Treatment of Eimeria tenella Infection in Broilers by Using Sugar Cane Extract.
Abstract The objective of this study was to observe the effects of oral administration of sugar cane extract (SCE) on Eimeria tenella oocysts infection in commercial broiler chickens. The present paper describes the growth promoting effects of SCE in broiler chickens. For this purpose one hundred and sixty (160) day old chicks were divided into 4 groups i.e. A B C and D each of 40 chicks. Group A was non-infected and non-medicated control (healthy control) group B was infected with Eimeria tenella sporulated oocysts on day 21 (20000 oocysts per chick) and was considered as infected control. Chicks of group C were orally administered with SCE (500mg/ kg body weight) on day 21 and then challenged with 20000 oocysts per chick of E. tenella oocysts. Chicks of group D were orally administered SCE at the dose rate of 500mg/kg body weight for three consecutive days and then challenged with 20000 oocysts per chick of E. tenella oocysts.
The results indicated that maximum reduction of oocyst per gram feces OPG counts (98.73%) occurred in members of group D which were administered SCE (500 mg/kg) for three consecutive days and then challenged with E. tenella oocysts. Group C (administered SCE for a single day @ 500mg/kg) was placed at no.2 and the reduction in this group occurred as (83.54%) as compared to group B. Mean body weight gains were calculated by taking difference between average weight records on day 21 and day 35 of age (final weight record). The difference of each group was compared with healthy control and percentage of weight gain of all the groups were recorded and compared.
Key words: Chickens Eimeria tenella sugar cane extract.
Avian coccidiosis in broilers and layers is considered as one of the most important manage mental problem in which various species of genus Eimeria are involved but E. tenella is one of the most pathogenic and causes caecal coccidiosis in young birds and broilers (Dalloul and Lillehoj 2006; Mansori and Modiranei 2012).
Coccidiosis seriously impairs the growth and feed utilization of infected animals resulting in loss of productivity (Yun et al. 2000ab).Conventional disease control strategies relied heavily on chemoprophylaxis (Laurent et al. 2001; Al-Idreesi et al. 2013). Increasing regulations and bans on the use of anticoccidial drugs coupled with the associated costs in developing new drugs and live vaccines increased the need for the development of novel approaches and alternative control strategies. Eimeria tenella primarily invades and resides in the linings of caecum of exposed chickens (Vervelde et al. 1996; Yun et al. 2000ab; Fetterer and Allen 2001; Yumauchi et al 2006ab). Infective sporozoites enter the caecal mucosa by penetrating crypt epithelial cells. Immunity does not prevent sporozoite invasion of cells but does prevent sporozoite development (Vervelde et al. 1996; Laurent et al. 2001).
The effectors of immune responses to primary and challenge coccidial infections are primarily T-Cells residing in gut-associated lymphoid tissues (Lillehoj and Trout 1996). Humoral immune responses also occur but antibodies play a minor role in resistance and immunity to coccidia (Lillehoj 1987). In avian coccidiosis it is clear that IFN- y is produced by the host at sites of infection. Chemoprophylaxis and anticcocidial feed additives have contributed a lot in controlling many infectious diseases but frequent consumption of various chemicals and antibodies have complicated the problem by the development of antibiotic resistant strains and environmental pollution (Farzana et al. 2009; Asma et al. 2008).
To prevent the-emergence of drugs resistance new drugs have been developed and administered with existing drugs on rotational basis. However this has resulted in the increased cost of poultry products. Furthermore drug or antibiotic residue in the poultry products is potentially harmful to the consumer. Therefore there is need for stringent regulation of anticoccidial drugs.
Materials and methods
The present study was designed to evaluate the effects of oral administration of sugar cane extract (SCE) as an alternate tool for protection against the development of E. tenella infection in chickens weight gain oocysts shedding morbidity and mortality of birds were observed and the following procedure was adopted.
Collection and sporulation of coccidial oocysts
The caecal material was collected from Veterinary Research Institute Lahore and sporulation of coccidial oocyst was done as per technique described by Garcia (2009).
After completion of 80% sporulation the mixture from the petri dishes was sieved through muslin cloth. The filtrate was centrifuged for 2 min at 1500 rpm the supernatant was discarded and the sediment was mixed with saturated NaCI and again centrifuged. The upper layer of the supernatant was collected with pipette and added in 1:10 ratio of the distilled water to dilute the NaCl solution. The suspension was allowed to stand overnight to let the oocysts settle at the bottom. The supernatant was discarded and the sediment re suspended in 2% potassium dichromate solution.
The suspension was measured in graduated beaker and thoroughly mixed. Five samples of one ml each were withdrawn with a graduated pipette and transferred to a measuring cylinder containing 45 ml of distilled water (50 ml stock solution). It made 1:9 dilutions. The mixture was agitated thoroughly and again 3 samples of 0.1 ml each were withdrawn and each sample was spread on the glass slide in longitudinal fashion. Then oocysts were counted by McMaster egg counting technique (Coles 1986).The average of 3 samples of 0.1 ml was calculated and multiplied by the 10 to calculate the number of oocysts per ml of the stock solution.
Sugar cane extract administration SCE was produced from sugar cane (Saccharum officinarum L.) by following the methodology of Awais et al. (2011). The final concentration (100mg/ml) was constituted in 0.1 M phosphate buffered saline (PBS; pH 7.2). Sugar cane contains about 70% water in which sucrose is 11% to 16% reducing sugars 0.4 to 2% fiber 10% to 16% organic non sugars and mineral matters 0.5% to 1% forming about 88% by weight of juice in stem. The remaining 12% represents the insoluble cane fiber component. SCE was administered at the dose of 500 mg/kg (10ml of sugar cane juice) per kg body weight.
One hundred and sixty day old broiler chicks were purchased from the local hatchery. The chicks were reared under standard hygienic conditions. All the birds were vaccinated against New Castle Disease (ND) on day 1 and 20 of age. At the age of day 3 all the birds were randomly divided into four groups i.e. A B C and D each of 40 birds.
Birds of group A remained uninfected and reared as non-infected non-medicated; birds of group B were administered orally with 20000 virulent sporulated oocysts of Eimeria tenella on day 20 of age and were kept as infected non- medicated; while those of C were orally administered with a single dose of SCE (500mg/kg) and then challenged with the 20000 oocysts per chick of E. tenella oocysts; and those of group D were orally administered SCE for 3 consecutive days and then challenged with E. tenella oocysts 20000 oocysts per chick.
Weight gains were recorded on day 21 28 32 and 35 of age. OPG counts of feces for 3 groups (B C and D) was carried out on day 5 to 7 (day 26 to 28 of age) of oral administration of SCE and challenge dose of sporulated oocysts of E. tenella. The OPG counts were performed by the McMaster egg counting technique (Coles 1986).
Data was analyzed statistically using ANOVA Analysis of variance for weight gain to compare the performance of different groups and also to evaluate the efficacy of two different administration of sugar cane extract (Steel and Torrie 1982).
Results and discussion
Table I shows effect of SCE on OPG counts of infected broilers. Extent of hemorrhage and oocysts output in feces of chickens administered sugar cane extract was milder than that of infected group. These results are supported by (Mansori and Modirsaen 2012). Similar findings have been reported by (Lillehoj 1987; El-Abasy 2002; Yamuchi et al. 2006ab; Awais et al. 2011; Akhtar et al. 2012).
Table I.- Mean OPG counts in test groups (C and D) and infected control group (B).
Age of###Group A###Group B###Group C###Group D
chicks###Control###infected###SCE for###SCE for 3
(days)###(un-###(n=40)###one day +###days +
Group A was non-infected non- medicated and remained free of infection. Group B was infected control. The findings of test groups were compared with the infected control group B which passed the maximum number of total OPG (39500). Whereas members of group C passed 11500 and 8000.According to the reduction in OPG counts as compared to control group B the maximum reduction (98.73%) was observed in group D which was administered sugar cane extract (500 mg/kg) for three consecutive days.
Group C was placed at number 2 and reduction in this group occurred as (83.54%). This group was administered with a single dose of sugar cane extract. The findings of the present study are supported by (EI-Abasy 2002 2003ab) in terms of prophylactic effect of sugar cane extract given at the dose rate of 500mg/kg.
Table II shows the effect of SCE on the body weight of infected broilers. Body weight gain in group A from day 21 onward was (67.85%) by the end of experiment which was the highest among all the experimental groups. In group B only (60.47%) body weight gains was noted. Group C became 3rd in ranking order in terms of weight gains acquired (61.90%) mean weight per bird. In group D mean body weight (360 gm) was (65.84%). This group was ranked as the highest in terms of body weight gains as compared to weight record of Day 21. These results are in accordance with those of Yun et al. (2000ab) and Fetterer and Allen (2001).
Table II.- Comparative mean weight gain record of different groups.
Groups###Days of age###Total weight
###21###28###32###35###gain (g) (%)
Healthy control###342###658###900###1064###722 (67.85)
Infected control###400###639###854###1012###612 (60.47)
SCE-1 + challenge###400###633###887###1050###650 (61.90)
SCE-3 + challenge###360###675###835###1054###694 (65.84)
It was concluded that SCE has biological properties. It stimulates the growth rates in industrial broiler chickens.
I am grateful to Kashmir Food Mill Ltd. Lahore for their donation of feed to poultry.
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|Publication:||Pakistan Journal of Zoology|
|Date:||Dec 31, 2014|
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