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Trends in Risk-Based Thinking and Risk Management Methods in Czech Plastic Cluster Production Companies.

JEL M00M21

This paper presents the results of an initial study of production companies from the Czech plastic cluster. It discusses the low level of integration of risk-based thinking and methods of risk management in the processes of these companies, three main reason for this activity is a requirement of the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) 9001:2015 Quality Management System.

Companies certified under the previous norm ISO 9001:2008 had to solve internal and external nonconformities after creation of the 2015 rules. New risk-based thinking must be planned and realized before a system or process nonconformity occurs (ISO 9001:2015). Sitnikov et al. (Amfiteatru Economic, 2017) mentioned that new versions of the norm ISO 9001:2015 introduced the integration of quality management systems, continuous improvement, and corporate risk management.

Our research focused on two main questions: How companies in the Czech plastic cluster are responding to the new requirement, their actions to address risks and opportunities, and if the proposed solution exceeds the requirements of norm ISO 9001:2015. The authors also conducted extensive research focused on the utilization level of business process management in Czech manufacturing companies in 2006 and 2012. The research covered goals, factors, components, support, benefits of and barriers to process management, and risk management.

Thirty-five medium-sized production companies of the Czech plastic cluster were contacted via email and 30 (86%) correspondents answered all 19 open-ended and closed questions. This questionnaire was designed to measure the level and implementation methods of risk-based thinking, as well as methods of risk management that had been used.

According to the implementation level of risk-based thinking in their quality management system, six companies out of 30 respondents were contacted to participate in structured interviews. The results of the research were confirmed by the senior auditor of the Czech company TUV NORD. Descriptive statistics were used to analyze the data.

The results indicate that 15 companies (50% of correspondents) of the Czech plastic cluster have already started implementing the norm 9001:2015. Chiariny's (The TQM Journal, 2016,) research in small-and medium-sized manufacturing enterprises points out the lack of experience of these companies in dealing with risk-based thinking according to the norm ISO 9001: 2015. These 15 companies (50%) created a register of risks and opportunities, where risks were measured as a combination of the consequences of an event and the likelihood of occurrence. Other important data (such as the description of the problem, risk treatment action, responsibility and dates of fulfilment) were mentioned in this register.

Important and high priority risks were treated with corrective actions. The risk management process was not implemented in these companies. The process manager had to integrate the actions into the company's quality management system processes and evaluate their effectiveness (ISO 9001: 2015). These companies did not evaluate the effectiveness of the corrective action to validate it. Wong (Accredited Quality Assurance, 2017) applied the plan-do-check-act (PDCA) cycle to the quality management system of a laboratory to assess risk. This specific form of PDCA cycle involves a never-ending cycle of risk assessment, planning, monitoring and review (Wong, Accredited Quality Assurance, 2017). The companies in the study did not apply data received from the feedback, claims, and nonconformities into the risk and quality management system. In short, they did not search for the root cause of nonconformity.

Nine companies (30%) that replied have integrated the process of design and development of products into their quality management system. These companies have used the failure mode and effects analysis (FMEA) method in the process of design and development. Twenty-seven companies (90%) used one or all of the following methods for risk identification in the production process: brainstorming, fishbone diagram, checklist, and structured interviews.

The researched companies did not create new position within their organizations to assure the risk management process. The risk management responsibilities should include: setting up and managing the risk management process, defining rules and systems of risk management, and implementing, monitoring, measuring, analyzing, and evaluating the effective risk management system. Risk-based thinking in Czech plastic cluster companies is the duty of managers responsible for individual processes or quality management.

Acknowledgments The authors thank the Internal Grant Agency of FaME TBU No. RO/2016/03, VaV-IP-RO/2016/03 ("Parameters modelling for effective production and administrative processes in industrial companies based on Industry 4.0 concept") and Internal Grant Agency of FaME TBU No. IGA/FaME/2015/030 (Evaluation model of crgonomic principles in Czech companies) for the financial support to carry out this research.

Publisher's Note Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.

[??] David Tucek

tucek@fame.utb.cz

David Tucek (1)[iD] Lucie Hrbackova (1)

David Tucek (1)[iD] Lucie Hrbackova (1)

(1) Tomas Bata University in Zlin. nam. T.G. Masaryka 5555, 760 01 Zlin, Czech Republic

https://doi.org/10.1007/s11294-019-097294
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Title Annotation:RESEARCH NOTE
Author:Tucek, David; Hrbackova, Lucie
Publication:International Advances in Economic Research
Date:May 1, 2019
Words:806
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