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Transposing one genre into another.

The letter pattern of some word genres is only a whisker away from the letter pattern of other word genres. My current objective is to change a word of one genre into a word of another genre by swapping the positions of just TWO of its letters. By this means, some tautonyms with the letter pattern 1212 (TOTO) make palindromes with the letter patterns 2112 and 1221 (OTTO and TOOT) simply by swapping the positions of the first 2 letters, or last 2 letters, respectively. This is a simple example but, by judicious letter swapping, longer words can be brought into play. The two letters which are swapped can occupy any position in the word and don't necessarily have to be adjacent as they are in TOTO. The genres of word under scrutiny here are palindromes, tautonyms, Miami words and pair isograms.

Unreferenced words can be found in the Oxford English Dictionary, Second Edition. Locations are taken from the United States Board on Geographic Names (BGN). These are populated places unless indicated otherwise. References for other words are given at the end. Abbreviations and acronyms are not admitted.

PALINDROMES AND TAUTONYMS

Only palindromes with an even number of letters can be considered for transposal to tautonyms.

4-LETTER WORDS

In 4-letter words, alternately swapping the first 2 letters, and then the last 2 letters, can produce a circle of alternating palindromes and tautonyms, two of each (swapped letters are underlined). The circle is reversible.

6-LETTER WORDS

As a constraint, I only admit 6-letter words having three different letters of the alphabet (as opposed to two different letters). In 6-letter words, the transposals are accomplished by alternately swapping the 1st and 3rd letters, then the 4th and 6th letters. Once more, the circle is reversible.

As previously, these examples are based on a list of A-Z palindromes. In this case, several circles are incomplete.

PALINDROMES AND MIAMI WORDS

Miami words have the letter pattern 12?12 (see Miami Words 2000014). With 5 letters, they can be transposed to make palindromes (and vv) but not tautonyms or pair isograms, both of which have an even number of letters. Below, a list of A - Z palindromes is flanked by Miami words. The Miami words on the left are made by swapping the first 2 letters of the palindromes; those on the right are made by swapping the last 2 letters of the palindromes. Note that the pairs of Miami words are reversals.

MORE THAN TWO DIFFERENT GENRES

So far, we have considered transposals involving 2 different genres. Now let us explore transposals involving more than 2 different genres, specifically palindromes, tautonyms and pair isograms.

Palindromes and tautonyms have definitive letter patterns for a particular length of word. In 6-letter words these are 123321 and 123123 respectively. Pair isograms of a particular length, on the other hand, can have one of several letter patterns. For convenience, we can divide these patterns into 2 types. In the first type, the letters in the first half of the word are repeated, in a different order, in the second half of the word. Let us call these split pair isograms (SPIs for short). In the second type of pattern this is not the case. We can call these non-split pair isograms (NSPIs).

6-letter SPIs which are not palindromes (123321) or tautonyms (123123) have one of the patterns 123132, 123213, 123231, 123312. NSPIs have one of the patterns 112233, 112323, 112332, 121233, 121323, 121332, 122133, 122313, 122331. For the purposes of this article, SPIs and NSPIs are treated as separate genres.

Starting at the left hand column in each case, the two letters which are swapped to make the word in the next column to the right are underlined.

Each of the above five chains have additional genre links. The first 2 chains each have a single additional link and these are identified by asterisks *. The last 3 chains have more than one additional link. These are best displayed with the words arranged as a network:

LONGER WORDS

So far, all the genre transposals have been of length 4, 5 and 6 letters, but longer words can be similarly transposed by swapping two letters. Each of the genre transposal chains below has 3 or more words. The genres involved are tautonyms, SPIs and NSPIs.

8-LETTER WORDS

Only 8-letter words with four different letters of the alphabet are admitted.

REFERENCES

ch Chambers Dictionary

csd Chambers Scots Dictionary

dje Dictionary of Jamaican English, Cassidy and Le Page

edd The English Dialect Dictionary, ed. J. Wright 1898

edncm Everymans Dictionary of Non-Classical Mythology by Egerton Sykes, J.M. Dent 1968

hod Handbook of American Indians, ed. F.W. Hodge 1907

ipfb Quentin Crewe's International Pocket Food Book, 1988

mamsp A World List of Mammalian Species by G.B. Corbet & J.E. Hill, Nat. Hist.

Museum Publications, OUP 1991

Manx The English & Manx Dictionary by Rev. W. Gill & Rer. J.T. Clarke, Manx Soc. 1866

ospd Official Scrabble Players Dictionary

p2 The Palindromicon II by J. Grant & D. Titque, Word Ways Monograph Series 6, 2002

pull The Complete Word Game Dictionary by T. Pulliam & G. Carruth, Facts on File 1984

st Stedman's Medical Dictionary

WW Word Ways

w2/w3 Websters Second/Third Edition
4-LETTER WORDS

The following examples are based on a list of A-Z palindromes. The 'X'
circle is incomplete.

palindrome (1221) tautonym (2121)

ANNA NANA
BAAB (surname) ABAB (ch)
COOC (ch) OCOC (hill - Mexico)
DAAD (edd) ADAD
ESSE SESE
FAAF (wadi - Somalia) AFAF (Ethiopia)
GAAG (chilblain - AGAG (mamsp)
Manx)
HUUH (p2) UH-UH
ISSI (stream - Benin) SISI
JAAJ (dje) AJAJ, Qal' at al
 (ruin - Bahrain)
KAAK AKAK (Gabon)
LAAL (edd) ALAL (ch)
MAAM AMAM(locality-Ethiopia)
NEEN ENEN
ONNO (Italy) NONO
PAAP (edd) APAP, Sungai (stream
 - Malaysia)
QAAQ (Arabic: crow) AQAQ (well - UAE)
REER ERER
SAAS (eh) ASAS(stream- Eq.Guinea)
TAAT (edd) ATAT, Aarid el (slope
 - Lebanon)
USSU SUSU
VAAV (edd) AVAV (Turkey)
WAAW (edd) AW-AW
XAAX (area -Somalia)
YAAY (p2) AYAY
ZAAZ (a company) AZAZ (name in Bible)

palindrome (1221) palindrome (2112)

ANNA NAAN
BAAB (surname) ABBA
COOC (ch) OCCO (Peru)
DAAD (edd) ADDA (w2)
ESSE SEES
FAAF (wadi - Somalia) AFFA (w2)
GAAG (chilblain - AGGA, Tabelkozet el
Manx) (oasis - Algeria)
HUUH (p2) UH-HU (edd)
ISSI (stream - Benin) SIIS
JAAJ (dje) AJJA, Oulad
 (Morocco)
KAAK AKKA
LAAL (edd) ALLA (w2)
MAAM AMMA
NEEN ENNE (wadi - Chad)
ONNO (Italy) NOON
PAAP (edd) APPA (Bantoid lang.)

QAAQ (Arabic: crow) AQQA, Kafr (Lebanon)
REER ERRE
SAAS (eh) ASSA
TAAT (edd) ATTA

USSU SUUS (w3)
VAAV (edd) AVVA (p2)
WAAW (edd) AWWA, Abu (Sudan)
XAAX (area -Somalia) AXXA (p2)
YAAY (p2) AYYA (stream - Russia)
ZAAZ (a company) AZZA (hill - Egypt)

palindrome (1221) tautonym (1212)

ANNA ANAN
BAAB (surname) BABA
COOC (ch) COCO
DAAD (edd) DADA
ESSE ESES(ospd)
FAAF (wadi - Somalia) FAFA (Benin)
GAAG (chilblain - GAGA
Manx)
HUUH (p2) HUHU
ISSI (stream - Benin) ISIS
JAAJ (dje) JAJA (ipfb)

KAAK KAKA
LAAL (edd) LALA
MAAM MAMA
NEEN NENE
ONNO (Italy) ONON
PAAP (edd) PAPA

QAAQ (Arabic: crow) QAQA (stream -- Lesotho)
REER RERE
SAAS (eh) SASA (w2)
TAAT (edd) TATA

USSU USUS (ch)
VAAV (edd) VAVA (stream - Togo)
WAAW (edd) WAWA
XAAX (area -Somalia) XAXA (China)
YAAY (p2) YAYA (w2)
ZAAZ (a company) ZAZA (film title)

6-LETTER WORDS

palindrome (123321) tautonym (321321)

ABOOBA (well-Somalia) OBAOBA (Papua NG)
BATTAB Khor(wadi-Sudan) TABTAB, Hassi(well-Algeria)
CASSAC SACSAC
DISSID SIDSID (point in Philippines)
EALLAE (p2) LAELAE(island-Indonesia)
FINNIF NIFNIF (Bilin:light rain)
GORROG (Somalia) ROGROG (Sudan)
HALLAH LAHLAH (hill - Lebanon)

IRAARI (WW93251) ARIARI (Colombia)
JILLIJ, Burj (lighthouse LIJLIJ, AI (well - Yemen)
- Tunisia)
KINNIK NIKNIK(name of a puppet)
LAKKAL, Kef (mount. KALKAL(well - Djibouti)
- Algeria)
MUSSUM SUMSUM (Afghanistan)
NAMMAN MANMAN Dey (Niger)
ORI-IRO (p2) IROIRO (anglicized
 Japanese 'women')
POSSOP (p2) SOPSOP (Uganda)
QAZZAQ ZAQZAQ (a ruin in Libya)
RAGGAR(wadi - Somalia) GARGAR(stream-Armenia)
SANNAS NASNAS
TERRET RETRET
UREERU ERUERU (surname of a
 Sheffield volleyball player in UK)
VOLLOV (surname) LOVLOV (French love term)
WERREW (p2)
XARRAX (WW94158)
YANNAY, Bet (Israel) NAYNAY(stream-Jamaica)
ZURRUZ (WW93251) RUZRUZ (a web site)

palindrome (123321) palindrome (321123)

ABOOBA (well-Somalia)
BATTAB Khor(wadi-Sudan) TABBAT (wadi-Algeria)
CASSAC SACCAS
DISSID SIDDIS
EALLAE (p2)
FINNIF NIFFIN (bay - Papua NG)
GORROG (Somalia) ROGGOR(computer game)
HALLAH LAHHAL, Ain Abd (spring
 - Morocco)
IRAARI (WW93251) ARIIRA(tumulus - Tunisia)
JILLIJ, Burj (lighthouse
- Tunisia)
KINNIK NIKKIN
LAKKAL, Kef (mount. KALLAK
- Algeria)
MUSSUM SUMMUS
NAMMAN MANNAM
ORI-IRO (p2) IROORI (an Ashaninca
 language of Peru word)
POSSOP (p2) SOPPOS (p2)
QAZZAQ ZAQQAZ (cat name on web)
RAGGAR(wadi - Somalia) GARRAG
SANNAS NASSAN
TERRET RETTER
UREERU

VOLLOV (surname) LOV VOL(a Lutheran minister)
WERREW (p2) REWWER(p2)
XARRAX (WW94158) RAXXAR (an antibiotic)
YANNAY, Bet (Israel) NAYYAN (hill - Jordan)
ZURRUZ (WW93251)

palindrome (123321) tautonym (123123)

ABOOBA (well-Somalia) ABOABO(stream-Ghana)
BATTAB Khor(wadi-Sudan) BATBAT (Philippines)
CASSAC CASCAS (Peru)
DISSID DISDIS (Philippines)
EALLAE (p2) EALEAL Beer(astronomer)
FINNIF FINFIN (stream - Chile)
GORROG (Somalia) GORGOR (hill - Kenya)
HALLAH HALHAL (mountains -
 Eritrea)
IRAARI (WW93251) IRAIRA (a Japanese game)
JILLIJ, Burj (lighthouse JILJIL (spring - Somalia)
- Tunisia)
KINNIK KINKIN
LAKKAL, Kef (mount. LAKLAK
- Algeria)
MUSSUM MUSMUS (Ecuador)
NAMMAN NAMNAM
ORI-IRO (p2) ORIORI (a Maori chant)

POSSOP (p2) POSPOS (Colombia)
QAZZAQ QAZQAZ (point in Bahrain)
RAGGAR(wadi - Somalia) RAGRAG (Morocco)
SANNAS SANSAN (Guinea)
TERRET TERTER
UREERU UREURE, Te(mt. New Zea.)

VOLLOV (surname) VOLVOL (= volvo)
WERREW (p2) WERWER(area in Germany)
XARRAX (WW94158) XARXAR (Azerbaijan)
YANNAY, Bet (Israel) YANYAN (Nigeria)
ZURRUZ (WW93251) ZURZUR (wadi - Libya)

PALINDROMES AND MIAMI WORDS

Miami word (21321) palindrome (12321) A - Z

KAIKA (pull) AKIKA (p2)
ABRAB (well - Sudan) BARAB Chah (Afghanistan)
ACMAC (Philippines) CAMAC (surname)
ADRAD (greatly afraid) DARAD, El (Somalia)
SETSE (a pan in Botswana) EST-SE (ME 'East Sea' - p2)
AFRAF (a Christian name) FARAF (p2)
UGRUG (pull) GURUG (p2)
AHLAH (wadi - Oman) HALAH (edd)
LIALI, Ain el (spring - Tunisia) ILALI (p2)
AJNAJ (an Esperanto word) JANAJ (Egypt)
AKCAK, Asagi (Turkey) KACAK(stream-Czechoslovakia)
ALHAL (hill - Morocco) LAHAL (Beng Lahal Pruol
 - lake in Cambodia)
AMRAM (wadi - Israel) MARAM(=marram-reed grass)
ANSAN (N. Korea) NASAN, Um (island - Bahrain)
ROERO, Monteu (Italy) ORERO(facility center-Kenya)
APRAP (a music magazine) PARAP (Australia)
UQRUQ (a Turkish word) QURUQ (Iran)
ARSAR Lerrnagagat RASAR (15th century 'raiser')
(mountain - Armenia)
ESNES (old word=day-labourers) SENES(pl. of 'senex'-old man)
ATFAT Haydar (Egypt) TAFAT (farm - Algeria)
AURAU (Germany) UARAU (East Timor)
EVLEV (surname) VELEV (p2)
AWNAW (stream-Afghanistan) WANAW (p2)
EXREX (a web site) XEREX (p2)
AYRAY Khuduk (well - Mongolia) YARAY (w3)
AZWAZ (wadi - Tunisia) ZAWAZ, Ra's Ghuraybat
 (hill - Libya)

Miami word (21321) Miami word (12312)

KAIKA (pull) AKIAK(a Kuskwogmiut village-hod)
ABRAB (well - Sudan) BARBA (Latin: a beard - ch)
ACMAC (Philippines) CAMCA (stream - Moldova)
ADRAD (greatly afraid) DARDA (Albania)
SETSE (a pan in Botswana) ESTES (favours)
AFRAF (a Christian name) FARFA (an Abbey near Rome)
UGRUG (pull) GURGU (stream - Afghanistan)
AHLAH (wadi - Oman) HALHA Horoo (Mongolia)
LIALI, Ain el (spring - Tunisia) ILAIL (hill - Kenya)
AJNAJ (an Esperanto word) JANJA (Sierra Leone)
AKCAK, Asagi (Turkey) KACKA, Kuznika (Poland)
ALHAL (hill - Morocco) LAHLA (lake - Papua NG)

AMRAM (wadi - Israel) MARMA (swamp - Australia)
ANSAN (N. Korea) NASNA(plantigrade genus - ch)
ROERO, Monteu (Italy) OREOR (island - Palau)
APRAP (a music magazine) PARPA, Quebrada (stream-Peru)
UQRUQ (a Turkish word) QURQU (Afghanistan)
ARSAR Lerrnagagat RASRA (India)
(mountain - Armenia)
ESNES (old word=day-labourers) SENSE
ATFAT Haydar (Egypt) TAFTA (Afghanistan)
AURAU (Germany) UARUA Ipana (lake - Colombia)
EVLEV (surname) VELVE (veil: a calve's stomach)
AWNAW (stream-Afghanistan) WANWA, Loi (mt.- Burma)
EXREX (a web site) XERXE (Yugoslavia)
AYRAY Khuduk (well - Mongolia) YARYA (Russia)
AZWAZ (wadi - Tunisia) ZAWZA (mountain -
 Afghanistan)

3 DIFFERENT GENRES

SPI tautonym

ARGRAG, Sidi Mohamed RAG RAG, Tall ar (Iran)
(Morocco)
BARBRA BARBAR

DREDER DERDER (reef - Australia)
FELFLE, Ain el (spring-Labanon) FELFEL (Ethiopia)
HRAHAR, El (locality-Algeria) HARHAR (hill - Yemen)
KALKLA, Ben Zitat el (Morocco) KALKAL (well - Djibouti)
LA-E-ALE (island - Burma) LAELAE (island - Indonesia)
NSANAS, Chabet (wadi-Morocco) NASNAS (edncm)
PREPER (Czechoslovakia) PERPER (Iran)
SALSLA, Sidi Bru (tomb-Tunisia) SALSAL, Cachoeira (falls- Brazil)
TELETL (Russia) TELTEL (area - Somalia)

SPI palindrome

ARGRAG, Sidi Mohamed RAGGAR (wadi - Somalia)
(Morocco)
BARBRA RABBAR, Lovgrunds
 (reef - Sweden)
DREDER REDDER
FELFLE, Ain el (spring-Labanon) LEFFEL
HRAHAR, El (locality-Algeria) HARRAH (Egypt)
KALKLA, Ben Zitat el (Morocco) KALLAK (st)
LA-E-ALE (island - Burma) EALLAE
NSANAS, Chabet (wadi-Morocco) NASSAN (Burkina Faso)
PREPER (Czechoslovakia) REPPER
SALSLA, Sidi Bru (tomb-Tunisia) SALLAS (France)
TELETL (Russia) TELLET Surd (wadi - Egypt)

SPI palindrome

KINNKI (Guinea) KINNIK (hod)
MALLMA (Peru) MALLAM
TIGIGT (mountain - Morocco) TIGGIT (edd)

SPI tautonym

KINNKI (Guinea) KINKIN
MALLMA (Peru) MALMAL (Somalia)
TIGIGT (mountain - Morocco) TIGTIG (Philippines)

4 DIFFERENT GENRES

These two 4-word chains are each made using 4 different genres:

palindrome NSPI

NATTAN * (surname) NANTAT (Burma)

SPI palindrome

SUTTSU (Japan) SUTTUS *

palindrome tautonym

NATTAN * (surname) TANTAN *

SPI NSPI

SUTTSU (Japan) SUSTUT (peak-Canada)

palindrome SPI

NATTAN * (surname) TANTNA (mountain-Tunisia)

SPI tautonym

SUTTSU (Japan) TUSTUS * Pampa (Peru)

In order to construct chains with more than 4 words, at least one genre
has to be used twice. This chain of 5 words, covering 4 genres, is
achieved by incorporating a second palindrome:

SPI palindrome

TENENT TENNET

SPI NSPI

TENENT NENTET Allominab
 (Ethiopia)

SPI palindrome

TENENT NETTEN
 (Dutch: nets)

SPI tautonym

TENENT TENTEN (Chile)

These two 7-word chains each duplicate 3 of the 4 genres:

SPI palindrome

ANGGAN NAGGAN, Air
(stream-Malaysia) (depression in Mali)

NSPI SPI

TITILL TILILT
 (mount.-Morocco)

SPI tautonym

ANGGAN NAGNAG
(stream-Malaysia) (w2)

NSPI palindrome

TITILL TILLIT

SPI NSPI

ANGGAN GAGNAN
(stream-Malaysia) (stream-Sweden)

NSPI tautonym

TITILL LITLIT
 (Philippines)

SPI palindrome

ANGGAN GANNAG
(stream-Malaysia) (p2)

NSPI NSPI
 LILTIT
TITILL (csd)

SPI tautonym

ANGGAN GANGAN
(stream-Malaysia)

NSPI palindrome

TITILL LITTIL

SPI SPI

ANGGAN GNAGAN
(stream-Malaysia) (OE 'gnaw' -ch)

NSPI tautonym

TITILL TILTIL
 (Chile)

8-LETTER WORDS

tautonym SPI

KALUKALU (Philippines) KALUKULA (DR Congo)
MALUMALU (area - Solomon Is.) MALUMULA (Malawi)
MARIMARI (well - Somalia) MARIMIRA (forest - Kenya)
MARUMARU (river - Nigeria) MARUMURA (admin. div. Japan)
MOUSMOUS, Chabet el MOUSSOUM, Guessa (Chad)
(stream - Algeria)

tautonym tautonym

KALUKALU (Philippines) KULAKULA (Estonia)
MALUMALU (area - Solomon Is.) MULAMULA (Mozambique)
MARIMARI (well - Somalia) MIRAMIRA (Bolivia)
MARUMARU (river - Nigeria) MURAMURA (stream - Ghana)
MOUSMOUS, Chabet el SOUMSOUM, Mayo
(stream - Algeria) (stream - Cameroon)

tautonym NSPI

GIRAGIRA (stream - Angola) GIRIGARA (Senegal)
KILOKILO (Philippines) KILIKOLO (stream - Iv.Coast)
KOLAKOLA (cape - Zambia) KOLOKALA (Madagascar)
LOKALOKA (creek - Fiji) LOKOLAKA (Indonesia)
PORAPORA (Papua NG) POROPARA (stream-Iv.Coast)
PUTAPUTA(stream-New Zea.) PUTUPATA (ridge - Peru)
SIRASIRA (a Solomon Is.) SIRISARA (stream - Guinea)

tautonym tautonym

GIRAGIRA (stream - Angola) GARIGARI (Nigeria)
KILOKILO (Philippines) KOLIKOLI (stream - Iv. Coast)
KOLAKOLA (cape - Zambia) KALOKALO(stream-Solomon Is.)
LOKALOKA (creek - Fiji) LAKOLAKO (Nigeria)
PORAPORA (Papua NG) PAROPARO (mountain - Peru)
PUTAPUTA(stream-New Zea.) PATUPATU (stream -New Zea.)
SIRASIRA (a Solomon Is.) SARISARI (Philippines)

NSPI tautonym

KARAKORO (Burkina Faso) KAROKARO (mountain - Fiji)

SPI tautonym

RUCACURA, Rio CURACURA, Randal (rapids
(stream - Chile) - Venezuela)

NSPI NSPI

KARAKORO (Burkina Faso) KOROKARA (Ivory Coast)

SPI NSPI

RUCACURA, Rio CARACURU (Brazil)
(stream - Chile)

These two 4-word examples each form a circle, the last word transposing
to the first word *:

tautonym SPI

CHAI-CHAI * (Mozambique) CHAI-CHIA (China)

tautonym NSPI

KARUKARU * KARAKURU
(Papua NG) (a pan in Botswana)

tautonym tautonym

CHAI-CHAI * (Mozambique) CHIA-CHIA (China)

tautonym tautonym

KARUKARU * KURAKURA
(Papua NG) (area - Guyana)

tautonym SPI

CHAI-CHAI * (Mozambique) CHIA-CHAI * (China)

tautonym NSPI

KARUKARU * KURUKARA *
(Papua NG) (pop. locality Rwanda)

10-LETTER WORDS

This is the only example I found which has five different letters of
the alphabet:

NSPI SPI

CHECANHANE, Chefe CHENACHANE (Algeria)
(Mozambique)

NSPI tautonym

CHECANHANE, Chefe CHENACHENA (falls in Mali)
(Mozambique)


SUSAN THORPE

Great Missenden, Buckinghamshire, England

thorpeds@hotmail.com
COPYRIGHT 2004 Jeremiah Farrell
No portion of this article can be reproduced without the express written permission from the copyright holder.
Copyright 2004 Gale, Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.

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Author:Thorpe, Susan
Publication:Word Ways
Date:Aug 1, 2004
Words:2518
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