenous people of             Ear pain, stomach
                 Manokwari, West Papua.               ache, food
                                                      poisoning.

24           Bhutias, Lepchas and Nepalese             Fever and
              of Sikkim Himalayas, India.           inflammation in
                                                        cattle.

25           Bhil tribe of Jhabua District,        Fever in cattle.
                 Madhya Pradesh, India.

26         Traditional healers of Darjeeling            Fever.
                   Himalayas, India.

27          Herbalists of Southern Thailand.            Fever.

28               Sikkim and Darjeeling                 Diabetes.
              Himalayan tribes of India -
              Nepalese healers (Jhankris,
              Bijuwas, Fedangwas), Lepcha
               healers (Bongthings, Mon-
               Bonthings), Lamas (Bhutia
                        priest).
29          Folk medicinal practitioners of       Diabetes, acidity,
          three villages of Jessore District,       rheumatic pain,
                      Bangladesh.                   ordinary pain.

30           Villagers in Nalbari District,            Diabetes.
                     Assam, India.

31         Paliyar tribes in Madurai District          Diabetes.
                 of Tamil Nadu, India.

32           Local herbal practitioners of        Burning sensations
             Darjeeling District of Eastern        during urination,
                   Himalaya in India.             jaundice, diabetes,
                                                   kidney diseases.
33            Ethnic people of Semi-Malnad             Diabetes.
                area of Hassan District,
                   Karnataka, India.

34             Local aboriginal people of             Bronchitis,
           Velliangiri Hills in the Southern       diabetes, asthma.
              Western Ghats of Tamil Nadu,
                         India.

35             Tribal people of Golaghat          Jaundice, diabetes.
                District, Assam, India.

36             People of Almora district,           Boils, ventral
                  Uttarakhand, India.              disease, urinary
                                                   tract infection,
                                                       diabetes.
37          Folk medicinal practitioners of           Body pain.
            three villages of Panchagarh and
                  Thakurgaon District,
                      Bangladesh.
38            Malayali tribe of Pachamalai              Wounds.
               Hills, Tamil Nadu, India.

39               Chakma communities of             To stop bleeding.
                Chittagong Hill Tracts,
                      Bangladesh.

40          Tribal people (mostly Santal and        Joint swelling,
             Kolha) of Mayurbhanj District,           germicidal,
                     Orissa, India.                   toothache.

41          Folk medicinal practitioners of           Rheumatoid
             Dinajpur District, Bangladesh.           arthritis.

42             Ethnic people of Kalahandi             Rheumatism.
              District of Odisha (Orissa),
                         India.

43           Khasi tribe of Khasi Hills of            Bronchitis,
                   Meghalaya, India.                 inflammation,
                                                        anemia,
                                                      rheumatism.
44           Local tribal people of Eastern           Rheumatism.
                     Ghats, India.

45              Bhoxa tribe of Dehradun               Rheumatism.
             District, Uttarakhand, India.

46           Tribals of Madhya Pradesh and            Rheumatism,
                     Chhattisgarh.                asthma/ bronchitis.

47          Folklore herbalists and Tripuri       Coughs in children;
           tribal practitioners of south and         cold, coughs,
            west districts of Tripura State,        dyspepsia, and
                         India.                    asthma in adults.

48            Folklore medicinal plants of         Viral hepatitis,
             Chutia, Deori, Ahoms, Sonowal-      rheumatoid arthritis.
                Kocharis, Tea-tribes of
                Mahmora Area, Sivasagar
                District, Assam, India.

49           Aborigines (Bhumijs, Birhores          Rheumatic pain.
                Kherias, Mundas, Oraons,
           Santals) of Purulia District, West
                     Bengal, India.

50            Baiga, Gond, Korku and other         Rheumatism, gout,
             tribals of Balaghat District,          worm repellent.
                 Madhya Pradesh, India.

51            Korku, Gond, Bhil, Bhilala,          Rheumatism, pain
             Naik, Mankar and Nihal tribals       in bones, bronchial
              of East Nimar region, Madhya              asthma.
                    Pradesh, India.

52          Local people (including tribals)        Gout, jaundice,
             of Sikkim State and adjoining        anemia, bronchitis,
            Darjeeling Hill District of West       fever, stimulant,
                     Bengal, India.              helminthiasis, anti-
                                                     inflammatory,
                                                    urinary stones.
53          Folk medicinal practitioners of           Impotency.
           Vitbilia village in Sujanagar sub-
              district of Pabna District,
                      Bangladesh.

54          Folk medicinal practitioners of            Erectile
             Station Purbo Para Village of           dysfunction,
               Jamalpur Sadar Upazila in           low sperm count.
             Jamalpur District, Bangladesh.

55           Folk medicinal practitioner of        Sexual disorders
             Tangail District, Bangladesh.        (low density semen,
                                                 erectile dysfunction,
                                                     and premature
                                                  ejaculation), blood
                                                   in urine, kidney
                                                   stone (symptoms:
                                                    weakness, lower
                                                  abdominal pain, 1-2
                                                    drops of urine
                                                   coming out only,
                                                  burning sensations
                                                  during urination).

56             Sinpho tribe of Arunachal              Respiratory
                    Pradesh, India.                blockage, burning
                                                   sensations during
                                                      urination.

57                Indigenous medicinal              Kidney trouble,
            practitioners of Mizoram, North      leprosy, kidney/gall
                      East India.                   bladder stones,
                                                     tonsillitis.

58           Plain tribes of Assam, India.             Leprosy.

59               Mahadev Koli, Thakar,                 Jaundice.
             Ramoshi, Bhil tribes of Akole
            Tehasil of Ahmednagar District,
               Maharashtra State, India.

60            Local traditional healers of             Jaundice.
               Arunachal Pradesh, India.

61            Memba tribe of Dehang-Debang         Jaundice, thirst,
             Biosphere Reserve of Arunachal           nutrition.
                    Pradesh, India.

62          Tribals (Oraon, Bhrior, Agaria,          Liver related
                 Korwa, Nagesia, Baiga,                diseases.
                  Gondiya) of Raigarh
                 (Chhatisgarh), India.
63          Mahadev, Koli and Thakar tribes         Mucus, asthma,
                of Western Ghats, India.          fevers, bronchitis,
                                                     leprosy, skin
                                                   diseases, urinary
                                                      complaints,
                                                  otorrhea, deafness,
                                                    ear complaints.

64          Local people (Gond, Bhil, Baiga,      Burning sensations,
              Korku, Bhadia, Halba, Kaul,            constipation,
              Mariya tribes) of Amarkantak           leprosy, worm
             Region, Madhya Pradesh, India.        infections, skin
                                                   diseases, fever,
                                                  asthma, bronchitis,
                                                    inflammations,
                                                        anemia.
65           Marma tribe of Naikhongchhari,       Ear pain, formation
            Bandarban District, Bangladesh.         of pus in ears,
                                                   eczema or itches
                                                   around the nails.

66           Kani tribes of Kottoor Reserve       Otalgia (ear pain).
                Forest, Agasthya Vanam,
              Thiruvananthapuram District,
                  Kerala State, India.

67           Thakur, Mahadev, Koli, Varli,        Protection of crop
              Katkari and Kokana tribes of              plants.
              Tal-Mokhada, Thane District,
                         India.

68             Chakma tribe of Rangamati              Hydrocele.
                 District, Bangladesh.

69           Garo tribe of Madhupur Forest          Inflammation of
                  region, Bangladesh.                    eye.

70            Folk medicinal practitioners            Gonorrhea.
          of several Districts of Bangladesh.

71          Folk medicinal practitioners of        Respiratory tract
               Puthia Upazila in Rajshahi         disorders, sexually
                 District, Bangladesh.           transmitted diseases
                                                   like syphilis or
                                                      gonorrhea.

72           Lepcha tribe of Dzongu valley,        Venereal disease,
               bordering Khangchendzonga             urinary tract
              Biosphere Reserve, in north             infection.
                     Sikkim, India.

73               Tribal and non-tribal            Fish poison to stun
              communities of south Surguja          and catch fish.
            District of Chhattisgarh State,
                         India.
74          Gond tribal of Mendha village of        Fish poison to
                     Central India.                stupefy and catch
                                                   fish, nutritious
                                                       delicacy.
75             Chenchu, Yerukala, Sugali               Ringworm
              (Lambadas) and Yanadi ethnic            infections.
              groups of Kurnool District,
                 Andhra Pradesh, India.

76             Kaani tribe of Kanyakumari           Skin diseases.
              District, Tamil Nadu, India.

77            Sacred groves of the Meitei              Dog bite.
              community in Manipur, India.

78             Chakma, Marma, and Tripura           Contraceptive.
            tribe of Chittagong Hill Tracts,
                      Bangladesh.

79                 Assamese and Bodo                  Strangury.
                 communities of Gohpur,
            Sonitpur District, Assam, India.

80           Herbalists of Ubon Ratchathani       Infectious diseases
                  Province, Thailand.             in early childhood.

81              Raji tribal community of                Boils.
               Champawat and Pithoragarh
           Districts of Uttaranchal Pradesh,
                         India.

82            Tribal communities of Salagu             Used as a
             Panchayati of Paderu Mandalam,           galactogue.
             Visakhapatnam district, Andhra
                    Pradesh, India.
83           Tribal and non-tribal healers         Liver disorders.
            of Vellore district, Tamil Nadu,
                         India.

Serial     Part of plant used with formulation, if
Number                       any

1                           Roots.

2              Tuber (rhizome) juice is taken.

3               Root juice is mixed with equal
              amount of water in which rice has
             been washed. One teaspoonful of the
             mixture is taken twice daily for one
              week (Chakma tribe). About an inch
            portion of root is crushed, mixed with
              molasses, and taken in the morning
               on an empty stomach for 5-7 days
                (Chakma and Tonchonga tribes).

4            For leucorrhea, macerated roots are
              taken with sugar twice daily on an
             empty stomach for 7 days. For meho,
              2-3 pieces of root are taken with
                sugar twice daily on an empty
               stomach for 7 days. To keep head
            cool and for burning sensations in the
             body, roots of Costus speciosus are
               macerated with roots of Coccinia
              grandis, stems of Ipomoea aquatica
             and Enydra fluctuans and applied to
                the head to keep head cool and
               reduce burning sensations in the
                            body.

5                           Tuber.

6               Spoonful rhizome powder with a
              glass of water in empty stomach is
              taken as an aphrodisiac. Juice of
            rhizome is taken to cure urinary tract
                         infections.
7             Root juice is orally administered.

8           Infusion of stem base is taken orally.

9                      Roots are used.

10                          Root.

11                      Root, rhizome.

12          Peeled stems are steeped in hot water
                    and taken by patient.

13            One teaspoon root powder is taken
             twice a day for 3-4 days for asthma
             and sexual debility. Two teaspoon of
              root powder is taken once a day in
             the morning for 3 days for nematode
             infections. Decoction of root powder
              is given to children for two days
             twice a day for diarrhea, dysentery
                      and stomach ache.

14             Rhizomes are cooked and eaten as
            purgative and tonic. Roots are used as
               a tonic and eaten with sugar as
              anthelmintic. Crushed stem sap is
             given for diarrhea and eye trouble.
            Leaf infusion or decoction is used as
            a sudorific or in a bath for patients
             with high fever. Fresh rhizome juice
             is considered purgative, and is also
            used in snake bites, headache, and ear
                            ache.

15                       Whole plant.

16                      Not reported.

17            Tuber. Paste of tuber with common
             salt is applied on decayed tooth to
              relieve pain. Paste of tuber with
              common salt and garlic is a remedy
                     taken for diarrhea.

18            Rhizome. Rhizome paste along with
           a little 'gur' (jaggary) is taken early
              morning on an empty stomach for 7
             days to cure diarrhea. Rhizome paste
            along with a little honey and a cup of
              warm goat milk is taken at bedtime
             for 7-14 days to cure spermatorrhea.

19              Rhizome. Rhizome is taken for
                helminthiasis and as a tonic.

20          Plant sap is applied directly to eyes.

21                          Stem.

22             One teaspoonful tuber powder is
               taken twice a day for 3-4 days.

23                      Stem is used.

24           Rhizome powder (about 20g) is given
                    twice daily to cattle.

25           Root paste is given to cattle once a
                      day for two days.

26           Root (5-10g) is made into paste and
             taken with jaggery in empty stomach
                        for 4-6 days.

27                    Rhizomes are used.

28            Decoction of rhizome (10-20 ml) is
             taken 2-3 times daily for 2-4 weeks.

29          Leaves of Costus speciosus are chewed
                 with one leaf of Piper betle
              to immediately reduce sugar during
            diabetes. Juice from macerated leaves
               of Costus speciosus and Mikania
             cordata are taken for flatulence or
             stomach pain during acidity. Leaves,
                 alternately, whole plants of
              Hemidesmus indicus are mixed with
            leaves of Costus speciosus and rokto-
            katari plant (unidentified), soft pulp
             (musabbar) from leaves of Aloe vera,
             and oil from Gangetic river dolphin
               (Platanista gangetica) and then
            boiled with ghee (clarified butter) or
            mustard oil and then applied to areas
              affected with common or rheumatic
                            pain.
30               Rhizome paste taken orally.

31              Powdered leaves are taken with
                         cow's milk.
32           Rhizomes, roots and stems are used.

33                         Leaves.

34              Leaves and rhizomes are used.

35                     Rhizome is used.

36                      Not mentioned.

37           Juice obtained from crushed roots is
           applied to affected areas for 3-4 days.

38           Leaf of the plant is mixed with the
                 leaves of Cynodon dactylon,
               Glycyrrhiza glabra, Canna indica
              and stem bark of Punica granatum.
            The juice extracted from this mixture
           is applied topically on affected places
                       to heal wounds.
39                  Root extract is used.

40           Rhizome paste is directly applied to
                 joint swellings and used as
             germicidal. Rhizomes are chewed for
                          toothache.

41           Juice obtained from macerated leaves
                  and stems is taken orally.

42             Rhizomes of Vitis auriculata and
                Costus speciosus are grounded
             together and the paste taken orally.

43              Rhizome is cut and ground into
               pieces and the powder is eaten.

44                          Tuber.

45            The roots are grounded, mixed with
               mustard oil and made into paste,
              which is applied externally to get
                   relief from rheumatism.

46                     Roots are used.

47            Young shoot, rhizome. Young shoot
            is crushed and boiled with a pinch of
            salt and given orally (1-2 cups) twice
             a day for 15 days to cure coughs in
              children. Fresh rhizome is crushed
            and the extract is mixed with a glass
              of boiled milk for adult ailments.

48           Fresh root (50g) is mixed with goat
             milk (50 ml) and sugar (25g) and is
              taken orally in empty stomach for
            viral hepatitis. Fresh root (2-3g) is
                mixed with rhizome of Curcuma
             domestica (8-10g), common salt (5g)
               and cow milk (50 ml). It is then
            boiled and strained. The filtrate (15
           ml) is taken orally twice a day for 3-4
               days for treatment of rheumatoid
                          arthritis.

49             Warm rhizome paste is applied on
            waist and legs to cure rheumatic pain.

50          Infusion of root is given internally.

51               Rhizome extract is taken in
                rheumatism and pain in bones.
                Crushed leaves are inhaled in
                      bronchial asthma.

52              Rhizome decoction is given in
             urinary stones. For other ailments,
                 roots and rhizomes are used.

53              Root paste along with honey is
                    applied to sex organ.

54           Juice obtained from the base of the
            plant (locally called motha) is taken
                           orally.

55          For sexual disorders, leaves or tubers
              of Costus speciosus are mixed with
              stems of Abroma augusta, macerated
             to obtain juice, and syrup prepared
            from juice. One cup of syrup is taken
                  twice daily for one month.
             For blood in urine or kidney stones,
             juice obtained from macerated stems
               of Costus speciosus and roots of
                Thespesia lampas is mixed with
             makardhwaj (*) to prepare syrup. 2-3
            2-teaspoonfuls of the syrup are taken
                  3 times daily for 7 days.
                (*) Makardhwaj is prepared by
            blending 4 tolas (1 tola approximates
           11.6g) of purified gold with 8 tolas of
            purified mercury. 16 tolas of purified
            sulfur is added gradually to the above
              mixture in small quantities over a
             period of 7 days and blended for 6-7
               hours each day to form Kajjali.
             Kajjali is then treated three times
             with juice obtained from red flowers
             of Bombax ceiba. The mixture is then
           dried and transferred to a glass flask.
            The flask is then layered 7 times with
              cloth plastered with wet mud/clay
             and boiled for 24 hours. On cooling,
             red-colored makardhwaj is obtained.

56               Fresh roots are taken during
              respiratory blockage and stems are
             eaten for burning sensations during
                          urination.

57          Cold infusion of the rhizome is taken
            orally for kidney trouble and leprosy;
          crushed juice of roots is taken internally
           for the removal of stones in kidney/gall
           bladder; the leaves are boiled and the
            water taken as remedy for tonsillitis.

58             Rhizome in the form of paste is
                       applied locally.

59           Decoction is prepared by adding 10g
              of rhizome along with water and a
            cup of this decoction is taken orally
             early in the morning for three days.
             Also the root juice of the plant is
               mixed with leaves of Azadirachta
              indica crushed in water and taken
                     orally for 3-4 days.

60         Fresh juice of rhizome is taken orally.

61             Rhizome and stem are eaten. Stem
              juice is taken to get relief from
                     jaundice and thirst.

62            Rhizomes are crushed with rhizomes
               of Zingiber officinale and half
              teaspoon expressed juice is taken
                  internally for seven days.

63            Rhizomes are used as expectorant,
                 and used in asthma, fevers,
            bronchitis, leprosy, and topically in
              skin diseases. Rhizomes are given
              orally during urinary complaints,
             otorrhoea (discharge from the ear),
             deafness, and other ear complaints.

64                    Rhizomes are used.

65           Juice obtained from macerated leaves
               and stems is topically applied.

66            Stem is heated to high temperature
            and lukewarm juice extract is used as
                          ear drops.

67           Plants are planted around fields of
              crop plants to protect crop plants
                    from various diseases.

68             Boiled leaves are macerated and
                     applied to scrotum.

69           Juice of rhizome along with sugar is
            administered for inflammation of eye.
             The dose is 1/2-1 chatak (29-58g)
               twice daily in the morning. The
                rhizome is also eaten boiled.

70                      Not reported.

71                      Not reported.

72                  Root/rhizome is taken.

73                         Rhizome.

74           Crushed tuberous rootstock is mixed
             in water for fish poisoning. Tubers
             are consumed as nutritious delicacy
                        after boiling.

75           The rhizome and leaf (1:1 ratio) is
                made into paste with water and
                externally applied once a day.

76              Rhizome is made into paste and
                     applied externally.

77                      Not reported.

78          Seed powder is used as contraceptive.

79            Root juice (200 ml) is given for a
                            week.

80                    Rhizomes are used.

81          Paste of rhizome is applied on boils.

82                        Rhizomes.

83                Whole plant. Decoction of
               Phyllanthus amarus, Glycyrrhiza
               glabra, and Costus speciosus is
               mixed with 500 ml sesame oil and
            boiled to dehydrate and then filtered.
             The oil is applied to the patient's
            head, and the patient given bath twice
                           a week.

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Number

1         Tripathy et al., [104].

2           Rahmatullah et al.,
                   [74].

3           Rahmatullah et al.,
                   [75].

4           Rahmatullah et al.,
                   [76].

5          Deka and Kalita, [24].

6             Korpenwar, [54].

7           Hasan et al., [32].

8            Ong et al., [67].

9           Jeeva et al., [41].

10             Sapkota, [90].

11              Patel, [69].

12           Ahmad and Ismail, [2].

13           Jain et al., [36].

14           Das et al., [23].

15          Singh et al., [95].

16          Borah et al., [14].

17         Renuga and Bai, [86].

18         Mitra and Mukherjee, [62].

19             Murthy, [65].

20            Kashanipour and
                McGee, [46].

21         Chuakul et al., [19].

22           Jain et al., [37].

23              Lense, [56].

24          Bharati and Sharma,
                    [9].

25           Maheshwari et al.,
                   [57].
26             Chhetri, [17].

27         Chuakul et al., [19].

28         Chhetri et al., [18].

29          Islam et al., [35].

30            Chakravarty and
               Kalita, [16].

31          Ignacimuthu et al.,
                    2006

32         Yonzone et al., [109].

33             Ravikumar and
            Theerthavathy, [83].

34           Samydurai et al.,
                   [89].

35          Barukial and Sarmah,
                    [5].

36          Kumari et al., [55].

37          Rahmatullah et al.,
                   [77].

38          Bhaskar and Samant,
                   [10].

39          Khisha et al., [50].

40           Jena et al., [42].

41           Rahmatullah et al,
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42          Mallik et al, [59].

43          Kayang et al., [48].

44        Pattanaik et al., [70].

45        Sharma and Painuli, [94].

46           Jain et al., [36].

47        Majumdar and Datta, [58].

48             Acharyya and
                Sharma, [1].

49            Chakraborty and
           Bhattarcharjee, [15].

50           Jain et al., [40].

51           Ray et al., [84].

52           Hussain and Hore,
                   [33].

53          Rahmatullah et al.,
                   [74].

54          Rahmatullah et al.,
                   [79].

55          Haque et al., [31].

56         Khongsai et al., [51].

57                Rai and
             Lalramnghinglova,
                   [82].

58          Begum and Nath, [7].

59          Khyade et al., [53].

60         Shankar et al., [93].

61          Rethy et al., [87].

62         Jain and Singh, [39].

63         Wabale et al., [108].

64          Srivastava et al.,
                   [98].

65          Rahmatullah et al.,
                   [73].

66         Vijayan et al., [107].

67         Sonawane et al., [97].

68           Esha et al., [29].

69           Mia et al., [61].

70           Rahmatullah et al,
                   [75].
71          Mollik et al, [64].

72          Pradhan and Badola,
                   [71].

73              Kala, [44].

74            Kamalkishor and
              Kulkarni, [45].

75             Subbaiah and
             Savithramma, [10].

76          Johnsy et al., [43].

77            Khumbongmayum et
                 al., [52].

78          Biswas et al, [13].

79             Saikia, [88].

80              Chuakul and
              Boonpleng, [19].

81           Negi et al., [66].

82          Padal et al., [68].

83          Thirunarayanan and
              Rajkumar, [103].
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Title Annotation:Research Article
Author:Hossain, Sophia; Rahman, Shahnaz; Morshed, Tanvir; Haque, Mahbuba; Jahan, Sharmin; Jahan, Rownak; Ra
Publication:American-Eurasian Journal of Sustainable Agriculture
Article Type:Report
Geographic Code:9BANG
Date:Dec 1, 2013
Words:11106
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