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Treatment of rheumatoid arthritis with biological agents --as a typical and common immune-mediated inflammatory disease.

Introduction

Molecular and cellular understanding of human diseases is critical for dissecting the mechanisms of pathogenesis and may provide a clue for developing innovative treatment. Among human diseases such as cancers, infections, and metabolic disease, there is a group of inflammatory diseases mediated by immunological mechanisms without apparent etiologies, called immune-mediated inflammatory diseases (IMIDs) including rheumatoid arthritis, inflammatory bowel diseases, and psoriasis. (1,2) While the human immune system involves highly complex and coordinated processes, it has been demonstrated that cytokines are overexpressed and T- and B-cells are accumulated in affected tissues in IMIDs. (1,2) These key players have been postulated as the potential targets for intervention. Indeed, novel therapeutic antibodies targeted against single molecules that are intimately associated with disease pathogenesis, have led to significantly better outcomes of diseases in clinical practice. (3-5) The therapeutic antibodies are classified into the category of drugs, designated as "biological agents" or "biologics", those are bioengineered to target specific proteins or nucleic acids. For instance, a common target of the inflammatory process is tumor necrosis factor (TNF), which is an inflammatory cytokine implicated in the pathogenesis of rheumatoid arthritis. Monoclonal antibodies against single cytokine, TNF alpha (TNF[alpha]), have made revolutionary changes in treatment for a range of conditions such as rheumatoid arthritis (RA), inflammatory bowel disease, ankylosing spondyritis, and psoriasis (Table 1). The miracle achieved in the treatment of the IMIDs is reviewed here with a focus on RA, which is a typical and common IMID. (6,7)

Pathogenesis of rheumatoid arthritis as a typical and common immune-mediated inflammatory disease

The immune system is beneficial to humans by protecting them from infections caused by bacteria or viruses. There are two major pathways of immunity: innate immunity as the first line of defense and acquired immunity that protects against specific pathogens. (8) There are unique diseases where inflammation is induced by the immune system, as seen in autoimmunity, and not by infection or malignancy. (9) The immune-mediated inflammatory diseases include gout, where urate crystals formed in the body elicit inflammation through the innate immune system, and RA, where autoimmunity plays a central role in perpetuating joint inflammation by breaking tolerance, which surveys and prevents the immune response against self (autoimmunity). RA affects 0.5% to 1.0% of the global population and is recognized as one of the common diseases in humans. RA is characterized by perpetual inflammation in the joint synovium leading to joint destruction and disability (Figure 1). (4,5) With respect to the pathogenesis of RA, auto-reactive lymphocytes including CD4+ T cells infiltrate into the joint through adhesion to the vessel wall by [alpha]4[beta]1 integrin--VCAM-1 and [alpha]L[beta]2 integrin-ICAM-1 as an initial step of inflammation of the joint. After infiltration into the joints, lymphocytes are further activated by antigen-presenting cells mounted with auto-antigens or by abundant extracellular matrix through receptors (Figure 2). An important requirement of T cell activation is co-stimulation through CD28, the absence of which leads to T cell anergy or death. Traditionally, T helper 1 cells are thought to be the T helper subset mediating the disease, but T helper 17 cells that produce IL-17A have been implicated in the pathogenesis. (4,5) Activated T cells and B cells work together to interact with synovial cells to produce a large number of inflammatory mediators, including pro-inflammatory cytokines (TNF[alpha] and IL-6), induce matrix metallo-proteinases (MMP), promote synovial proliferation, and induce osteoclast differentiation (Figure 2). Three major cell types of endothelial cells, T and B cells, and synovial cells are present in the synovial tissues in patients with RA. (4,5) Through interactions between these cells, pro-inflammatory cytokines such as TNF, and IL-6 are released, thereby facilitating the lowering of the threshold for pain and activating T cells, B cells, and macrophages (Figure 2). Activation of T cells is important in initiation and perpetuation of inflammation in RA. The hypothesis is corroborated by clinical efficacy of abatacept, an inhibitor against the co-stimulating molecule on T cells by substantial numbers of clinical trials. The inflammation is believed to result from or is perpetuated by autoanti-bodies such as anti-citrullinated peptide antibody and rheumatoid factors. (5) B cells are thought to be responsible for the production of these autoanti-bodies. The pathogenic role of CD20+ B cells has been validated by the efficacy of rituximab, a monoclonal antibody against CD20, in clinical trials.

RA treatment in the past

In the past, glucocorticoids and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs were prescribed but they are largely symptomatic treatments and do not sufficiently inhibit joint destruction. Approximately three decades ago, half of RA patients with high disease activity were bed-ridden 10 years after such treatment and their life expectancy was shortened by 10 years compared with the general population. Thus, RA has been recognized as a typical example of an intractable immune-mediated inflammatory disease. Options had previously been limited for patients whose disease did not respond to traditional disease-modifying anti-rheumatic drug (DMARDs) such as methotrexate.

In this regards, enormous efforts have been taken to develop new treatment options based on the molecular understanding for the key targets by biological agents (Figure 3).

Challenges toward miracle medicine: struggles with animal models and proof provided by clinical science

Several animal models of RA exist, including collagen-induced arthritis, collagen antibody-induced arthritis and TNF-alpha transgenic mice, which share characteristics with human RA. Although these models have limitations and do not encompass the complex mechanisms of RA, they are nevertheless invaluable in exploring disease pathogenesis and validating potential therapeutic strategies. The collagen-induced arthritis model, one of the induced arthritis models, suggested that IL-1 plays a central role in inducing arthritis, and antibodies against IL-1 and IL-1 knockout showed the dramatic prevention of the development of arthritis and inhibition of arthritis and joint destruction in the animal model. On the other hand, immunohistochemical staining of the synovial tissues from RA patients showed increased expression of TNF[alpha] not only in synovial-lining cells but also in subintimal tissues. (5,7) In addition, it was demonstrated that the anti-TNF[alpha] monoclonal antibody could ameliorate collagen-induced arthritis. (10) Given this evidence, there was much debate on whether IL-1 O blockade is more potent than anti-TNF[alpha] in clinical efficacy and prevention of joint destruction in these animal models. Following these observations, IL-6 was reported to be an attractive target in arthritis. (11) Three agents--a chimeric monoclonal antibody against TNF[alpha] infliximab; an IL-1 receptor antagonist, anakinra; and a humanized monoclonal antibody against the IL-6 receptor, tocilizumab--have been tested in clinical trials. (11,12) The efficacy of infliximab (13) and tocilizumab (14) was surprisingly excellent and they are widely used in clinical practice after completion of clinical trials and post-marketing clinical studies. (6,7) Now, these agents against TNF[alpha] and the IL-6 receptor are listed in the European League Against Rheumatism (EULAR) management guidelines and American College of Rheumatology (ACR) Guideline for the Treatment of RA, while IL-1 blockade is no longer positioned as a recommended biologic in RA treatment. (15,16) This is because of its modest effect compared with other biologics, and the increased frequency of serious adverse events when used in combination with other biologics. Instead, IL-1 blockade is efficacious in auto-inflammatory diseases, including TNF receptor 1-associated periodic syndrome, as well as juvenile idiopathic arthritis, adult-onset Still's disease, and gout (Table 1). These results again highlighted the importance of clinical science. Similar scenarios were observed with respect to IL-17 blockade, which was shown to ameliorate arthritis in mice models. However, the efficacy and safety of agents against IL-17 and IL-17 receptor failed to show results comparable with those of anti-TNF and anti-IL-6 receptor. (17) It is interesting to note that the blockade of IL-17 exhibits significant efficacy in patients with spondyloarthritis, psoriasis, and psoriatic arthritis, indicating that IL-17 plays an indispensable role not RA, but in other major immune-mediate inflammatory diseases. (17) The difference between the results of basic research and the clinical trial can be derived from the difference in cell lines and mice strains used in basic research, and the study design with various genetic backgrounds for clinical studies. The comprehensive information from appropriately evaluated basic and early and exploratory clinical studies would lead to the efficient drug development.

Cytokine cascade in RA

Given the efficacy of biologics against different targets, one wonders whether patients who respond to one biologic targeting X will differentially respond to another targeting Y. Also, does group A of RA patients treated with anti-TNF overlap with group B of patients who respond well to anti-IL-6 receptor? One interesting hypothesis may answer part of these questions. Feldmann and Maini found that the level of circulating IL-6 was significantly decreased several hours after infusing infliximab that target TNF[alpha]. This led to the introduction of a cytokine cascade hypothesis that TNF[alpha] is located upstream of IL-6 and regulates the level of IL-6, so that blockade of TNF[alpha] leads to down-regulation of IL-6 in patients with RA. (10) We confirmed this cytokine cascade hypothesis in the majority of RA patients and raised the possibility that a minor cascade from IL-17 to IL-6 and a TNF and GM-CSF circuit exists on top of IL-6 (Figure 4). As shown in the figure, blockade of IL-6 signaling lead to a broad range of changes in biomarkers such as sICAM-1, VEGF, osteonectin, osteopontin, osteocalcin, and bone alkaline phosphatase. (18) Interestingly, regulatory T cells (Treg) are increased after treatment with tocilizumab, indicating that the inhibition of IL-6 signaling may cancel the transcriptional downregulation of Foxp3, a master transcriptional regulator of Treg. Alternatively, inhibition of IL-6 may affect the action of TGF-[beta] on inducing Treg. (19) Importantly, the increased proportion of Treg among CD4+ T cells is associated with the maintenance of clinical remission of RA in tocilizumab treatment. (20)

In addition, our other study that analyzed data from the RISING study of infliximab suggested that inhibition of both TNF[alpha] and IL-6 are essential for remission in RA patients. (21) Even if patients are prescribed infliximab, which blocks TNF[alpha], the inhibition of IL-6 is dispensable for clinical remission. (22) Finally, blocking T cell co-stimulation by abatacept has shown to down-regulate circulating IL-6 levels in RA patients, (23) implying that T cells should play an important role in the cytokine cascade as an upstream position in RA (Figure 4).

Timing of introduction of biologies: ideal positioning of biologies

The timing of the introduction of biologics in RA treatment has been discussed extensively. In the 2015 ACR guideline, (16) initiation of a biologic or combination traditional DMARDs is recommended for patients with symptomatic early or established RA with moderate or high disease activity despite DMARD monotherapy. In the latest EULAR recommendations, (15) addition of a biologic to conventional DMARD is recommended if the treatment goal is not reached by 6 months.

The newest clinical trials are currently testing which treatment strategy is the most useful to achieve remission in established RA in Japan (SURPRISE study) and very early RA in the Netherlands (U-Act-Early study). (24,25) In the SURPRISE study, (24) adding tocilizumab to methotrexate (MTX) for those who respond inadequately to MTX is better than switching to tocilizumab as a significantly higher DAS28 remission rate was achieved at 6 months (69.6% vs. 55.0%, p < 0.05). In the U-Act-Early study, (25) disease duration of the patients was only 4 weeks after onset of initial symptoms and baseline joint destruction was zero, indicating that the recruited RA patients had very early stage disease. Sustained clinical remission was achieved in 80-90% of patients at 6 months in the tocilizumab monotherapy or tocilizumab + MTX combination groups. When we examined the clinical remission rate of these studies of tocilizumab monotherapy the collected data provided new information with regard to the timing of introduction of biologics in RA--initiation in those with short disease duration results in a greater likelihood of remission (Figure 5). One important clinical question here is whether we can stop biologics or not if we introduce biologics in earlier duration of the disease. There are several important clinical trials in early RA are reported to date, (26-29) but it is too early to conclude that we can achieve drug free remission by introducing biologics earlier.

Future perspectives

There are several concerns regarding biologics in the treatment of immune-mediated inflammatory diseases. We need to establish useful biomarkers to predict or monitor efficacy and safety. (6,17,30) By analyzing the mechanism of action of the biologics, our knowledge is exponentially increased so that innovative tools to guide treatment such as cytokine levels at baseline, monitoring of the concentration of biologics, and DNA chip prediction will be developed that will contribute to personalized or precision medicine in the near future. On-target side effects such as infection should also be managed. The RA patients that are the most difficult to treat are those with co-morbidities such as bacterial or viral infection, interstitial pneumonitis, and other diseases of the major organs. Reactivation of latent infection in RA patients is also problematic. In addition, the socioeconomic burdens of biologics should be solved by facilitating the development of biosimilars, thereby further cost-cutting the original biologic by efficient bioengineering, and developing targeted synthetic DMARDs that can functionally replace biologics such as cytokine signaling inhibitors (JAK inhibitors, BTK inhibitors, and so on). There are still large unmet needs in RA treatment, and the search for new unique targets, targets located upstream in the cascade, and safer targets are continuing.

doi: 10.2183/pjab.93.038

Acknowledgements

I would like to appreciate all staffs in Rheumatology division of Keio University School of Medicine for their hard work, all patients, as well as pharmaceutical companies to support clinical development in areas for the immune-mediated inflammatory diseases.

References

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(5) Smolen, J.S., Aletaha, D. and McInnes, I.B. (2016) Rheumatoid arthritis. Lancet 388, 2023-2038.

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(7) Takeuchi, T. (2011) Revolutionary change in rheumatoid arthritis management with biological therapy. Keio J. Med. 60, 75-81.

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(10) Feldmann, M., Elliot, M.J., Woody, J.N. and Maini, R.N. (1997) Anti-tumor necrosis factor-[alpha], therapy of rheumatoid arthritis. Adv. Immunol. 64, 283-350.

(11) Kishimoto, T. (1997) Interleukin-6 from basic science to medicine: 40 years in immunology. Annu. Rev. Immunol. 23, 1-21.

(12) Kishimoto, T. (2010) IL-6: from its discovery to clinical applications. Int. Immunol. 22, 347-352.

(13) Elliott, M.J., Maini, R.N., Feldmann, M., Kalden, J.R., Antoni, C., Smolen, J.S., Leeb, B., Breedveld, F.C., Macfarlane, J.D., Bijl, H. and Woody, J.N. (1994) Randomised double-blind comparison of chimeric monoclonal antibody to tumour necrosis factor alpha (cA2) versus placebo in rheumatoid arthritis. Lancet 344, 1105-1110.

(14) Nishimoto, N., Yoshizaki, K., Miyasaka, N., Kazuhiko, Y., Kawai, S., Takeuchi, T., Hashimoto, J., Azuma, J. and Kishimoto, T. (2004) Treatment of rheumatoid arthritis with humanized anti-IL-6 receptor monoclonal antibody: a muticenter, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Arthritis Rheum. 50, 1761-1769.

(15) Smolen, J.S. et al. (2017) EULAR recommendation for the management of rheumatoid arthritis with synthetic and biological disease-modifying anti-rheumatic drugs: 2016 update. Ann. Rheum. Dis. online March 6th.

(16) Singh, J.A. et al. (2016) 2015 American college of rheumatology guideline for the treatment rheumatoid arthritis. Arthritis Rheum. 68, 1-25.

(17) Semerano, L., Minichiello, E., Bessis, N. and Boissier, M.-C. (2016) Novel immuno-therapeutic avenues for rheumatoid arthritis. Trends Mol. Med. 22, 214-229.

(18) Izumi, K., Kaneko, K., Hashizume, M., Yoshimoto, K. and Takeuchi, T. (2015) Baseline osteopontin levels predict the clinical effectiveness of tocilizumab, but not infliximab in biologic-naive patients with rheumatoid arthritis: a single center prospective study at 1 year. PLoS One 10, e0145468.

(19) Campbell, D.J. and Koch, M.A. (2011) Phenotypical and functional specialization of [FOXP3.sup.+] regulatory T cells. Nat. Rev. Immunol. 11, 119-130.

(20) Kikuchi, J., Hashizume, M., Kaneko, Y., Yoshimoto, K., Nishina, N. and Takeuchi, T. (2015) Peripheral blood [CD4.sup.+][CD25.sup.+][CD127.sup.low] regulatory T cells are significantly increased by tocilizumab treatment in patients with rheumatoid arthritis: increase in regulatory T cells correlates with clinical response. Arthritis Res. Ther. 17, R10.

(21) Takeuchi, T., Miyasaka, N., Tatsuki, Y., Yano, T., Yoshinari, T., Abe, T. and Koike, T. (2011) Baseline tumor necrosis factor alpha levels predict the necessity for dose escalation of infliximab therapy in patients with rheumatoid arthritis. Ann. Rheum. Dis. 70, 1208-1215.

(22) Takeuchi, T., Miyasaka, N., Tatsuki, Y., Yano, T., Yoshinari, T., Abe, T. and Koike, T. (2012) Inhibition of plasma IL-6 in addition to maintain efficacious trough level of infliximab was associated with clinical remission in patients with rheumatoid arthritis: analysis of the RISING Study. Ann. Rheum. Dis. 71, 1583-1585.

(23) Weisman, M.H., Durez, P., Hallegua, D., Aranda, R., Becker, J.C., Nuamah, I., Vratsanos, G., Zhou, Y. and Moreland, L.W. (2006) Reduction of inflammatory biomarker response by abatacept in treatment of rheumatoid arthritis. J. Rheumatol. 33, 2162-2166.

(24) Kaneko, Y. et al. (2016) Comparison of adding tocilizumab to methotrexate with switching to tocilizumab in patients with rheumatoid arthritis with inadequate response to methotrexate: 52-week results from a prospective, randomised, controlled study (SURPRISE study). Ann. Rheum. Dis. 75, 1917-1923.

(25) Bijlsma, J.W., Welsing, P.M.J., Woodworth, T.G. et al. (2016) Early rheumatoid arthritis treated with tocilizumab, methotrexate, and their combination (U-Act-Early): a multi-center, randomised, double-blind, double-dummy, strategy trial. Lancet 388, 343-355.

(26) Emerly, P. et al. (2014) Sustained remission with eatenrcept tapering in early rheumatoid arthritis. N. Engl. J. Med. 371, 1781-1792.

(27) Nishimoto, N. et al. (2014) Drug free REmission/low disease activity after cessation of tocilizumab (Actemra) Monotherapy (DREAM) study. Mod. Rheumatol. 24, 17-25.

(28) Huizinga, T.W., Conaghan, P.G., Martin-Mola, E., Schett, G., Amital, H., Xavier, R.M., Troum, O., Aassi, M., Bernasconi, C. and Dougados, M. (2015) Clinical and radiographic outcomes at 2 years and the effect of tocilizumab discontinuation following sustained remission in the second and third year of the ACT-RAY study. Ann. Rheum. Dis. 74, 35-43.

(29) Emery, P., Burmester, G.R., Bykerk, V.P., Combe, B.G., Furst, D.E., Barre, E., Karyekar, C.S., Wong, D.A. and Huizinga, T.W. (2015) Evaluating drug-free remission with abatacept in early rheumatoid arthritis: results from the phase 3b, multicentre, randomised, active-controlled AVERT study of 24 months, with a 12-month, double-blind treatment period. Ann. Rheum. Dis. 74, 19-26.

(30) Takeuchi, T. (2017) Biomarkers as a treatment guide in rheumatoid arthritis. Clin. Immunol. 2017 Jul 20, pii: S1521-6616(17)30521-1. doi:10.1016/ j.clim.2017.07.019.

(Received Feb. 23, 2017; accepted June 7, 2017)

Profile

Tsutomu Takeuchi was born in 1955 in Nagano. He graduated from Keio University School of Medicine in 1980. After completion of post-graduate school of medicine at Keio University, he received Ph.D. degree in 1984. Subsequently, he was a research fellow at Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Harvard Medical School in Boston from 1985 to 1986 for human immunology. He became Professor of Medicine at Saitama Medical University at 1998 and appointed as vice president of Saitama Medical University at 2004. He became Professor of Medicine at Keio University School of Medicine at 2009 and General Director of Keio University Hospital at 2013, served for 4 years. In August 2017, he is appointed as vice president of Keio University. He has done the pioneering work in the clinical development of biological agents in rheumatology and medicine. He received awards for his research, including the Japan College of Rheumatology, the Uehara memorial, the Naitoh Foundation, and the Waksman Foundation. He served as a chief investigator of the study group by Ministry of Health, Labor, and Welfare, Japan, and a principal investigator of Japanese and global clinical trials against Rheumatoid Arthritis and Systemic Lupus Erythematosus. He serves as a chairman of international committee of the Japanese College of Rheumatology and a member of scientific committee of European League Against Rheumatism. He is the President of Japanese Society for Inflammation and Regeneration and President of Japanese Society for Sjogren's syndrome. He was elected as the president of annual meeting of Asia-Pacific League against Rheumatology at 2020 and the president of 117th annual meeting of the Japan Society of Internal Medicine.

By Tsutomu TAKEUCHI * [1, ([dagger])

(Communicated by Tadamitsu KISHIMOTO, M.J.A.)

* [1] Division of Rheumatology, Department of Internal Medicine, Keio University School of Medicine, Tokyo, Japan.

([dagger]) Correspondence should be addressed: T. Takeuchi, Division of Rheumatology, Department of Internal Medicine, Keio University School of Medicine, 35 Shinanomachi, Shinjuku, Tokyo 160-8582, Japan (e-mail: tsutake@25.keio.jp).

Caption: Fig. 1. Clinical and pathological characteristics of rheumatoid arthritis.

Caption: Fig. 2. Pathogenesis of rheumatoid arthritis.

Caption: Fig. 3. Structure of biologics.

Caption: Fig. 4. Cytokine cascade hypothesis in rheumatoid arthritis.
Table 1. Target molecules in immune-mediated inflammatory diseases

                                                   RA          JIA

target                          biologics        joint        joint

TNF[alpha]         Ligand       adalimumab         #            #
                              certolizumab         #            @
                                  pegol
                                golimumab          #            @
                                infliximab         #            x
                  Receptor      etanercept         #            #

IL-6               Ligand       sirukumab          @
                               clazakizumab        @
                                olokizumab         @
                              vobarilizumab        @
                  Receptor     tocilizumab         #            #
                                sarilumab          @

GM-CSF             Ligand       namilumab        trial
                  Receptor     mavrilimumab        @

IL-1[beta]         Ligand      canakinumab         x            #
                                rilonacept         $            $
                  Receptor       anakinra          #            #

IL-12/23 (p40)                 ustekinumab         $

IL-23 (p19)                     guselkumab         $
                               risankizumab
                              tildrakizumab
                                brazikumab

IL-17              Ligand       ixekizumab         $
                               secukinumab         $
                  Receptor      brodalumab         x

BAFF                            belimumab          $
                                blisibimod

IFN[alpha]         Ligand      sifalimumab
                  Receptor     anifrolumab

CD80/86                         abatacept          #            #
CD20                            rituximab          #

Integrin [alpha]4/[beta]1      natalizumab         x

Integrin [alpha]4/[beta]7      vedolizumab
                               etrolizumab

                                                   CD           UC

target                          biologics      intestine    intestine

TNF[alpha]         Ligand       adalimumab         #            #
                              certolizumab         #          trial
                                  pegol
                                golimumab                       #
                                infliximab         #            #
                  Receptor      etanercept

IL-6               Ligand       sirukumab
                               clazakizumab        x
                                olokizumab         x
                              vobarilizumab
                  Receptor     tocilizumab         x
                                sarilumab

GM-CSF             Ligand       namilumab
                  Receptor     mavrilimumab

IL-1[beta]         Ligand      canakinumab
                                rilonacept
                  Receptor       anakinra

IL-12/23 (p40)                 ustekinumab         #            @

IL-23 (p19)                     guselkumab
                               risankizumab        @
                              tildrakizumab
                                brazikumab         $

IL-17              Ligand       ixekizumab
                               secukinumab         x
                  Receptor      brodalumab         x

BAFF                            belimumab
                                blisibimod

IFN[alpha]         Ligand      sifalimumab
                  Receptor     anifrolumab

CD80/86                         abatacept          $            $
CD20                            rituximab

Integrin [alpha]4/[beta]1      natalizumab         #            $

Integrin [alpha]4/[beta]7      vedolizumab         #            #
                               etrolizumab         @            @

                                                   AS          SpA

target                          biologics        spine        spine

TNF[alpha]         Ligand       adalimumab         #
                              certolizumab         #            #
                                  pegol
                                golimumab          #
                                infliximab         #
                  Receptor      etanercept         #            @

IL-6               Ligand       sirukumab
                               clazakizumab
                                olokizumab
                              vobarilizumab
                  Receptor     tocilizumab         x
                                sarilumab          x

GM-CSF             Ligand       namilumab
                  Receptor     mavrilimumab

IL-1[beta]         Ligand      canakinumab
                                rilonacept
                  Receptor       anakinra

IL-12/23 (p40)                 ustekinumab                      @

IL-23 (p19)                     guselkumab
                               risankizumab        $
                              tildrakizumab
                                brazikumab

IL-17              Ligand       ixekizumab         @            @
                               secukinumab         #            @
                  Receptor      brodalumab                      @

BAFF                            belimumab
                                blisibimod

IFN[alpha]         Ligand      sifalimumab
                  Receptor     anifrolumab

CD80/86                         abatacept          x
CD20                            rituximab          $

Integrin [alpha]4/[beta]1      natalizumab

Integrin [alpha]4/[beta]7      vedolizumab
                               etrolizumab

                                                   PS          PsA

target                          biologics         skin        skin&
                                                              joint

TNF[alpha]         Ligand       adalimumab         #            #
                              certolizumab         @            #
                                  pegol
                                golimumab                       #
                                infliximab         #            #
                  Receptor      etanercept         #            #

IL-6               Ligand       sirukumab
                               clazakizumab                     $
                                olokizumab
                              vobarilizumab
                  Receptor     tocilizumab
                                sarilumab

GM-CSF             Ligand       namilumab          $
                  Receptor     mavrilimumab

IL-1[beta]         Ligand      canakinumab
                                rilonacept
                  Receptor       anakinra        trial

IL-12/23 (p40)                 ustekinumab         #            #

IL-23 (p19)                     guselkumab         @            $
                               risankizumab        @            @
                              tildrakizumab        @
                                brazikumab

IL-17              Ligand       ixekizumab         #            #
                               secukinumab         #            #
                  Receptor      brodalumab         #            #

BAFF                            belimumab
                                blisibimod

IFN[alpha]         Ligand      sifalimumab
                  Receptor     anifrolumab

CD80/86                         abatacept        trial          #
CD20                            rituximab

Integrin [alpha]4/[beta]1      natalizumab

Integrin [alpha]4/[beta]7      vedolizumab
                               etrolizumab

                                                CAPS FMF       SLE

target                          biologics        fever       systemic

TNF[alpha]         Ligand       adalimumab
                              certolizumab
                                  pegol
                                golimumab
                                infliximab                      $
                  Receptor      etanercept

IL-6               Ligand       sirukumab
                               clazakizumab
                                olokizumab
                              vobarilizumab                   trial
                  Receptor     tocilizumab                      x
                                sarilumab

GM-CSF             Ligand       namilumab
                  Receptor     mavrilimumab

IL-1[beta]         Ligand      canakinumab         #
                                rilonacept         #
                  Receptor       anakinra          #

IL-12/23 (p40)                 ustekinumab                    trial

IL-23 (p19)                     guselkumab
                               risankizumab
                              tildrakizumab
                                brazikumab

IL-17              Ligand       ixekizumab
                               secukinumab
                  Receptor      brodalumab

BAFF                            belimumab                       #
                                blisibimod                      x

IFN[alpha]         Ligand      sifalimumab                      $
                  Receptor     anifrolumab                      @

CD80/86                         abatacept                       x
CD20                            rituximab                       $

Integrin [alpha]4/[beta]1      natalizumab

Integrin [alpha]4/[beta]7      vedolizumab
                               etrolizumab

                                                  pSS           BD

target                          biologics      eye&mouth      mucosa

TNF[alpha]         Ligand       adalimumab                      #
                              certolizumab
                                  pegol
                                golimumab
                                infliximab                      #
                  Receptor      etanercept

IL-6               Ligand       sirukumab
                               clazakizumab
                                olokizumab
                              vobarilizumab
                  Receptor     tocilizumab
                                sarilumab

GM-CSF             Ligand       namilumab
                  Receptor     mavrilimumab

IL-1[beta]         Ligand      canakinumab
                                rilonacept
                  Receptor       anakinra

IL-12/23 (p40)                 ustekinumab

IL-23 (p19)                     guselkumab
                               risankizumab
                              tildrakizumab
                                brazikumab

IL-17              Ligand       ixekizumab
                               secukinumab
                  Receptor      brodalumab

BAFF                            belimumab          $
                                blisibimod

IFN[alpha]         Ligand      sifalimumab
                  Receptor     anifrolumab

CD80/86                         abatacept        trial
CD20                            rituximab          $

Integrin [alpha]4/[beta]1      natalizumab

Integrin [alpha]4/[beta]7      vedolizumab
                               etrolizumab

                                                  SSc          GCA

target                          biologics         skin        large
                                                              vessel

TNF[alpha]         Ligand       adalimumab
                              certolizumab
                                  pegol
                                golimumab
                                infliximab
                  Receptor      etanercept

IL-6               Ligand       sirukumab
                               clazakizumab
                                olokizumab
                              vobarilizumab
                  Receptor     tocilizumab         $            #
                                sarilumab

GM-CSF             Ligand       namilumab
                  Receptor     mavrilimumab

IL-1[beta]         Ligand      canakinumab
                                rilonacept
                  Receptor       anakinra

IL-12/23 (p40)                 ustekinumab

IL-23 (p19)                     guselkumab
                               risankizumab
                              tildrakizumab
                                brazikumab

IL-17              Ligand       ixekizumab
                               secukinumab
                  Receptor      brodalumab

BAFF                            belimumab
                                blisibimod

IFN[alpha]         Ligand      sifalimumab
                  Receptor     anifrolumab

CD80/86                         abatacept
CD20                            rituximab

Integrin [alpha]4/[beta]1      natalizumab

Integrin [alpha]4/[beta]7      vedolizumab
                               etrolizumab

                                                   TA          AAV

target                          biologics        large        small
                                                 vessel       vessel

TNF[alpha]         Ligand       adalimumab
                              certolizumab
                                  pegol
                                golimumab
                                infliximab
                  Receptor      etanercept

IL-6               Ligand       sirukumab
                               clazakizumab
                                olokizumab
                              vobarilizumab
                  Receptor     tocilizumab         #
                                sarilumab

GM-CSF             Ligand       namilumab
                  Receptor     mavrilimumab

IL-1[beta]         Ligand      canakinumab
                                rilonacept
                  Receptor       anakinra

IL-12/23 (p40)                 ustekinumab

IL-23 (p19)                     guselkumab
                               risankizumab
                              tildrakizumab
                                brazikumab

IL-17              Ligand       ixekizumab
                               secukinumab
                  Receptor      brodalumab

BAFF                            belimumab                       @
                                blisibimod

IFN[alpha]         Ligand      sifalimumab
                  Receptor     anifrolumab

CD80/86                         abatacept
CD20                            rituximab                       #

Integrin [alpha]4/[beta]1      natalizumab

Integrin [alpha]4/[beta]7      vedolizumab
                               etrolizumab

                                                  AOSD

target                          biologics      fever&joint

TNF[alpha]         Ligand       adalimumab
                              certolizumab
                                  pegol
                                golimumab
                                infliximab
                  Receptor      etanercept

IL-6               Ligand       sirukumab
                               clazakizumab
                                olokizumab
                              vobarilizumab
                  Receptor     tocilizumab       trial
                                sarilumab

GM-CSF             Ligand       namilumab
                  Receptor     mavrilimumab

IL-1[beta]         Ligand      canakinumab         #
                                rilonacept
                  Receptor       anakinra

IL-12/23 (p40)                 ustekinumab

IL-23 (p19)                     guselkumab
                               risankizumab
                              tildrakizumab
                                brazikumab

IL-17              Ligand       ixekizumab
                               secukinumab
                  Receptor      brodalumab

BAFF                            belimumab
                                blisibimod

IFN[alpha]         Ligand      sifalimumab
                  Receptor     anifrolumab

CD80/86                         abatacept
CD20                            rituximab

Integrin [alpha]4/[beta]1      natalizumab

Integrin [alpha]4/[beta]7      vedolizumab
                               etrolizumab

# approved, primarily in Japan, except for anakinra and rituximab
for RA and abatacept for PsA (September 11, 2017). @ positive
results in Phase 2 or 3 trial, $ proof of concept obtained, x no
positive results in Phase 2 or 3,

RA: rheumatoid arthritis, JIA: juvenile idiopathic arthritis, CD:
Crohn's disease, UC: ulcerative colitis, AS: ankylosing
spondylitis, SpA: spondyloathritis, PS: psoriasis, PsA: psoriatic
arthritis, CAPS: cryopyrin associated periodic syndrome, FMF:
familial medetrian fever, SLE: systemic lupus erythematosus, pSS:
primary Sjogren's syndrome, SSc: systemic sclerosis, CCA: giant
cell arthritis, TA: Takayasu arteritis, AAV: ANCA associated
vasculitis, AOSD: adult-onset Still's disease

Fig. 5. Timing of introduction of biologics in rheumatoid arthritis.
Clinical studies of tocilizumab monotherapy.

Study name                      SATORI

disease duration               8.5 years
disease activity           6.1 [+ or -] 0.9
joint destruction                 --
disease duration       MTX-IR [right arrow] TCZ
publication                 MR 19:12, 2009

Study name                      ADACTA

disease duration               7.3 years
disease activity           6.7 [+ or -] 0.9
joint destruction                 --
disease duration       MTX-IR [right arrow] TCZ
publication              Lancet 381:1541, 2013

Study name                       FUNCTION

disease duration                0.5 years
disease activity             6.7 [+ or -] 1.0
joint destruction           6.9 [+ or -] 11.1
disease duration       MTX naive [right arrow] TCZ
publication                 ARD 75:1081, 2016

Study name                     SURPRISE

disease duration               3.8 years
disease activity           5.3 [+ or -] 1.2
joint destruction         29.4 [+ or -] 32.8
disease duration       MTX-IR [right arrow] TCZ
publication                ARD 75:1917, 2016

Study name                     U-Act-Early

disease duration                 4 weeks
disease activity             5.3 [+ or -] 1.1
joint destruction                   0
disease duration       MTX naive [right arrow] TCZ
publication                Lancet 388:343, 2016

             Remission rate
             at 24w (DAS28)

SATORI             43
ADACTA             40
FUNCTION           39
SURPRISE           55
U-Act-Early        76

Note: Table made from bar graph.
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Author:Takeuchi, Tsutomu
Publication:Japan Academy Proceedings Series B: Physical and Biological Sciences
Article Type:Report
Geographic Code:9JAPA
Date:Aug 1, 2017
Words:4614
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