Transdisciplinarity: shaping the future by reading the word and reading the world in an eighth grade classroom.
Please Note: The terms, multidisciplinary, interdisciplinary, and transdisciplinary are often used interchangeably in the literature. However, these modes of inquiry differ. A transdisciplinary project always begins with an issue or problem, and uses knowledge from relevant disciplines to provide insights about the topic of interest, or concern. Division between disciplines is eliminated and the space between disciplines that Nicolescu (2011) explains as "dynamics engendered by the simultaneous action of several levels of Reality," (p.1), offers synergistic potential for new perspectives.
"Miss Smith", the eighth-grade reading teacher I depict in this essay, is a composite of five middle school teachers who hold a transdisciplinary orientation toward teaching, learning, and knowledge. All five teachers help their students understand and appreciate the processes of making meaning and constructing knowledge. They also support student inquiry, critical thinking, collaborative interactions, and reflection. Their holistic, student-centered pedagogy minimizes problems with classroom management because their students are motivated, empowered learners. However, the five teachers find it difficult to teach in accordance with their philosophical beliefs. They believe in the worth of knowledge, but the school districts in which they work take a traditional view of education. Consistent with this view, subject-specific classes are the norm with an emphasis on test preparation.
I begin this essay with a brief introduction to Miss Smith and her philosophical beliefs about learning. I then provide a series of questions to help literacy teacher educators and practitioners review their personal philosophies regarding teaching, learning, and knowledge. Next, I give a brief account of transdisciplinarity and its philosophical underpinnings to situate transdisciplinarity both historically and within a hierarchical curricula typology. In addition, in order to make some major transdisciplinary teaching/learning processes and principles clearer, I connect these tenets to a transdisciplinary investigation conducted by Miss Smith and her eighth-grade reading students. The paper continues with a response/commentary to Miss Smith's transdisciplinary theoretical stance and pedagogy authored by a scholar in curriculum and educational policy. I then offer final questions to help readers reflect about the standards-based movement that is dominant in our schools today and the potential and challenges of a transdiciplinary curriculum.
One of my overarching goals for authoring this essay is to stimulate literacy teacher educators to contemplate how they might offer some transdisciplinary educational theories, and model some concomitant pedagogical practices in their undergraduate and graduate reading classes. I also hope to instill courage and confidence in reading practitioners so they might move toward teaching with a transdisciplinary approach.
There is an ongoing exponential growth of knowledge in our rapidly growing global economy. Therefore, as reading teachers, we must recognize we cannot continue to teach only within the boundaries of our discipline. We need to prepare education majors "to cope with the ever increasing multifaceted nature of their work" (Jacobs, 2010, p. 3). Moreover, we need to prepare K- 12 students to think creatively and critically, and to be concerned about knowledge and the world rather than correct answers to test questions. As Miss Smith shows us, it is possible for us to advocate for students, for creative curricula that go beyond the boundaries of a conventional reading instructional focus, and for a democratic life inside and outside of classrooms (Wilhelm & Novak, 2011).
An Introduction to Miss Smith
Miss Smith is an eighth grade-reading teacher with a transdisciplinary perspective toward teaching, learning, and knowledge. She envisions numerous possibilities for nurturing her students' reading achievements beyond teaching traditional reading lessons. Like all good reading teachers, she wants her students to read for authentic purposes. But, consistent with her transdisciplinary orientation she also wants her students to use reading to discover answers to life-related issues and problems. Moreover, she knows from personal teaching experiences that inquiry increases students' motivation to read actively and helps them recognize the relevance and power of literateness in their lives. When her peers question her holistic views about teaching and learning, she often says, "Information is not stored in divided sections in people's brains" (Asher, 2003).
You can imagine the difficulties Miss Smith encounters with some of her school administrators and reading teacher peers who typically view reading as a single-subject discipline. They become anxious when Miss Smith and her students venture outside the boundaries of basic reading instruction. "After all," they say, "Miss Smith is a reading teacher. She doesn't know the content of other disciplines. She needs to stick to the eighth grade-reading curriculum. Moreover, her students need to pass the reading section of their annual standardized tests and they might fail unless they devote all of their time learning and practicing reading."
Some Epistemological Questions for Readers
Well, whose views are correct- Miss Smith's, or the views of some of her administrators and reading teacher peers? Do students learn best in transdisciplinary inquiries where they are "free from the constraints of subject-matter boundaries" (Levin & Nevo, 2009, p. 442), or do they learn more in single subject classes? Is a transdisciplinary approach feasible in today's world of increased teacher and student high stakes test accountability? Your answers depend upon your epistemological beliefs about curriculum. For example, who is responsible for curriculum? Do you believe students with their teacher's support are capable of developing and implementing some of their own curriculum, or must a curriculum consist of a previously planned course of studies determined from afar? And, what is the intent of curricula? Do you believe the purpose of curricula is to support students' interests and encourage successful, confident learners who have a voice in and some ownership of their education? Or, do you believe committed teachers convey a detailed, externally imposed obligatory curriculum using appropriate materials and pedagogy? (Schwab, 1983). You also must ask yourself what you believe about learning. Do you believe learning is an active, continuous journey that opens minds to see the world in different ways and thus empowers individuals? (Kaufman, Moss, & Osborn, 2003). Or, do you believe learning is a process in which students "hopefully" soak up facts and information like a sponge? (Levin & Nevo, 2003). How about reading? Do you believe reading is the acquisition of technical skills? Or, like Friere and Macedo (1987, 2001), do you believe reading is a set of practices that affords agency and freedom to individuals, and the capability, confidence, and competence to come to their own conclusions and insights? Your responses to these questions also depend on how you view yourself as a reading educator. Are you a technician who follows pedagogical prescriptions? Or, are you an intellectual change agent--a learning facilitator who believes K-12 students need to take their rightful place in the world, thereby promoting social justice, and students' creative and independent thinking? According to Freire and Macedo (1987, 2001) reading then becomes not only reading the word, but also reading the world.
Transdisciplinarity: Some Background Knowledge
The term transdisciplinarity was coined in 1970, by Jean Piaget, Edgar Morin, Andre Lichnerowicz, and Erich Jantsch at an international workshop in France, entitled, "Interdisciplinarity--Teaching and Research Problems in Universities. These scholars envisioned an innovative curriculum that crossed disciplinary boundaries to provide a multifaceted understanding of a topic, or focus of study (Klein, 2004; Moss, Osborn, & Kaufman, 2003; Nicolescu, 2002). Interest in transdisciplinarity was never robust. However, recently, transdisciplinarity has been revived (Klein, 2004; Nicolescu, 2002). Global knowledge is growing at exponential proportions (Jacobs, 2010). Therefore, dependence on information from a single area of study is no longer adequate to meet the expanded educational requirements of the world in the twenty-first century (Costigan, 2003). As Klein (2004) notes, "The problems of society are increasingly complex and interdependent. Hence, they are not isolated to particular sectors or disciplines" (p. 517).
What Does Transdisciplinarity Mean?
While there are some variations in definitions of transdisciplinarity, when situated in a teaching/learning framework, transdisciplinarity denotes a synthesis, a fusion, a blending, and an examination of multiple disciplines in pursuit of the integration of knowledge that focuses on "a central theme, issue, problem, topic, or experience" (Jacobs, 1989, p. 8). Basically, a transdisciplinary approach is a process in which a teacher and her students investigate issues and problems by engaging in project-based explorations that span discipline boundaries. However, transdisciplinarity is much more than reaching beyond discipline boundaries. Transdisciplinarity is a way of thinking about how to acquire knowledge needed to find answers to questions. Moreover, it does not approach a problem through the lens of different disciplines, or use one discipline to inform another (Kaufman, Moss, & Osborn, 2003). Rather, it releases students and teachers from the boundary limitations of specific subject areas. Students and their teacher are free to rely on relevant disciplines that genuinely support and enrich their inquiries. Furthermore, "the curriculum is not dictated by outside forces. Instead teachers enjoy the autonomy, freedom, and power to control and shape the curriculum to answer students' needs" (Levin & Nevo, 2009, p. 443). At the same time, teachers do not consider themselves as "experts", but as learners who, along with their students, seek to construct new knowledge gleaned from multiple perspectives (Levin & Nevo, 2009). Transdisciplinarity also supports a belief that students learn best when learning is authentic and connected to the world, and that knowledge and learning should benefit humanity, thereby shaping the future of our world.
Learning from Miss Smith: Some Major Principals of Transdisciplinary Teaching
As Miss Smith knows, at the beginning of the school year in transdisciplinary classrooms, students with their teacher's help, determine general areas of study, or broad concepts that will guide their specific inquiries throughout the year and serve to extend their knowledge base. For example, early in the fall semester, after considerable discussion and investigation, Miss Smith and her students decided the following four broad themes were important to them: democracy, the environment, nutrition, and service-learning projects (see Westheimer, & Kahne, 2000, for a discussion about service learning). As the academic year progressed, Miss Smith and her students relied on reading and discussing all types of text in germane disciplines to investigate numerous topics that fell under these broad themes, such as climate change, population growth, energy sources, local government election processes, and the calorie count and nutritional value of food served in their school cafeteria. However, today, with Miss Smith's guidance, they elect to engage in a service-learning project that links their inquiry with actual community needs. The students respond to Miss Smith's question about determining a worthy service-learning project by mentioning a shelter for homeless people located near their school. Miss Smith knows students learn best when they study topics that are important to them. Therefore, she pays close attention to her students' interest in the homeless shelter and asks them the following questions: What do you know about homeless shelters? What do you know about people who live in homeless shelters? Why do you think some people are homeless? What do you know about poverty in the United States? What adjectives can you think of that describe homeless people? Although Miss Smith's students come from low socioeconomic homes they conclude they have little knowledge about homeless shelters and the people who reside in these shelters. But, the topic piques their interest and captures their attention. Therefore, they make arrangements to visit the shelter near their school to acquire first hand knowledge that can contribute to their understanding of poverty and homelessness. During their visit to the shelter, they meet some young girls who tell the students they wish they could have a dollhouse they saw advertised on TV- the Nickelodeon Dora Designer Dollhouse sold for $89.99. The girls tell the eighth graders if they ever receive the dollhouse, when they leave the shelter they will give it to other girls who have come to live there.
Back at school, students in Miss Smith's class discuss and document the feasibility of purchasing a dollhouse. With Miss Smith's help they formulate questions that pertain to the issue. Miss Smith jots down the students' questions to serve as a record and a review of their initial thinking when their inquiry is complete. Two of their questions are: How might we make money to purchase a dollhouse? Can we contact toy manufacturers and discount stores to learn if they might give us a lower price on the dollhouse? Then, students peruse the Internet and discover they can purchase a dollhouse kit for $59.99, but it is not the Nickelodean Dora Designer Dollhouse the girls in the shelter wish for. Therefore, the students decide to have a school-approved car wash on a few successive Saturdays to acquire sufficient money to buy the Nickelodean Dora Designer Dollhouse for the girls. They also elect to purchase some books about dollhouses to accompany their dollhouse gift, such as Victorian Dolls' House Projects: A Day in the Life, (Berridge, 2007), The Dollhouse Book (Finnegan, 1999), and The Enchanted Dolls' House (Johnson, 2006).
Over the next few days, with Miss Smith's deliberately purposeful and goal-directed involvement, the students begin to research, consider, and question broader social issues that pertain to poverty and the homeless in the United States. Once again Miss Smith records these questions for review when the inquiry is complete. She is pleased her students have moved forward in their thinking. Their additional queries demonstrate considerable higher order thinking than their original questions about purchasing a dollhouse. The students wonder: Why are people in the United States in homeless shelters? Why do some people have no place to live? Are there city, state, and federal laws that apply to homeless people? Can homeless people vote? Why are some people against having a homeless shelter in their neighborhood? What dangers do homeless people face? Why do United States' local, state, and federal governments allow the plight of homeless people to continue? Who is responsible for homelessness? Who operates homeless shelters? How much does it cost to run a homeless shelter? On the average, how long do people reside in a homeless shelter? Approximately, how many people in the United States are in homeless shelters now? Where can we find a document that lists the 50 U. S. states and shows the number of homeless people in each state? What might these statistics tell us? How might we locate and invite a guest speaker to our class to discuss the homeless situation in the United States? Can we find statistics that tell us the number of people who once resided in homeless shelters but now have homes of their own? Can we discover some true stories told by homeless people about their experiences on the street? Miss Smith distributes copies of these questions to each student and helps them form small inquiry groups related to questions that particularly interest them.
Community, Collaborative Learning, and Critical Reading of Multiple Texts
Miss Smith knows "learning occurs in communities" (Montuori, 2010, p. 117), In fact, transdisciplinarians know community is vital to the learning process. But it is important to note Miss Smith believes community reaches far beyond her classroom walls. She agrees with Forbes (1996), a holistic educational scholar, who observes, "the classroom is ... a community, which is within the larger community of the school, which is within the larger community of the village, town, or city, and which is, by extension, within the larger community of humanity" (p. 6). Thus Miss Smith challenges localism, thinks globally, and "considers the earth as a whole" (Forbes, 1996, p. 2).
Miss Smith also notes her students learn best when they engage in small group collaborative inquiry and problem solving inherent in transdisciplinary tasks. With Miss Smith's assistance, students work together to find answers to their previously determined higher order questions. (e.g., What dangers do homeless people face? Why do United States' local, state, and federal governments allow the plight of homeless people to continue? Who is responsible for homelessness?). During these collaborations, Miss Smith is aware her students do not participate in conventional reading lessons. However, her students rely significantly on critical reading of diverse texts to find answers to their questions that can only be found beyond the limitations of the eighth grade-reading curriculum. These additional modes of learning include computer technology, the arts, oral history, mathematics, writing, business, economics, current events, geography, and local, state, and federal laws. Furthermore, Miss Smith's students discuss and debate their views, revisit sources of information for clarification, and draw knowledge from a wide-range of multiple literacy sources that include reference books; maps; historical fiction; newspapers; magazines; oral communication, published stories conveyed by individuals who live on the streets and those who reside in shelters; a presentation by a guest speaker; on-line web sites; visual art and music created by homeless children and adults living in shelters; and, video documentaries in which the homeless tell their stories. Then, they draw conclusions shaped by these powerful, synergistic, integrated sources of knowledge that transdisciplinary scholars refer to as "spaces between disciplines" (Nicolescu, 2002). They are developing what Freire (1974) termed, a critical consciousness. They are partners with their teacher in dialogic exchanges where they learn, question, reflect, and participate in meaning making (see Instituto Paulo Freire retrieved from http://home.clara.net/heureka/art/freire.htm). As Friere and Macedo (1987, 2001) envisioned, the eighth graders not only read the word, they read the world.
Accountability and Documentation of Students' Work
As the students, with Miss Smith's help, discover answers to their questions, they constantly search for ways to weave connections among disciplines and look for informational disparities and discrepancies among disciplines as well. Miss Smith knows it is important to document students' work so she can award grades that are required in her middle school. Accountability provides evidence that she and her students meet high standards and achieve worthwhile educational and eighth-grade reading goals. In addition, Miss Smith knows it is important to share specific feedback to her students about their efforts, and to involve students in self-assessment. Therefore, she and her students evaluate students' work as they enter sentences in their personal dictionaries that contain unusual vocabulary words and terms they learned in the inquiry. They also keep dated learning logs in which they record their findings, and write efferent and aesthetic comments in their individual Facts and Feelings Response Diaries (Richards, 2003) (e.g., Fact "I learned almost 40% of homeless people in the United States are under the age of 18"; Feelings: "I think this statistic is shocking. I could never imagine myself homeless"). In addition, they use forms of expression that include presenting oral and visual reports, and authoring expository papers, Furthermore, they evaluate their small group's cooperative work processes using a student generated rubric (see Spandel, 2006, for a discussion of rubrics).
Miss Smith's students were successful in their quest to make sufficient money to purchase the Nickelodean Dora Designer Dollhouse and some dollhouse books for the younger girls in the homeless shelter. The students, with Miss Smith's help, also moved forward from forming basic pragmatic questions, such as how to purchase a dollhouse to posing queries that considered broad social issues. Then, they drew conclusions based upon their new perceptions. They also showed what they learned through their entries in personal dictionaries, learning logs, Facts and Feelings Response Diaries (Richards, 2003), and in their oral and visual presentations and compositions. But, Miss Smith knows their themed exploration is not yet complete. There is one final step in a transdisciplinary inquiry: student reflection. Therefore, Miss Smith encourages her students to think critically and respond to the following questions verbally and in writing assignments that she and her students evaluate. What did you learn in our inquiry that you did not know before? What do you still need to know? In what way do your initial questions about how to purchase a dollhouse differ from your questions about our government and homeless people? How has this inquiry helped you develop as a literate person? What are you still confused about? Are there ways you might find answers to resolve your confusions? How would you rate this inquiry on a scale of 1-10 with 10 being the highest rating? What are the reasons for your rating? During the inquiry, what new vocabulary words and terms did you learn and record in complete sentences in your personal dictionaries? What will you tell your family and friends about homeless shelters and the people who live in these shelters? What are the ethical and moral implications of what you learned about homeless people and homelessness in the United States? How has this inquiry changed you as a learner? As a person? As a future community leader? As a responsible citizen of the United States and the world?
Transdisciplinary Teaching Is Possible, But Is It Realistic? Might Miss Smith Blend Transdisciplinary and Traditional Teaching Approaches? A Response Commentary to Miss Smith's Philosophy and Pedagogy
Diane Kroeger, Ph. D.
Miss Smith is the teacher I believe most of us want for our children and grandchildren. She is the one we envision when we ponder the question, "What makes a good teacher?" Miss Smith encourages and enables inquiry, motivation and relevant learning opportunities for her students. As do I, she believes students will develop literate practices best when they are fully engaged in purposeful, meaningful learning activities. She sees learning as a transdisciplinary endeavor, and as a political act unencumbered by subject area boundaries and artificial test preparation activities. Her students, regardless of their proficiency with literacy skills, are knowers, thinkers and doers. Miss Smith inspires. She challenges. She motivates.
Yet, I have questions: Is Miss Smith's approach sufficient for students who are unlikely to meet the time-bound criteria for graduation in states that require a given score on the annual standards-based reading assessment? Do some of Miss Smith's students need a more technical, explicit approach to interacting with texts to accelerate the development of literacies measured by high-stakes assessments? I struggle with these questions, not because I believe standards-based policies are necessarily a silver bullet for educational excellence, but rather because they are a part of the pathway to our present sociopolitical construction of what it means to be "educated." More importantly, students' post-secondary options are literally dictated by their ability to blend knowledge, thinking and literacy proficiency, and then demonstrate these competencies on grade-specific high-stakes standardized tests.
That students must blend domain knowledge, thinking and literacy to perform well on standardized tests sounds somewhat similar to the aims of Miss Smith's transdisciplinary approach to instruction. The difference, however, lies in the motives involved. In Miss Smith's classroom, students blend transdisciplinary knowledge, thinking and literacy through self-selected pathways toward social transformation. On the other hand, literacy instruction geared primarily toward grade-specific standards and annual assessments requires that students blend transdisciplinary knowledge, thinking and literacy toward politically imposed conceptions of adequacy and accountability.
There is no doubt curriculum standards are externally imposed expectations for student learning based on a 12-year timeline of pupil progression. They are what Noddings (2003) might describe as inferred needs. Inferred needs are essentially demands for performance, which are imposed, for example, by society, institutions or parents. Inferred needs are "not consciously recognized" by the individual (in this case, students) as a necessity (p. 66), but are imposed externally by others. In contrast, expressed needs are those that arise from within an individual, and are articulated verbally or through actions.
I believe the appeal of Miss Smith's pedagogical approach is tied to the fact that she teaches to students' expressed needs rather than from an imposed needs perspective. Put differently, she encourages students to share authority in making decisions about curriculum and materials toward social transformation. Is it possible for Miss Smith to blend imposed and expressed needs successfully for students who struggle with literacy? I believe it is possible. Miss Smith is knowledgeable about the (imposed) Language Arts standards and broad principles tied to other content areas and is thoughtful about how they can be integrated with a transdisciplinary approach. But, she must also be savvy and knowledgeable about the imposed demands that enable her students' success on politically driven accountability measures. If she is adept at differentiating instruction and building on students' strengths, it is possible. And, if she is supported by administrators and other stakeholders who are willing to admit that this is the kind of teacher they truly value, it is possible indeed.
I end this essay by posing some final questions to readers. I hope you will reflect upon the following queries and perhaps write to me about your views at JRichards@usf.edu.
* Do you think Miss Smith's challenges of traditional localism and nationalism might be too political? (see Westheimer & Kahn, 2002, 2003).
* In what ways are you like Miss Smith who is a learning helper, friend, mentor, facilitator, and a learning journey companion (Forbes, 1996).
* Did you know Taiwan has a new curriculum for grades 1-9 that replaces traditional subjects with seven integrated domains of learning? (see Drake & Burns, 2004, p. 4).
* Did you know New Jersey had two student goals that address global perspectives and interdisciplinary linkages for real-world applications and for student learning? (see Jacobs, 2010, p.12).
* Do you think Miss Smith would have to be knowledgeable about multiple disciplines in order to teach with a transdisciplinary perspective?
* Do you believe transdisciplinary pedagogy has the capacity to bring understanding and peace in the world?
* Are you a holistic reading educator at heart? In practice?
* Do you think transdisciplinary teaching offers an opportunity to meet the educational needs and democratic fights of students of color, and students from low socio-economic homes?
* Have you read the works of Rousseau, Emerson, Pestalozzi, Froebel, Jung, Maslow, and Friere? What do these scholars have in common with transdisciplinarity?
* Is transdisciplinarity teaching a way to ameliorate feelings of hopelessness and despair that affect many students from minority families?
* What do you think are the problems with our public schools and how might we work to fix these problems?
* Do you think standards-based teaching prepares students for the future? (see Jacobs, 2010, p. 10).
* Do you think standards-based assessments influence students to become superficial thinkers--to seek only a fight or wrong answer? (See Harris, Smith, & Harris, 2011).
Asher, C. (2003). Separate but equal: Library, academics, and information literacy. Australian Academic & Research Libraries, 34(1), 52-55.
Costigan. A. (2003). Educational foundations: Building a case for communication. In D. Kaufman, D. Moss, & T. Osborn. (Eds.). Beyond the boundaries: A transdisciplinary approach to learning and teaching (pp. 13-31). Westport, CT: Praeger.
Drake, S., & Burns, R. (2004). Meeting standards through integrated curriculum. Alexandria, VA: ASCD.
Forbes. S. (1996). Whose values are shaping education? Paper presented at the Third Annual Conference on Education, Spirituality, and the Whole Child (pp. 1-11). Roehampton Institute, London.
Freire, P. (1974). Pedagogy of the oppressed (M. B. Ramos, Trans.). New York: Seabury Press.
Freire, P. (1985). The politics of education: Culture, power and liberation. (D. Macedo, Trans.) Westport CT: Bergin & Garvey.
Friere, P., & Macedo, D. (2001). Literacy: Reading the word and the world. London.
Harris, P., Smith, B., & Harris, T. (2011). The myths of standardized tests: Why they don't tell you what they think they do. Lanhan, MD: Roman & Littlefield Publications.
Instituto Paulo Freire (retrieved from http://home.clara.net/heureka/art/freire.htm)
Jacobs. H. (1989). Interdisciplinary curriculum: Design and implementation. Alexandria, VA: ASCD.
Jacobs, H. (2010). Mapping the Big Picture: Integrating curriculum and assessment K-12. Alexandria, VA: ASCD.
Kaufman, D., Moss, D., & Osborn, T. (Eds.). (2003). Beyond boundaries: A transdisciplinary approach to learning and teaching. Westport, CT: Praeger.
Klein, J. (2004). Prospects for transdisciplinarity. Futures, 36, 515-526.
Levin, T., & Nevo, Y. (2009). Exploring teachers' views on learning and teaching in the context of a trans-disciplinary curriculum. Journal of Curriculum Studies, 41(4), 439-465.
Montuori, A. (2010). Planetary culture and the crisis of the future. World Futures, 54(4), 297-211 (Online publication date, June 4, 2010).
Nicoescu, B. (2007). Transdisciplinarity and the unity of knowledge: Beyond the "Science and Religion Dialogue." Paper given at the 2007 Metanexus Conference, Transdisciplinarity and the Unity of Knowledge: Beyond the "Science and Religion Dialogue." Retrieved from http://www.metanexus.net/magazine/tabid/68/id/10013/Default.aspx
Nicolescu, B. (2011). The transdiscipline evolution of learning. Retrieved from http://www.learndev.org/di/nicolescu_f.pdf
Noddings, N. (2003). Happiness and education. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.
Richards, J. (2003). Facts and feelings response diaries: Connecting efferently and aesthetically with informational text. Reading and Writing Quarterly, 19(1), 107-111.
Schwab, J. (1983). The practical 4: Something for curriculum professors to do. Curriculum Inquiry 13(3), 240-265.
Spandel, V. (2006). In defense of rubrics. English Journal, 96 (1) 19-22.
Westheimer, J., & Kahne, J. (2000). Service learning required--but what exactly do students learn? Education Week, January 26. Back Page Commentary. 42.
Westheimer, J., & Kahne, J. (2002). Educating for democracy in R. Hayduk, & K. Mattson (Eds.). Democracy's Moment: Reforming the American Political System for the 21st Century. Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield.
Westheimer, J., & Kahne, J. (2003). Teaching justice: Indoctrination, neutrality, and the need for alternatives. Paper presented at the annual meeting of the American Educational Research Association. Chicago, IL.
Wilhelm, J., & Novak, B. (2011). Teaching literacy for love and wisdom: Being the book and being the change. New York: Teachers College Press.
Children's Books Cited
Berridge, C. (2007). Victorian dolls' house projects: A day in the life. Lewes, East Sussex, United Kingdom: Guild of Master Craftsman.
Finnegan, S. 1999). The dollhouse book. New York: Black Dog and Leventhal Publishers.
Johnson, R. (2006). The enchanted dolls' house. San Francisco, CA: Chronicle Books.
JANET C. RICHARDS, PH. D.
University of South Florida
With a Response/Commentary by
DIANE KROEGER, PH. D
University of South Florida
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|Date:||Mar 22, 2012|
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