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Treatment effect of gum Arabic on liver of glycerol-treated white male rats (histological and histochemical study).


Gum Arabic:

Pale solid matter almost orange in color. This matter appears when tree nests are torn [9]. It is low in acidity and contains of sugary protein and saccharides [1]. It is natural viscous gum extract and its trees are medium in size and grow in land with reddish yellow soft stem. It is characterized with unique and distinctive features. It is easy to melt in water [13]. It can increase the low secretion of stall nitrogen through the bacteria mass in stalls that result from low concentration of urine nitrogen. It is the oldest and most common of all natural fibers.


The common solvent of enzyme materials, biotechnology products and samples of tissues and cells used in biomedical research. Triacylglycerides is now classified as food material in accordance with the commission regulation [13]. Triacylglycerides is produced from biological sources such as vegetable oils and animal fats. Vegetable oils are used for production of biodiesel that includes soy bean and sunflower. Triacylglycerides (propanetriol-1, 2, 3). It is trialcohol that exists in the form of esters (glycerides) in all animal and vegetable fats and oil [5]. Triacylglycerides is used in food and beverage as humectant. It catalyzes preservation of foods. It is used as moist material in the stomach and commercial used in low fat foods (such as cookies) and as thickening agent in the alcoholic beverages. Triacylglycerides symbolizes the food materials) E 422)


First: Materials:

Gum Arabic extract:

It is brought by concentration of 15%. Arab gum 15 gram is weighted by sensitive scale and melted in distilled water m1100 and placed in low temperature till it is used and warmed when used in room temperature for two hours to inject rats.


Chemical name: 1, 2, 3- Propanetriol: glycerol; glycerin

Chemical name: C3H8O3 obtained from the German Sigma-Aldrich Company

Structure (Oberstar, 1951)

Second: Experimental Animals:

These are divided into four groups each consisting of ten male rats as follows: First Group (G1) is the control group. White male rats are given the standard daily meal of food and water. Second group (G2) is treated by glycerol for 4 weeks with dose of 10 mg/kg of body weight. The third group (G3) is treated by glycerol for 8 weeks with dose of 10 mg/kg of body weight. The fourth group (G4) is treated by glycerol for 4 weeks and treated by Arab gum for 4 weeks with dose of 3 mg/kg of weight.

Third: Histological and histochemical studies:

Tissue sections stained with hematocoslin and Eosin (H&E) was used to evaluate the natural composition of cells in the liver cells of the working and control group in the liver of male rats. Small parts of liver were cut and placed in neutral regulated formalin stabilizer with concentration of 10%. Standard methods of dehydration, clearing and embedding in paraffin wax were used. Cross sections of tissue 3 micron thick were made of the control sample tissues and stained with hematoxylin and Esosin [4]. This stain produces clear distinction of cytoplasm, nucleus and tissue composition of the sample the subject of the study, and largely detects some pathological cases. The carbohydrate content in liver and the sections stabilized by formalin that regulates the control groups was studied and treated according to Periodic acid-Schiffto detect carbohydrates. The PAS technique was used to detect the mucous polysaccharide materials. Polysaccharide materials are stained with acid mucin in magenta. Method of periodic-chiffacid [2, 11].


Control group:

Examination of sections of control group male rats by light microscope revealed that liver consist of hepatic lobules interconnected with each other and not separated by other parts of connective tissue. The hepatocyte consists of the main structure of liver tissue. Liver tissues are regulated as interconnected bars or palates with each other that usually form one cell. Central veins exist and are separated by blood sinusoids. [10].

Shape (2-1). Blood pockets are narrow blood spaces of irregular edges lined with internal stain that contain two types of cells: endothelial cells characterized by long nuclei and Kupffer cell distinguished with their oval or triangular nuclei. They are macrophage cells in liver. The liver tissue of male rats is characterized by having portal area that contains artery, vein and one or more yellow cell lined by stain layer that consists of cubic cells that contain vesicular nuclei (3-4). In the portal areas, some histocytes spread that often exist in the pathological cases. The natural polygonal cells contain acidophilic cytoplasm and contain micro granules collected in the form of basophilic masses. They can be easily distinguished in the sections stained by hematoxin and eosin. The liver cells contain big spherical and central nuclei, and contain one or two nuclei heavily stained with alkyl stains. Some hepatocytes are binucleated. In the liver bars, the surface of each hepatocytes contacts the blood pocket wall, while the other surface contacts the adjacent cells and have in between Bile canaliculus.

Control Group (G1):


Led to disorders of cell wall structure and parts, and therefore affected their permeability and compromised the cell respiration processes. Their effect on cells of both parts- nucleus and cytoplasm- appeared and cellular necrosis appeared. Pathological histological changes showed necrosis, rheum, divisions, collapses, inflammations, expansions, shrinkages, injection, hemorrhage, fibrosis, staining, enlargement, atrophy and decomposition of cell and tissue parts. Acute intoxication of male rats leads to fibrosis and decomposition of bile and high stain of hepatocytes. Chronic intoxication leads to cirrhosis. Tissue examination of glycerol-treated male rats and treatment showed the positive role of use of gum Arabic to alleviate the side effects and histological damages caused by glycerol on the tissue structure of liver. Treatment by gum Arabic was found to have effected considerable improvement in the tissue structure of liver that was affected by several pathological changes. The tissue sections treated by gum Arabic are very close in structure to the sectors of control samples. Treatment shows the significant effect of using gum Arabic from the intensity of pathological histological damages due to infection.


[1] Badrelain, H.A., Z. Amal and B. Gerald, 2008. Biological effects of gum Arabic: A review of some recent research. Food Chem. Toxicol., 47: 1-8.

[2] Bancroft, J.D and M. Gamble, 2002. Theory and Practic of histological teqhniques. A Hrcourt Gealth Sciences company.ChurchillLivingston.HarcourtPuplishers limited. 5 thed: pp: 130-132.

[3] Bancroft, J.D and A. Stevens, 1977. Theory and practice of histological techniques. Longman Inc. New York, 1st Ed. pp: 240.

[4] Bancroft, J.D and A. Stevens, 1996. Theory and Practic of histological teqhniques, New York; 4th, 1 sted; pp: 183.

[5] Dnoald, E., M.L. OKEN, D.R. Aree, Wilson, 1966. Glycerol-induced Hemoglobinuric Acute Renal Failure in the Rat. Journal of Clinical Investigation, 45: 5.

[6] EFSA (European Food Safety Authority), 2010. Letter from Catherine Geslain-Laneelle Subject; Clanification regarding the scientific assessment of the biodiesel production process-Your letter ref. D1/TG/ fr/D/410584,26.05.2008.

[7] Gerstenzang, James an Sanders, Edmund, 2007. Impact of Bush's Sudan sanctions doubted. Los Angeles Times. Retrieved 1 June.

[8] Glover, D.A., K. Ushida, A.O. Phillips and S.G. Riley, 2009. Acacia (sen)SUPERGUM:An evaluation of potential; health benefits in human subjects. Food Hyderocolloids, 23(8): 2410-2415.

[9] ITC, 2008. Gum Arabic. Market News Sercive (MNS), Quarterly Edition. ed; page 272.

[10] Nasr, Ahmed Noaman, 1995. Histology, 2nd edition, Dar Al-Maaref, 5-288-27-9960.

[11] Al-Gohary, 1994. Histology and its technologies-Rd Mk: 5-288-27-9960, King Fahad National Library

[12] Oberstar, 'H.E., 1951. "Viscosity of Glycerol and Its Aqueous Solutions". Industrial & Engineering Chemistry, 43(9): 2117. doi:10.1021/ie50501a040. Edit

[13] Thompson, J.C and H.E. BB., 2006. Characterization of crude Glycerol from biodiesel production from multin; efeedstocks. Applied Engineering In Agriculture, 22: 261-265.

Nafisa Mohammd Batarfi

Biology Department, Faculty of Science in Faisaliya, King Abdulaziz University, KSA

Address For Correspondence:

Nafisa Mohammd Batarfi, Biology Department, Faculty of Science in Faisaliya, King Abdulaziz University, KSA

Received 12 August 2016; Accepted 17 December 2016; Available online 22 December 2016

Caption: Fig. 1: Cross Section in the central vein (arrow) and the liver bars and Hepatocyte (arrow X40 (H&E).

Caption: Fig. 2: Image of the portal area and consists of central vein, liver artery and Bile duct (arrow X40 (H&E).

Caption: Fig. 3: Image that indicates Kupffercells in the blood sinusoid (arrow X400 (H&E).

Caption: Fig. 4: Hepatocyte contain mononuclear or binuclear cell X400 (H&E).

Caption: Fig. 5: Change of the shape of central vein and clear Oedema in the portal area between the cells (arrow X400 (H&E).

Caption: Fig. 6: Cytoplasmic degeneration and Red bloodcells masses in the central vein (arrow X400 (H&E).

Caption: Fig. 7: Oedema in central vein and karyolysis nucleus of Hepatocyte near the central vein (arrow X400 (H&E).

Caption: Fig. 8: Show damage of blood sinusoid (arrow X400 (H&E).

Caption: Fig. 9: Severe deformations and spread of fiber cells in the portal area (arrow X400 (H&E).

Caption: Fig. 10: Cytoplasmic degeneration and Necrosis cellular cytoplasm is clear. (arrow X400 (H&E).

Caption: Fig. 11: Wide Blood Sinusoid. Nuclei are concentrated inside and cells are decayed (arrow X400 (H&E).

Caption: Fig. 12: Blood Sinusoid expand and nuclei disappear (arrow X400 (H&E).

Caption: Fig. 15: Odema and infiltration considerable deformations of the central vein and portal area (arrow X40 (H&E).

Caption: Fig. 16: Acute infiltration, deformations of the central vein shapes and cytoplasmic degeneration blood Sinusoid between liver lobules (arrow X40 (H&E)

Caption: Fig. 17: Increase of acute deformations of the portal area and tearing of the central vein wall (arrow X40 (H&E)

Caption: Fig. 18: Clear fibrosisof blood vessels, blood masses and deformations of the central vein cells, portal area and bile duct (arrow X400 (H&E).

Caption: Fig. 19: Decomposition hepatocytes, atrophy of nuclei and decomposition of cytoplasm (arrow X400 (H&E).

Caption: Fig. 20: Necrosis cellular, pkynosis and sulaphing in the central vein (arrow X400 (H&E).

Caption: Fig. 21: Cytoplasmic degeneration, expansion of blood Sinusoid and increase of Kupffer macro phage cells (arrow X400 (H&E).

Caption: Fig. 22: Increase of odema in the central vein and cytoplasmic degeneration (arrow X400 (H&E).

Caption: Fig. 23: Karyolysis nucleus, blood Sinusoid and sulpaing in the central vein. (arrow X400 (H&E)

Caption: Fig. 24: show kupffercells appear in blood Sinusoid (arrow X400 (H&E)

Caption: Fig. 25: Pyknosis of nuclei less and sullaphing in central vein. (arrow X400 (H&E).

Caption: Fig. 26) Cytoplasmic degeneration, necrosis cellular, odema, between blood Sinusoid (arrow X400 (H&E)

Caption: Fig. 27: Acute cytoplasmic degeneration of the central vein and portal area shape (arrow X400 (H&E).

Caption: Fig. 28: Intense fibrosis of liver vein and liver artery, and acute homeostasis in the central vein (arrow X40 (H&E)

Caption: Fig. 29: Deformation of cells that line the central vein and necrosis cellular (arrow X400 (H&E)

Caption: Fig. 30: Increase of lymphatic cells due to acute inflammation (arrow X400 (H&E)

Caption: Fig. 31: Acute deformation and decomposition of fibrosis of cells (arrow X400 (H&E)

Caption: Fig. 32: Kupffercells abundantly appear as a result of coenocytes. (arrow X400 (H&E)

Caption: Fig. 33: Cytoplasm appears very stained, which signifies increase of saccharides in the liver tissue and increasing decomposition of cytoplasm (arrow (X400 PAS).

Caption: Fig. 34: Liver cells are pale due to high composition. Nuclei is neutral in stain(arrow (X400 PAS)

Caption: Fig. 35: Blood sinusoid and Kupffercells dark to increase the internal content of sccharides. (X400 PAS)

Caption: Fig. 36: Cytoplasm rheum in the central vein is neutral in stain (arrow (X400 PAS)

Caption: Fig. 37: Acute deformations in the portal area and apparent fibrosis of blood vessels. They are dark stains to increase accumulation of saccharides (arrow (X400 PAS).

Caption: Fig. 38: Blood pockets are pale and Kupffercell macrophagecells are dark (arrow (X400 PAS).

Caption: Fig. 39: show Odema between the hepatocytes with neutral stain arrow (X400 PAS)

Caption: Fig. 40: Blood sinusoid are pale due to the high degenartion arrow (X400 PAS)

Caption: Fig. 41: Kupffercells are dark and abundantly appear arrow (X400 PAS)

Caption: Fig. 42: Cell necrolysis in the central vein with dark stain and clear degeneration of cells. (X400 PAS)

Caption: Fig. 43: Cytoplasmic degeneration of hepatocytes and karyolaysis nucleus (arrow (X400 PAS)

Caption: Fig. 44: Change of the central vein shape and peeling of cells in the central vein (arrow (X400 PAS)

Caption: Fig. 45: Pale in stain and mass of hepatocytes as dark groups arrow (X400 PAS)

Caption: Fig. 46: Kupffercells appear clear and dark within the blood sinusoid (arrow (X400 PAS)

Caption: Fig. 47: Nuclei are takarraz, cells die and become dark in stain (arrow (X400 PAS).

Caption: Fig. 48: Apparent expansion of blood sinusoid and appearance of lymphatic cells due to high inflammation (arrow (X400 PAS).

Caption: Fig. 49: Decomposition of portal area and liver bars, and expansion of blood sinusoid (arrow (X400 PAS)

Caption: Fig. 50: Acute increase of necrolysis of nuclei, death of cells and appearance of portalarea odema between blood sinusoid (arrow (X400 PAS).

Caption: Fig. 51: Acute deformation of the portal area, degeneration and disappearance of pyknosis (arrow (X400 PAS).

Caption: Fig. 52: Fibrosis of liver vein and liver artery and deformation of the wall cells that coat blood vessels (arrow (X400 PAS).

Caption: Fig. 53: Hepatocytes are regular in bars around the central vein and contain one or two nuclei (arrow), and lining cells and Kupffercells appear in the blood sinusoid X400 (H & E)

Caption: Caption: Fig. 54: Portal area is semi-natural, and hepatocytes are moderately ordered (arrow) according to the endothelial cells and Kupffercells in the blood sinusoid . X40 (H & E)

Caption: Fig. 55: Considerable improvement of liver tissue as it semi-natural hepatocytes of one or two nuclei (arrow) appear and moderate congestion of blood sinusoid. In other hepatocytes, cytoplasm decomposition (arrow), Kupffercells and internal endothelial cells appear (arrow) .X400 (H & E)

Caption: Fig. 56: General structure of liver tissue is semi-natural and considerable improvement of cell shape (arrow) X40 (H & E).
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Author:Batarfi, Nafisa Mohammd
Publication:Advances in Environmental Biology
Article Type:Report
Date:Dec 1, 2016
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