Translating cultural references.
Those situations encountered and solved during a special legal or scientific text translation, where the names of social or political practices are designed in a particular way within the source language, and must be equated with as suggestive and specific names in the target language, are ranked as the translator's component entities skills. Besides these, even relatively minor issues, such the use of capitalization, for instance, are differently standardized in each language. In this paper, we will refer to some examples that will spread a revealing light on cultural diversity and hence on the need for cultural competence. The cases discussed are significant for the current Romanian language and highlight the dynamics of terminologies.
It is well known that the translator must acquire those cultural skills that complement the component of language proficiency, in both languages involved in translation. How to form the cultural competence of the translator? First, it is possible through various readings in both languages and through the knowledge of databases which he/she should use. Secondly, it is desirable by cultivating curiosity and the gentle sense of the well-found word, in other words, by developing terminology research.
What do we mean by the term cultural references? To clarify its meaning, we have first to define cultural identity: it is the sum of traits that characterize a social group, according to several parameters, and among these, language has an important place. The other accepted parameters are customs, social practices, values, and worldview.
In this approach, cultural references are distinctive marks of a group culture towards the culture of other groups. Language being a fundamental parameter, it is clear that certain language features (i.e. lexicalization, classification and hyperonymy, patterns for institutions names) are such landmarks. Translating identity markers that are visible at the text surface as marks of a cultural system is a challenge in itself. The very phrase from the title of the present paper has various forms of equivalence, i.e.: definisseurs culturels, landmarks of cultural identity. As a cultural activity, translation operates with transfers of meanings from source culture to target culture, which must find appropriate containers, linguistic forms accepted in the target language.
However, although it is well known and accepted that any language is the expression of a culture, translation is not an issue addressed by anthropological studies. They deal with culture, language and languages in a broad perspective, along with other communication modes, but they do not yet grant a special place to translation. Thus, even a renowned book, considered as a classic in the field (Haviland, 2002) which deals with topics such as language and gender, the national character of culture, sex and marriage, kinship, ages, political systems, the supernatural, story and other components of cultural heritage, cultural change and modernization, cultural rights etc., ignores translation as a cultural topic. The various chapters do not work with the concept of translation, nor do they consider this activity as connecting, establishing a bridge between two cultures. The fact is symptomatic, given that the term translation is absent from the thematic index of this impressive works (500 pages).
We all know that the source text is built--from grammatical and stylistic point of view, and also from a referential one--in tight relations with the source culture. The closer its links are to the source culture, the more difficult the translation becomes. In practice, it is about terminology and semantics. The terminology of the source language should be equated with the terminology of the target language; even when there are not bi-univocal relationships between them (i.e. the terms of the source language do not always have correspondents in the target language). In this case, we are talking about gaps in the target language terminology. These gaps can be of several types, of conceptual/semantic or formal/lexical and morphological nature. It is our experience gained through the practice of translation at the European Institute of Romania of the acquis communautaire (treaties, directives, regulations, guidelines, decisions, and judgments of the Court of Justice in Luxembourg), of the ECHR case-law, or of the Romanian legislation that highlighted such gaps and required their solution in order to accurately translate the texts.
The translation of EU legislation and case-law brought to the fore the issue of culture transfer from the EU to Romania in the pre-accession period and after the accession. A number of institutions, rules, concepts, procedures, etc., unknown in Romania have found the proper terminology through translation and have gradually become parts of the Romanian political, institutional culture and legislation.
In fact, this process was facilitated by the transposition of directives and the harmonizing of the Romanian legislation with the EU legislation. These operations have included a cultural component, an adjustment and renewal of the entire social system. In accounting, for example, have been adopted internationally accepted standards that shift focus from the application of accounting methods on the past realities and operations, already completed, to the accounting for the future-oriented activity, through accounting policies.
2. Identity markers and terminological gaps
The strongest markers of cultural identity are those that differentiate (exclusively) one culture from another, or a group of cultures, a cultural area in relation to another group or another cultural area. These items are lexically strong (they are also known as realia) and are true touchstones for the translation: the translator has the choice to simply use them (report), to carry forward their explanation either by footnotes or endnotes, to increment the text or to translate them literally (as a form of concealed report). A notable illustration for those possibilities of translating texts as difficult as Shakespeare in the 19th century Romanian language (with a rather low rate of neologisms) is offered in Matei-Chesnoiu (2006).
Gaps in terminology can be understood--in Saussure's theory--as the absence of a signifier from a language, due to the lack of its signified in that culture. Gaps in terminology are reflecting several types of cultural differences, depending on the level where they lie and on the causes that generate them. When discovered, terminology gaps must be solved in translation. These shortcomings become evident only when there is a cultural contact, when there is a need for communication.
2.1. The most common types of terminological gaps are the names (for objects, actions, qualities) that make up the historically built image and cultural identity, in various fields: fishing gear, customs (lists of articles), engines, transport, industry, food, vine cultivation, flora and fauna, etc.
2.1.1. A seemingly simple example can highlight how difficult it is to finally find the exact name of a plant species in the target language.
Vaccinium vitis idaea is the Latin scholar name for cranberry (rom. merisor, see DEX, synonymous with smirdar, cimisir). In the explanatory note to the Combined Nomenclature of the EU in 2011, merisor is the Romanian equivalent for the English version: "cowberries, foxberries or mountain cranberries (fruit of the species Vaccinium vitis idea)", with the French version: airelles, Italian version mirtilli rossi.
However, in the Commission Regulation (EU) No 310/2011:fr. pommes (pommette) is equated with rom. mere (merisor) and engl. apples (crab apple).
Faced with this mismatch, I have consulted Larousse: s.v. airelle, which is the fruit of a shrub of the genus Vaccinium and is equivalent to engl. cranberry, blueberry, it. mirtillo. However Larousse s.v. pommette do not record the meaning of fruit (name), but only the name for the cheekbone and a technical term for a traditional craft.
In Granddictionnaire, fr. airelle is Vaccinium vitis idaea, engl. lingonberry (plus 12 other synonyms), in the same input with myrtille (a similar fruit, lat. Vaccinium myrtillus), eng. whortleberry. As for engl. crab apple, fr. pommette, there is indicated the Latin scientific name Malus baccata. (1)
2.1.2. Cultural identity markers in the translation of political sciences texts, however, are raising difficulties of a different nature.
Translating a book starts with the title. If the following example, the very title: Upgrading the EUfs Role as Global Actor (Balfour, 2011) requires a precise choice from the Romanian synonyms that can transmit the idea of the noun upgrading. Although in English the noun has a rather simple definition (an increase or improvement (2)) and seems not to be polysemantic, however, it has not a unique Romanian correspondent. Having consulted the Official Journal of the European Union issues from one year only (2011), I discovered that upgrading was equalled with several synonyms in Romanian, in various contexts, as indicated bellow in Table 1. For the title in question, the best solution seems to be modernizare, a word that implies the adaptation to the new times of the EU role on world stage, especially after the entry into force of the Treaty of Lisbon.
The most recent normative dictionary of Romanian language (DIN), inserted the verb (a) upgrada (pronounced: [apgrada]), which would allow us to translate by rom. upgradare.
At this point, the choice belongs to the translator. If he/she wants a strong stylistically marked version, he/she will choose upgradare, solution which brings some connotations from the IT. If he/she wants a neutral style for the translation, he/she will use rom. modernizare ox transformare. He/she might choose revalorizare, but this term does not imply any changes that must take place, or actualizare, but this one could seem appropriate, with connotations from the IT area (actualizarea bazei de date, database update). In no case will he/she choose rom. reabilitare, which carries in part negative connotations on the status quo.
The cultural landmark for the Romanian translation is French, in this case and, as we have previously noted, in many other papers (Bara, 2008; Bara, 2010). Providing current terminology for translators, I found that Romanian, being a Romance language and having its modern cultural expression mainly shaped by adopting the French model (since the late 18th century), has a cultural identity expressed in its French origin terminology and semantics. Those circumstances result in a close tight to the French translation and terminology model, and in the French style of Romanian neology.
2.1.3. Regarding the terms self-employed and self-employment, because they name a new reality for Romania, after 1990, there has not yet been found an agreed and formal equivalence for them, and one can find various approximations, quite different, depending on the document (national law or acquis).
Terminology proposals vary from lucrator independent (self-employed worker), persoana fizica autorizata (authorized individual) or liber profesionist (freelance). From the linguist lawyers' point of view, the difference is significant. For this reason, the translator must watch other information provided by the context (if it is the case of tax payment, of employment pay or of statistical reports).
From the same paradigm I could quote employability, whose equivalent is the circumlocution: capacitatea de a fi angajat (the ability to be employed) or capacitatea de a gasi un loc de munca (the ability to find a job).
2.2. There are important cultural differences in terminology and therefore in the systems (legal, accounting, education, classification of economic activities) or historically constituted practices (social, political). Therefore, we could analyze aspects of cultural identity markers in translating legal texts diachronically (Romanian legal language setting) or in synchrony (the translation of EU texts in Romanian or of cases involving Member States).
2.2.1. The political circumstances of the modernization of the newly created Romanian state in the second half of the 19th century allowed the continuation and deepening of contacts with the Western Europe and allowed also a free cultural development. Translations have had a very important role, it is known, although in 1840 Kogalniceanu labelled them "a rage" and urged writers to be original. Legal vocabulary was enriched in that period with new French terms, which coexisted with the old ones (of Slavonic, Turkish or Greek origin), that later became popular and were avoided in official texts. Here is a table of some examples, drawn from the Commercial Code of January 1, 1840.
A short passage from the text published in 1840 can give an insight into the difficulties of understanding the old Romanian language for today's readers:
Prescurtarea acteloru de tovarasia in nume coprindetoru si in comandita trebue sa se dea, in sorocu de cinci-spre-dece dile de la data loru, la cancelaria tribunalului localu, unde, este asediata casa tovaretesca de negotiu, ca sa se treca la condica, si se se lipsescu, spre sciinta publicului, trei luni in sala judecatei, publicandu-se si prin Buletinu.
Candu tovarasia are mai multe case de negotu asedate in deosebite judetie, darea, trecerea la condica si lipirea acestei prescurtari se voru face la tribunalulu fia-carui judetu. De nu se va padi vreuna din aceste formalitati, tote faptele tovarasiei suntu nemicite si de nici unu fololosu pentru tovarati; iar interesele strainiloru nu se potu vatema nici cumu din lipsa acestoru formalitati.
It should be noted that the neologisms from 1887 are today current terms: comert (trade), obligaiiune (bonds), termen (term), societate comerciala (company), registru (register), exemplar (copy), semnatura (signed), nulitate (void), asociat (associated), etc.
2.2.2. In national legal systems there are concepts and terms that often have no exact equivalent from one language to another, i.e. from one system to another. For example, in U.S. law, decree consent is the term for which we found the following explanation based on the Supreme Court of the United States case-law, in a 1986 case:
[...] consent decrees "have attributes both of contracts and of judicial decrees." The division between contracts and judicial decrees suggests that consent decrees are contracts that resolve some issues through the consent of the parties. However, for some issues, the decree contains judicial acts rendered by the judge, not the parties. Commentators have noted that these dual attributes require a court to determine when it is appropriate to "rubber-stamp" a proposed settlement and when it is more appropriate for the court to treat the proposal as it would any judicial order. (3)
The term was given the French equivalent jugement d'expedient in only one document published in the Official Journal of the EU in 1986. In other texts (from 1976 and 1996, decisions available on the official website of the European Commission, EUR-Lex portal), it remains as such in the French text: consent decree. In a subsequent decision, the translation materialized in: jugement d'accord provisoire (Celex number 32000D0520). For this concept specific to the U.S. legal system, reflecting a different cultural reality from the European one, and also different from the Romanian cultural reality, the approach to identify possible equivalence in Romanian through the French language is justified. Knowing already that modern Romanian terminology is created on the French model, therefore the Romanian equivalent followed the intermediary French path, thus leading to: hotarare de expedient (4) (expedient decision). As it can be inferred from the analysis above, the historical connection between the Romanian and French legal terminology is underlying the current terminology creation of the acquis communautaire, including the EU Court of Justice or the European Court of Human Rights in Strasbourg case-law.
2.2.3. In the last few years a pair of terms entered the Romanian legal terminology, avertizare (in interes public) and avertizor -literally: warning in the public interest and warner--defined as follows in the Romanian Law (5) 571 from 2004, article 3 (bellow in my translation):
a) warning in the public interest is the notification made in good faith about any offense involving a violation of law, professional ethics or the principles of good administration, efficiency, effectiveness, economy and transparency;
b) warner means a person who makes a referral under subparagraph a), and who is assigned to one of the public authorities, public institutions or other units mentioned in art. 2.
In common language, the word avertizor (warner) is in the neuter gender (see DIN, DEX) and comes from the technical vocabulary, where it is the name of an optical or acoustic warning device, used to prevent accidents, etc.--from fr. avertisseur (DEX 2009). In fact, the French etymon has the same meaning: "dispositif destine a donner un signal" (Larousse 1999).
Interestingly, in the Official Journal (6), the lexicalization for "device that transmits a signal to attract attention" is as follows: fr. avertisseur acoustique (monte sur le tracteur), engl. audible warning device (fitted to the tractor), rom. avertizor sonor (montatpe tractor).
Since the 2004 Law, the term acquires the status of a masculine noun in Romanian language. Taken from French into Romanian, the term is the equivalent of a quite plastic English one, whistle-blower. There are official documents in French, which still maintain this term in its English form. In fact, the link to an institution of law in the U.S. is explained in a fairly informal manner (Wallace, 2010: 136).
We have "discovered" this problem of equivalence while the team of the European Institute of Romania was translating this book, from which we quote the passage (Wallace, 2010: 136): "Some raids arise from the successful adaptation by the Commission of a US-style leniency programme, a system of exemptions for 'whistle-blowers' who provide information about a cartel in which their firms are involved." The problem I was faced with as a terminologist consulted by my colleagues the translators, seemed initially to be the choice between informator (informant), in the formal register, but with some strong connotations back to the communist history of the country, although it is a term used in dialectology or sociology, and turnator (caster, founder, but also snitch), a very popular word, but with a strong negative connotation. Although I would rather be inclined to choose the former, my colleague who signalled the difficulty was inclined to use the latter, in order to maintain the informal register from the source language. At this moment, the situation seemed to be confined to these two possibilities, but further documentation and research in law terminology lead me to the discovery of the above quoted law, where I found the definition.
Although avertizor still appears to be relatively strange in Romanian language, with this meaning, given the language semantic networks, it has strong links with the verbs a avertiza (to warn), a atrage atenfia (to attract attention) the nouns avertizare (warning), semnal (warning signal), all containing the information [-animated]; however, it seems that only the use following the law enforcement will decide if in the Romanian legal system this term would be considered normal, carrying the semantic information [+human].
From a strictly linguistic point of view, at the same time, an ultimate statement is necessary to be underlined: to be the name of the agent, as inferred from the law, the most appropriate would probably be a derivative with the suffix -tor, avertizator. It would complete the agent names paradigm, formed from verbs (infinitive or participle): angajator (employer), cercetator (researcher), creator (creator), desenator (designer), donator (donor), dregator (official; public servant), fmanfator (financier), jucator (player), luptator (fighter; wrestler), prelucrator (processor), scriitor (writer), traducator (translator), transportator (carrier), vanzator (vendor).
This paradigm could be presented together with the paradigm of adjectives formed from the participle and the suffix -tor: atragator (attractive), iubitor (loving), promitator (promising), purtator (carrier), stralucitor (bright), trecator (passer-by; transient), etc.
Being built on the French model, avertizor can take place in the already established paradigm of loans, although less representative, for the name of agent, together with: antrenor (coach), coafor (hairdresser), designer (designer), miner (miner).
These considerations on the signifier and the paradigms it enters, as well on the semantic networks in which it associates with other lexical and semantic units stresses that borrowing a new term must observe not only satisfy the meaning, but also--if the meaning is new--the form that is associated must be supported by the established structures and language networks.
According to the definition from the law, avertizor is completed with the phrase in the public interest. Being a highly specialized term, the fact that it interferes with existing paradigms is not relevant.
2.3. A special and nonetheless very visible type of terminological gaps issues from the differences in time evolution, from modernization, in terms of new technologies, industrial processes, new substances, concepts etc.
2.3.1. One kind of decision of the European institutions, with no regular character, a rather exceptional one, is called in English one-off decision. Referring to this decision, although it is not repetitive, demands a transparent term in Romanian. The translator of Wallace (2010) proposed the term decizie ad-hoc (ad hoc decision). At first sight, it seems quite appropriate, considering that it has not a regular character, but a rather accidental one. However, the research in legal databases and in multilingual texts published by the European Union took me to the French solution, decision ponctuelle. Translated into Romanian, the term decizie punctuala turned out to be used in political science texts, which I have considered as a satisfactory solution that allowed me to put an end to the search.
2.3.2. Spin-off and start-up (7) (in my translation)
SPIN-OFF--newly established or to be established companies, based on a result obtained from a research project of a public research organization or a university;
START-UP--in the context of this scheme, means the company set up since no more than three years, which implements the results obtained from a research project or a patented idea.
The solution found here was to take the terms in their English form, as English is the language in which they first appeared.
2.3.3. Another term from Wallace (2010), polity is a generic name for the EU. In other EU multilingual documents, the French equivalent term is espace politique (i.e. Schuman Report, 2009). Therefore, rom. sister politic (political system), preferred initially by the translator, was abandoned later for the term spatiu politic (political space), as I found after a search in the European Parliament resolution of 7 May 2009 on the development of the relations between the European Parliament and national parliaments under the Treaty of Lisbon (8). Polity comes from the Ancient Greek language, being the area of political debate, democratic action space. In the 18th century Romanian, there was politie, a political term, meaning "the city". Adopting this last term could be quite daring, as it would enter the old and marked stylistically paradigm, along with muzichie (music), that in current Romanian is considered as humoristic, ironic. Politichie is often used for politics in news-papers as depreciative and lacking seriousness.
2.3.4. Discourse in political sciences in English-language texts sometimes refers to the practice of so-called side-payment, defined as "payment made by a party to an agreement to another firm as an inducement to join in the agreement". (9) This time, I considered that finding the equivalence in Romanian rises the problem of a value judgment; for this reason, to avoid words like mita (bribery), which would bring negative connotations or plata nelegala (illegal payment) which would exceed the information carried by the English term, I preferred the neutral general term plata unor stimulente (incentive payment). This hypernym has the advantage to be already used in the context of various payments (EU funds or staff income). For instance, it is used in contexts as absenta unor stimulente eficiente (the absence of effective incentives (10)) or in Romanian legislation. (11)
3. Reflections on translation as a vehicle for communication between cultures
Translations have enriched and modernized Romanian language, especially since the 19th century. From a cultural perspective, translations are obviously tools of modernizing language and society.
In Romanian, there is a really established and recognized "tradition" of borrowing neologisms from the source language, especially English, in their written form, although the orthography is mainly phonetic.
Adapting neologisms in Romanian language is a process of varying length. As the words registered in the DIN indicate, for some neologisms even a decade or maximum two is enough to become accepted.
Legal texts have benefited from French terminology, since the Romanian codes adopted in 1864, which determined a close relation between the French and the Romanian cultural space.
The U.S. model of globalization raised in France the reaction strategies to protect French culture and tradition. But the strategy regarding the French language is now involving, as a side-effect, the culture of relatively small countries, with little visibility on the international scene (Johan Heilbron, 2008: 331). The fact that the French mediator, i.e. French terminology still plays an important role for Romanian terminology is evidence that cultural paradigms change slowly, although the risk of globalization seems to be generated by an exaggerated fear.
Translations flow is an indicator of international cultural exchanges. Between central and peripheral languages exchanges are asymmetrical (Sapiro, 2008: 309; Gambier, 2008). Translations of books of social sciences, subject to economic and political constraints, are determined by the degree of actuality, the tradition of scientific exchange, the aid eligibility (for translation, policy support, etc.), and also by the existence and the diversification of routes for mediators, the degree of specialization etc. (Sapiro & Popa, 2008: 137). Equally important is the symbolic capital accumulated by certain authors or certain languages for a domain. From the mid-1990s, the U.S. plays an important and well known role in determining the timeliness of international social sciences (Sapiro & Popa, 2008: 138). Since now, it was found that French has a role to mediate from peripheral languages to English (or Spanish) translations:
Le role de mediation, sinon pour la traduction, du moins pour l'acces premier a un texte, est une propriete des langues centrales. Deuxieme langue centrale, le francais reste une langue de mediation, notamment vers l'anglais et l'espagnol. Pour acceder a des oeuvres ecrites en langues peripheriques, les editeurs du continent americain ont en effet souvent recours a la traduction en francais, qui sert de premier contact avec l'oeuvre, avant de rechercher un lecteur et/ou un traducteur competent dans la langue. (Sapiro & Popa, 2008: 87)
[In my translation: The mediating role, if not for the translation, at least for a first access to a text, is a property of central languages. Second central language, French is a language of mediation, especially to English and Spanish. To gain access to works written in peripheral languages, publishers of the Americas have in fact often used the French translation, which offers the first contact with the work, before looking for a reader and/or a competent translator in that language.]
In support of their assertion, Sapiro & Popa provide examples: a publisher from Chile uses a French mediator of German, Danish or Arab texts; a famous U.S. publishing house translating through German mediator books from Eastern Europe.
All things considered, our research emphasized the role of French as mediator in translating from English to Romanian, as a result of a historically explainable process. I found that French is a good mediator for translating specialized texts from English to Romanian.
However, let us not forget that the strongest "assault" comes from the English language. We use neologisms, words whose Romanian spelling is questionable, see bungalow in DIN and DEX. Recently, in legal texts has been reported bench learning, preferred by the organizers of training sessions for the public administration, instead of the Romanian term invatare reciproca (peer learning). Another fashionable term, think-tank, is gaining more ground.
As each type of gap in terminology is reflecting the cultural landmarks differently, it should be treated differently in translation. Thereby, for the type 2.1.,it is desirable to found the appropriate equivalent to name the object (if possible; if such equivalent does not exist in the target language, the word will be borrowed from the source language). The procedures are known as transfer or loan. Approximate synonyms or hypernyms can be used.
For the type 2.2., circumlocutions or borrowed words are usually adopted, since they are sufficiently transparent, semantically speaking, possibly accompanied by explanations or notes. Translators usually use as references already published and validated translations, as texts or specialized glossaries.
As for the type 2.3., neology is working, through creating new terms, by adopting terms of source language or by creating new ones, based on lexical and morphological paradigms already existing in the target language. Modulation or transfer can be used.
Future research on current innovations in Romanian terminology will enhance the picture outlined in the present study, which aimed to indicate the main areas of terminology gaps in Romanian language.
Balfour, Rosa et al. (2011), Upgrading the EU's Role as Global Actor, Foreign and Security Policy, http://www.ceps.eu/book/upgrading-eus-role-global-actor
Bara, Mariana. (2010), "Relamia hiponimica dintre termeni si traducerea," Analele Universitatii Spiru Haret, Seria Filologie, Limba si literatura romana, 11: 115-122.
Bara, Mariana. (2008), "Adaptarea terminologiei medicale in limba romana actuala," Limba romana, LVII 4: 419-439.
Coteanu, Ion. Luiza, Seche, and Mircea, Seche. (coord.) (2009), Dictionarul explicativ al limbii romane, Editia a II-a, Bucharest: Univers Enciclopedic.
Matei-Chesnoiu, Monica. (ed.) (2006), Shakespeare in Nineteenth-Century Romania. Bucharest: Humanitas.
Gambier, Yves. (2008), "Entre litterature populaire et belles-lettres: asymetrie des rapports franco-finlandais (1951-2000)," Translatio, 333-346.
Haviland, William A. (ed.) (2002), Cultural Anthropology, tenth edition (first edition 1975), Harcourt College Publishers.
Heilbron, Johan. (2008), "L'evolution des echanges culturels entre la France et les Pays-Bas face a l'hegemonie de l'anglais," Translatio, 311-331.
Sapiro, Gisele. (2008), "Les collections de litterature etrangere," Translatio, 175-209.
Sapiro, Gisele, and Ioana, Popa. (2008), "Traduire les sciences humaines et sociales: logiques editoriales et enjeux scientifiques," Translatio, 107-138.
Sapiro, Gisele. (2008), "Situation du francais sur le marche mondial de la traduction," Translatio, 65-106.
Schuman Report (2009), The State of the Union, http://www.robert-schuman.eu/ouvrage.php?num=115. Translatio. Le marche de la traduction en France a l'heure de la mondialisation, sous la direction de Gisele Sapiro. 2008. Paris: CNRS Editions, 413 p.
Wallace, Helen (ed.) (2010), Policy-Making in the European Union, sixth edition, Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Vintila-Radulescu, Ioana. (2009), Dictionar normativ al limbii romane (DIN). Ortografic, ortoepic, morfologic si practic, Bucharest: Corint.
Granddictionnaire = Office quebecois de la langue francaise, http:// granddictionnaire.com/btml/fra/r_motclef/index1024_1.asp
Hyperion University; European Institute of Romania
(5.) Law no. 571 of 14 December 2004 on the protection of personnel in public authorities, public institutions and other units who report violations of law in the Official Gazette no. 1214 of 17 December 2004, Article 3.
(6.) Directive 2009/63/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 13 July 2009 on certain parts and characteristics of wheeled agricultural or forestry tractors, in OJ L 214, 19.8.2009, p. 23-33; Directive 2009/80/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 13 July 2009 on the identification of controls, telltales and indicators for two or three-wheel motor vehicles, in OJ L 202, 4.8.2009: 16-28.
(7.) Ministry of Economy and Finance minimis aid scheme of 11 February 2008 to support START-ups and spin-offs innovative in the Official Gazette no. 151 of 28 February 2008.
(10.) European Parliament resolution of 10 March 2010 on EU 2020, http://www.europarl.europa.eu/
(11.) Romanian Government Methodology of 6 October 1997 on establishment and staff incentives from within the Ministry of Labour and Social Protection and the subordinate units in Official Gazette no. 277 of 15 October 1997.
Table 1: Romanian and French equivalences for engl. upgrading in the Official Journal (my original research) Romanian French actualizarea competentelor ameliorer (les competences) transformare (institutii) transformer reabilitarea constructiilor renovation (du patrimoine immobilier) revalorizare (domeniu revalorisation bancar) reparatii (la autostrada) refection (de l'autoroute) modernizarea (capacitatilor amelioration (des structures d'accueil) de primire) program de modernizare (programme de) mise en conformite modernizare a cailor de renforcement (des reseaux de transport) acces Table 2: Diachronic comparison of terminology, based on the Monitorul Oficial (Official Gazette) of Romania (my original research) old terms--Commercial neologisms--Commercial Code of January 1st, Code of May 10, 1887, 1840 in force, last updated on July 17, 2005 indatorire obligate tovamsie anonima societate anonima catastis registru iscalitura semnatura carte exemplar soroc termen casa (tovaraseasca) de negotiu societate comerciala nimicit lovit de nulitate
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|Publication:||Linguistic and Philosophical Investigations|
|Date:||Jan 1, 2014|
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