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Training needs assessment: where we are and where we should go.

Introduction

New workplace demands and requirements are causing major changes in formal education as well as in professional training. Some factors seem to introduce a new scenario for organizations: the rapid pace of technological change in the information society, the increasing content knowledge required for production, the reduction in the product life cycle, and rapidly changing production processes. The need for workers' continuous learning is one of the various effects of these pressures.

In this context, Training Needs Assessment (TNA) processes have a strategic role because they provide clear guidelines as to which professional skill deficiencies must be remedied and what the profile of future trainees should be. For McGehee and Thayer (1961), training needs come from underdeveloped skills, insufficient knowledge or inappropriate worker attitudes. Mager and Pipe (1979) define training needs as identified differences between the employees' current performance and the performance that the organization expects of them.

Training Needs Assessment refers to the organizational process of collecting and analyzing data that supports decision making about when training is the best option (or not) to improve individuals' performances, define who should be trained, and exactly what content should be taught (Clarke, 2003). For Wright and Geroy (1992) TNA should be a systematic process of collection, analysis and interpretation of data on individual, group and/or organizational skill gaps. They should have seven key characteristics: (a) be based mainly on culture and organizational philosophy; (b) be proactive instead of reactive; (c) have a method that permits the distinction between situations that can be addressed through training and those that cannot; (d) allow various organizational actors who are directly or indirectly interested and involved in training to participate; (e) be based on observable skills rather than leaders', managers' and professionals" perceptions; (f) consider the varied use of sampling techniques and data analysis; and (g) in the end, have a cost/benefit analysis.

However, despite its importance, research shows that training needs diagnoses have been done in an unsystematic manner in organizational settings (Clarke, 2003; Ferreira, Abbad, Pagotto, & Meneses, 2009; Ford & Noe, 1987; McGehee & Thayer, 1961; Moore & Dutton, 1978; Ostroff & Ford, 1989; Taylor, O'Driscoll, & Binning, 1998; Wexley, 1984). There is still relatively little theoretical and empirical research on TNA (Kraiger, 2003). Literature review devoted to the subject is rare. In Management, studies lack systematic theoretical and methodological approaches which may provide consistency to TNA research and practices. We can say that the theoretical and methodological characteristics of TNA scientific knowledge are, somehow, unknown. It seems that much of what was recommended by seminal authors (Mahler & Monroe, 1952; McGehee & Thayer, 1961; Moore & Dutton, 1978, among others) is still not completely incorporated into TNA research and practice.

For over 50 years, Training, Development and Education (TD&E) literature has been concerned with the importance of systematic procedures for TNA and the investigation of internal and external variables that influence or originate needs for training in work contexts (McGehee & Thayer, 1961). However, the scientific production in the area has yet to provide plausible answers to this and other important questions surrounding the topic.

It is precisely in such a theoretical and empirical context that this article is justified. In order to help find possible ways to fill these gaps, it is of great importance to describe the current state of scientific literature on TNA, bringing to light and evaluating the methods and theories employed until today and drawing some possible scenarios to the future. Thus, this article is based on two research questions. Where are we when it comes to the current state of TNA scientific production? Based on the current state of TNA production, where should (or could) research and practice go?

Method

Article selection strategy

The search for articles was initially performed based on literature reviews about TD&E published in the Annual Review of Psychology (Aguinis & Kraiger, 2009; Latham, 1988; Salas & Cannon-Bowers, 2001; Tannenbaum & Yukle, 1992; Wexley, 1984) and reviews published in Brazilian scientific journals (Abbad, Pilati, & Pantoja, 2003; Borges-Andrade & Abbad, 1996), as well as summaries of dissertations and doctoral theses. As to the multilevel evaluation, two seminal texts were consulted: that of Ostroff and Ford (1989) and Koslowski, Brown, Weissbein, Cannon-Bowers and Salas (2000).

The following databases were consulted: Web of Knowledge (ISI), Ovid, Proquest, Wiley Online Library, Emerald, PsycNet (APA), CAPES Database and Scielo. The search for articles occurred in two steps, between the months of February and March 2008 and August and September 2010. The criterion year of publication was undetermined, given the research objectives. The key expressions used were: training, training needs analysis, training needs analysis and learning, corporate training and university, training needs assessment, training needs evaluation, training, development and education, learning needs.

The primary criterion established for article selection was that it had to be published in a scientific peer reviewed journal. There were 90 articles, which, after reading the summaries, and assessing the adequacy of the subject, were reduced to 61, of which 51 will be analyzed in this study. Our decision to analyze 51 studies is based on operational questions, like the relationship between the complexity of data analysis, time and workforce. The articles examined in this study are a sample of convenience and do not overstrain the knowledge on TNA.

Criteria and procedures for article analysis

Twelve criteria for analysis of selected articles were determined, as shown in Table 1. The articles were analyzed by the authors and two members of a research group.

Results

We analyzed articles ranging from 1978 to 2010. The scientific literature on TNA experienced considerable quantitative growth between 1990 and 2010. Research in the area remained practically nonexistent in the period 1970 to 1989.

As to the country(ies) in which research data was collected, according to Table 2, there is a clear predominance which took place in England (15). There is also a considerable number of studies on TNA in the United States (11).

Table 3 shows the authors, countries, aims, and key research questions.

Discussion

Keeping in mind our research questions and objectives and the recommendations by Baumeister and Leary (1997), we present the discussion as follows.

TNA: where are we?

This section is dedicated to show where our analysis suggests TNA scientific knowledge currently is, in methodological and theoretical terms. Our recommendations about what to do (where to go) given such results are presented in the next section. In sum, one can say that TNA approaches (in practice and research) had a considerable methodological advancement in past decades, shifting from ad-hoc frameworks (Clarke, 2003; Ferreira et al., 2009; Ford & Noe, 1987; McGehee & Thayer, 1961; Moore & Dutton, 1978; Ostroff & Ford, 1989; Taylor et al., 1998; Wexley, 1984) to a more professional and scientific basis. But there are still several methodological weaknesses and a very long path to move forward in theoretical terms. It is also important to say that TNA research experienced a great growth in publications in the last two decades, especially in the 2000's (Kraiger, 2003).

Regarding the main research questions, one can say that the analyzed studies aimed, primarily, to respond:

* How can one respond to workers' qualification needs?

* How can one systematize and operationalize TNA processes and practices?

* How can one identify and measure training needs?

* What are the possibilities and limitations of practice, research and current TNA models?

As to the theoretical and empirical issues investigated, it can be said that most studies aimed at addressing one or more of the following:

* Diagnose training needs for professionals;

* Describe challenges for TNA practice;

* Describe weaknesses in current TNA approaches;

* Describe/propose TNA procedures;

* Construct TNA instruments.

It seems that TNA practice and research still have an almost exclusively diagnostic/procedural and reactive focus, concerning how to do it in the present. Apparently, prospective TNA approaches, based on literature on competence and competences management (Boyatzis, 1982; Cockerill, 1989; McClelland, 1973; Prahalad & Hamel, 1990; Sparrow & Bognanno, 1994), are still rare. Research are mainly applied, investigating methodological or practical problems and solutions related to TNA systems. This is of great value, but there is still a critical lack of theory development and/or evaluation. Still, there is no apparent concern with developing organizational policies on TNA. Some important theoretical issues that are almost absent in the studies are: the relationships between the TNA concepts, work needs, and competence or competences management based on future scenarios (Sparrow & Bognanno, 1994); the missed conceptual link between individual and organizational needs; and to propose new kinds of needs, as learning needs, educational needs, development needs, avoiding practices and research to be dependent on only one kind of possible instructional solution to meet competence gaps (training).

Methodologically, it is possible to note the prevalence of survey-type studies (34.63%). Eleven (11) theoretical essays, three (3) case studies and three (3) action research studies were also obtained. There is a relative predominance of quantitative studies (20). Mixed studies (qualitative/quantitative) and qualitative data showed moderate frequency (11 and 10, respectively). There is also a relative dominance of questionnaires as data collection instruments (26.49%). Some research (9) used questionnaires and interviews, which suggests consonance with qualitative/quantitative studies. Four (4) studies reported using only interviews. Thirteen (13) research theoretical reports were not subject to this analysis criterion. The methodological diversity of scientific knowledge on TNA must be prized (Baumeister & Leary, 1997). The use of multiple data collection methods (e.g. questionnaire, interviews, focus groups) and analysis (e.g. content analysis, descriptive and inferential statistics) is highly desirable to investigate complex phenomenon, as in the social and behavioral sciences. On the other hand, we can note that this methodological diversity is accompanied by a high diversity in results and conclusions as well, even regarding the same object (training needs at work). There is no convergence of results: some authors define training needs as a occupational competence gap (e.g. Borges-Andrade & Lima, 1983); others understand it as a performance gap at multiple levels (e.g. Asku, 2005); and others suggest it being the number of vacancies in an organizational sector (e.g. Castley, 1996). Therefore, we do not know if the methods are flawed, the object is too complex, or both (or even none of these). We risk saying that this area of knowledge is still seeking its object (consequently, the way(s) to theorize and measure it).

The research design most commonly employed in the analyzed studies also deserves attention. Survey-type studies, descriptive or correlational, and with purposive samples imply a series of limitations regarding external validity, generalization, inference robustness, and conclusion validity (among others). In practical terms (to managers' decision-making), this may be a minor problem, but, in scientific terms, we should look at this more carefully. As soon as we do not have robust research designs in the area (e.g. experimental or quasi-experimental), it is hard to separate what is the phenomenon per si (training needs at work), its antecedents and consequents, and what are methodological flaws.

As for the levels of analysis, in most studies (19) the question of levels does not apply, because the author did not argue or discuss such a question. There is a relative predominance of studies that investigated the micro level of TNA (16). In relation to the meso and macro levels, there are a balanced number of studies (8). It seems that in Management research focus is on the macro level of analysis, while in Psychology there is a shift to the micro level. These results contradict the findings of Chiu, Thompson, Mak, and Lo (1999), who said that the most studied level of analysis was macro (organizational), followed by the meso (groups, tasks and processes), with the individual being the least studied. Otherwise, it is clear that multilevel analysis and modeling is still a neglected technique when it comes to TNA practice and research, even with clear indications that theory and data in this area can have a hierarchical structure (Koslowski, Brown, Weissbein, Cannon-Bowers, & Salas, 2000; McGehee & Thayer, 1961; Mossholder & Bedeian, 1983; Ostroff & Ford, 1989), which is recommended by multilevel literature as a premise to use such methods (Hox, 2010; Hox & Roberts, 2011; Kreft & De Leeuw, 1998; Raubendush & Bryk, 1986; Snijders & Bosker, 1994).

Regarding the area, there is a predominance of studies in Management (25), followed by studies applied to Medicine (11) and Psychology (7). Others areas also include TNA techniques, Education, Public Management, Marketing and Information Technology. This is quite interesting and shows that needs at work is a multi/inter/trans-disciplinary research object, being of interest to multiple knowledge fields. Perhaps this justifies the field's theoretical and methodological diversity.

Regarding the independent and dependent variables, few studies (6 out of 51) aimed to correlate variables, which is a measure adopted for testing models and hypotheses. Some independent variables were: clarity of mission in the area of personnel development, presence of total quality programs, level of investment in personnel development. Some dependent variables were: TNA, instructional design, employee satisfaction, productivity, communication, TD&E expenditures. Methodologically, these were quantitative and survey-type studies, with purposive samples, using questionnaires. All studies report significant relationships between the variables of interest. An important result is that training policies are positively related to training needs, showing how important is for organizations to have policies devoted to training and learning (Hansson, 2007). But is important to affirm that these results can have several alternative explanations, since the methods employed do not permit causality inferences (Baumeister & Leary, 1997).

TNA: where should (or could) we go?

According to the TNA strengths and weaknesses in practice and research presented earlier, we have a rich research agenda that could be structured.

First, TNA initiatives should have a broader and more proactive focus, shifting from exclusively reactive and diagnostic to a theory development and review framework. The issue on whether a competence gap should be faced by training or others types of instructional events (such as development, instruction, education or even informal learning at work) has not yet been discussed. It seems inappropriate to define a priori that a competence gap necessarily signifies a training need. We suggest that another types of needs should be discussed, such as learning needs, educational needs, development needs, among others. A deep theoretical and epistemological refinement of needs at work concepts and methods could achieve such an agenda.

It is also important that TNA practice and research do not focus only on present competences related to professional roles (Borges-Andrade & Lima, 1983), but also on emerging competences that can be important to the organization in the future (Felstead & Ashton, 2000). Besides promoting training events with higher probabilities of positive impact at work, this would also allow the development of long-term training and TNA policies, which, by the way, is neglected in the studies analyzed. Still, concerning competences, we noted that there is no consensus about it as the only construct that permits investigating training needs. This is of great concern since training investment decisions are being made based on a diversity of indicators that depend more on the context and less on the individual (Asku, 2005; Castley, 1996), constituting, in fact, other types of needs than training. Thus, we suggest that the literature on competence and competences management (Boyatzis, 1982; Cockerill, 1989; McClelland, 1973; Prahalad & Hamel, 1990; Sparrow & Bognanno, 1994) should be used as a primary resource for TNA practice and research, assuming that (gap of) competences are the only way to investigate human training needs at work.

Methodologically, we can say that TNA practice and research has advanced in the past decades, employing scientific techniques to develop instruments (Hennessy & Hicks, 1998), proposing TNA models (Al-Khayyat & Elagamal, 1997) and being marked by methodological diversity, for example. However, TNA current methods still present flaws, as we showed earlier. First of all, we should have more mixed techniques, based on qualitative and quantitative data simultaneously (While, Ullman, & Forbes, 2007). Research and practice should also utilize a more heterogeneous and probabilistic sample, avoiding questioning only top managers, and including randomly chosen employees at different levels. This would allow triangulation of evidence, highly important to scientific and professional decision-making. Secondly, studies, especially TNA research, should employ more robust designs, such as quasi-experimental or experimental studies. This would allow for a more reliable set of conclusions about whether or not to invest in training and would help to improve TNA theories and concepts.

Regarding level of analysis, the adoption of multilevel modeling in TNA research is urgent. Since 1950, several studies have suggested that TNA theory and data can have a hierarchical arrangement (Koslowski et al., 2000; McGehee & Thayer, 1961; Mossholder & Bedeian, 1983; Ostroff & Ford, 1989). Nevertheless, current practice and research neglects to discuss this issue. Research should be based in at least three levels and their respective variables, followed with statistical multilevel regression analysis: internal and external organizational contexts (as laws, technology, politics, structure); organizational area or unit characteristics (number of employees, training budget, organizational level); and individual characteristics (training needs, competences domains, age, education, learning style). In this scenario, we could more deeply investigate needs antecedents and consequents and needs definitions between levels (including groups of individuals).

Regarding areas of application, TNA must continue to expand. We can suggest that TNA is applicable to several areas of knowledge, as our results indicated. Wherever one is interested in professional education planning and executing, TNA approaches can be employed (technology, medicine, management, marketing, mental health, education, psychology). Perhaps, this is why TNA is such an interesting and exciting theme.

Received 21 January 2012; received in revised form 13 August 2012; accepted 27 September 2012; published online 17 December 2012.

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Tao, Y-H., Yeh, C. R., & Sun, S-I. (2006). Improving training needs assessment processes via the internet: system design and qualitative study. Internet Research, 16(4), 427-449. doi: 10.1108/10662240610690043

Taormina, R. J. (2009). Organizational socialization: the missing link between employee needs and organizational culture. Journal of Managerial Psychology, 24(7), 650-676.

Taylor, P., O'Driscoll, M., & Binning, J. (1998). A new integrated framework for training needs analysis. Human Resource Management Journal, 8(2), 29-50. doi: 10.1111/j. 1748 8583.1998.tb00165.x

Versloot, B. M., Jong, J. A., & Thijssen, J. G. (2001). Organisational context of structured on-the-job training. International Journal of Training and Development, 5(1), 2-22. doi: 10.1111/14682419.00118

Wexley, K. N. (1984). Personal training. Annual Review of Psychology, 35, 519-551.

While, A., Ullman, R., & Forbes, A. (2007). Development and validation of learning needs assessment scale: a continuing professional education tool for multiple sclerosis specialist nurses. Journal of Clinical Nursing, 16(6), 1099-1108. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2702.2007.01693.x

Wickramasinghe, V. M. (2006). Training objectives, transfer, validation and evaluation: a sri lankan study. International Journal of Training and Development, 10(3), 227-247. doi: 10.1111/j.1468 2419.2006.00256.x

Wright, P. C., & Geroy, G. D. (1992). Needs analysis theory and the effectiveness of larg-scale government-sponsored training programmes: a case study. Journal of Management Development, 11(5), 16-27. doi: 10.1108/02621719210014527

Rodrigo Rezende Ferreira *

E-mail address: ferreirarods@gmail.com

Universidade de Brasilia--UnB

Brasilia, DF, Brazil.

Gardenia Abbad

E-mail address: gardenia.abbad@gmail.com

Universidade de Brasilia--IP/UnB

Brasilia, DF, Brazil.

* Corresponding author: Rodrigo Rezende Ferreira

Campus Universitario Darcy Ribeiro, Instituto Central de Ciencias, Departamento de Administracao, Brasilia, DF, 70910-900, Brazil.
Table 1
Selected Articles' Analysis Criteria and Their Definitions

#     Analysis Criteria            Definition

1     Country(ies) of research     Country(ies) in which data
                                   collection occurred (if
                                   theoretical, the country in
                                   which the article was written
                                   will be taken into account)
2     Research aim(s)              Main aim(s) of the research
3     Main theoretical             Issues present in the
      and/or empirical             organizational and academic
      question(s)                  research contexts
4     Research design              Survey, case study, action
                                   research, theoretical
5     Research's nature            Qualitative, quantitative,
                                   qualitative/quantitative
6     Instruments                  Questionnaire, interview
      and measures
7     Research field and           Location(s) in which data
      participants                 collection occurred and
                                   description of participants.
8     Independent Variable(s)      Construct(s) that influence
                                   other construct(s)
9     Dependent Variable(s)        Construct(s) that is(are)
                                   influenced by other
                                   construct(s)
10    Procedures for collecting/   Description of procedures for
      analyzing data               data collection and data
                                   analysis techniques
11    Subject Area                 Area for application of study
12    Level of analysis            Level of analysis focused on
                                   the study (macro =
                                   organizational / meso = macro
                                   processes, tasks, groups /
                                   micro = individual)

Table 2
Country(ies) in Which Data Collection Occurred
      #. Country(ies)   Number of
                        studies
                        conducted

1.    England           15
2.    United States     11
3.    China             4
4.    Canada            3
5.    Indonesia         2
6.    Transnational     2
7.    Brazil            2
8.    Greece            2
9.    Kuwait            2
10.   Spain             1
11.   Australia         1
12.   Netherlands       1
13.   Ireland           1
14.   Sri Lanka         1
15.   Turkey            1
16.   Uninformed        2

Table 3
Country(ies), Aims and Main Theoretical and/or Empirical Question(s)

Author(s)                   Country(ies)
                            where Research
                            was Conducted

Hicks and Hennessy          England
(1997)

Al-Khayyat and Elgamal      Kuwait
(1997)

Anderson (1994)             Australia

Borges-Andrade and Lima     Brazil
(1983)

J. Brown (2002)             -

Fan and Cheng (2006)        China

Gould, Kelly, White and     England
Chidgey (2004)
Leat and Lovell (1997)      England

Miller (2001)               England

Moore and Dutton (1978)     United States

Reed and Vakola (2006)      Ireland

Roberson, Kulik and         United States
Pepper (2003)

Sheperd (1995)              England

Ostroff and Ford (1989)     -

Taylor, O'Driscoll and      New Zealand/ United
Binning (1998)              States
Wright and Geroy (1992)     Canada

Cowley, Bergen, Young       England
and Kavanagh (2000)

Asku (2005)                 Turkey

Alliger, Tannenbaum,        United States
Bennett, Traver and
Shotland (1997)
Bowman and Wilson           England
(2008)

M. Brown and Dodd           United States
(1998)

Burke (1996)                Canada

Clarke (2003)               England

Felstead and Ashton         England
(2000)

Gorman, McDonald,           United States
Moore, Glassman,
Takeuchi and Henry
(2003)

Haccoun and Saks (1998)     Canada

Hansson (2007)              Transnational
                            (26 countries)

Hennessy and Hicks          England/ Australia/
(1998)                      United States

Markaki, Antonakis, Hicks   Greece
and Lionis (2007)

Pun and Chin (1999)         China

F. W. Brown, Boyle and      England
Boyle (2002)
Skinner, Saunders and       England
Beresford (2004)

Castley (1996)              England

Smallbone, Supri and        England
Baldock (2000)

While, Ullman and Forbes    England
(2007)
Erffmeyer, Russ and Hair    United States
(1991)

Petridou and Spathas        Greece
(2001)

Supino and Richardson       United States
(1999)

Holton, Bates and Naquin    United States
(2000)

Magalhaes and Borges-       Brazil
Andrade (2001)

Versloot, de Jong and       Netherlands
Thijssen (2001)

Wickramasinghe (2006)       Sri Lanka

Hennessy, Hicks, Hilan      Indonesia
and Kawonal (2006)

Hennessy, Hicks and         Indonesia
Koesno (2006)

Blunch and Castro (2007)    United States

Tao, Yeh and Sun (2006)     China

Devitt and Murphy (2004)    England

Al-Khayyat (1998)           Kuwait

Lareki, Morentin and        Spain
Amenabar (2010)

Kaskutas et al. (2010)      United States

Taormina (2009)             China

Author(s)                   Research Aim(s)

Hicks and Hennessy          Evaluate training needs of
(1997)                      nurses.

Al-Khayyat and Elgamal      Develop TD&E model.
(1997)

Anderson (1994)             Describe challenges to
                            plan and develop
                            educational actions.
Borges-Andrade and Lima     Propose the adoption of a
(1983)                      TNA approach. Evaluate
                            training needs of a particular
                            occupational role.
J. Brown (2002)             To describe steps for
                            performing an TNA
                            process.
Fan and Cheng (2006)        Identify training needs of
                            life insurance salespeople.

Gould, Kelly, White and     To review the TNA
Chidgey (2004)              literature.
Leat and Lovell (1997)      Propose an integrated
                            TNA model.

Miller (2001)               To describe the training
                            needs of transnational
                            trade union
                            representatives.
Moore and Dutton (1978)     To review TNA literature.

Reed and Vakola (2006)      To investigate how the
                            TNA process can contribute
                            to organizational changes.
Roberson, Kulik and         Evaluate needs and design
Pepper (2003)               courses for minorities of
                            an organization

Sheperd (1995)              To describe the
                            importance of the TNA
                            process for nurses.

Ostroff and Ford (1989)     Propose a multilevel
                            approach to TNA
Taylor, O'Driscoll and      Propose a theoretical TNA
Binning (1998)              model.
Wright and Geroy (1992)     Describe the strengths and
                            weaknesses of a TNA
                            process.
Cowley, Bergen, Young       To describe the training
and Kavanagh (2000)         needs of nurses. Describe
                            the taxonomy of needs.
Asku (2005)                 To propose an TNA
                            procedure.

Alliger, Tannenbaum,        To evaluate the
Bennett, Traver and         relationship of training
Shotland (1997)             evaluation variables.
Bowman and Wilson           To describe the experience
(2008)                      of managers who
                            conducted TNA.
M. Brown and Dodd           Test the effectiveness of
(1998)                      the approach to
                            competitive prices to
                            evaluate training needs.
Burke (1996)                To compare training needs
                            between hierarchical
                            levels.
Clarke (2003)               To analyze the influence
                            of internal and external
                            context in the process of
                            TNA.

Felstead and Ashton         To analyze the impact
(2000)                      organizational innovations
                            have on training needs.

Gorman, McDonald,           To describe an experience
Moore, Glassman,            of building a skill
Takeuchi and Henry          development model.
(2003)

Haccoun and Saks (1998)     To describe the main
                            contributions of
                            Organizational Psychology
                            for understanding training
                            results.
Hansson (2007)              To examine variables that
                            may cause training needs
                            in different countries.
Hennessy and Hicks          To test a TNA instrument
(1998)                      in the U.S. and Australia.

Markaki, Antonakis, Hicks   Translate, adapt and
and Lionis (2007)           validate a TNA instrument
                            in Greece.
Pun and Chin (1999)         Compare training needs
                            diagnosed using different
                            methods.
F. W. Brown, Boyle and      Identify secondary school
Boyle (2002)                managers' training needs.
Skinner, Saunders and       Describe stakeholder
Beresford (2004)            perception of employees'
                            training needs.

Castley (1996)              To propose a sectoral
                            approach to evaluate
                            training needs.
Smallbone, Supri and        To investigate current and
Baldock (2000)              emerging training needs in
                            the printing industry.
While, Ullman and Forbes    Develop and validate a
(2007)                      TNA scale.
Erffmeyer, Russ and Hair    Describe how TNA has
(1991)                      been used in TD&E
                            processes.
Petridou and Spathas        Evaluate training needs
(2001)                      based on personal and
                            professional
                            characteristics.
Supino and Richardson       To describe university
(1999)                      managers' and academics'
                            perceptions of training
                            needs.
Holton, Bates and Naquin    To develop and implement
(2000)                      a TNA method in the
                            public sector.

Magalhaes and Borges-       To develop a TNA method
Andrade (2001)              that includes attitudes. To
                            study the relationship
                            between self and peer-
                            based TNA evaluations.
Versloot, de Jong and       To study the
Thijssen (2001)             characteristics of
                            organizational contexts
                            that favor each type of
                            training.
Wickramasinghe (2006)       To examine TNA practices

Hennessy, Hicks, Hilan      Validate an instrument to
and Kawonal (2006)          evaluate nurses' training
                            needs.

Hennessy, Hicks and         To evaluate midwives'
Koesno (2006)               training needs.

Blunch and Castro (2007)    To identify training needs
                            based on productivity and
                            organizational climate.

Tao, Yeh and Sun (2006)     To demonstrate how web-
                            based technologies can
                            contribute to the TNA
                            process.
Devitt and Murphy (2004)    To evaluate doctors'
                            training needs.

Al-Khayyat (1998)           Propose a TNA model

Lareki, Morentin and        To address faculty
Amenabar (2010)             members' learning needs.

Kaskutas et al. (2010)      Conduct a needs
                            assessment to determine
                            gaps in the school-based
                            apprentice carpenters' fall
                            prevention training.
Taormina (2009)             Address two research gaps
                            in the literature between
                            employee needs and
                            organizational socialization.

Author(s)                   Main Theoretical and/or
                            Empirical Question(s)

Hicks and Hennessy          Changes in context and
(1997)                      nursing practice.
                            Definition of the role of
                            the nurse.
Al-Khayyat and Elgamal      Deficiency of relevant
(1997)                      theoretical and
                            methodological approach
                            in the literature.
Anderson (1994)             Current approaches to
                            TD&E based on traditional
                            models.
Borges-Andrade and Lima     Develop rigorous TNA
(1983)                      research and practice. To
                            align needs with strategic
                            goals.
J. Brown (2002)             Need to develop rigorous
                            TNA practices and
                            research.
Fan and Cheng (2006)        Need to conduct an
                            appropriate TNA process
                            for the reality of the
                            organization.
Gould, Kelly, White and     ad-hoc TNA research and
Chidgey (2004)              practices.
Leat and Lovell (1997)      Performance analysis
                            focused only on the
                            individual level.
Miller (2001)               Change in the action
                            context of the union
                            representative
                            (transnational study).
Moore and Dutton (1978)     Little theoretical
                            development of TNA
                            processes. Neglected
                            organizational strategy of
                            the TNA processes.
Reed and Vakola (2006)      Inaccurate decisions by
                            TD&E professionals
                            performing TNA.
Roberson, Kulik and         Minorities have specific
Pepper (2003)               training needs. Emphasis
                            on the fact that
                            organizational level can
                            hide individual needs.

Sheperd (1995)              TNA should take into
                            account changes in the
                            practice of nursing. The
                            literature lacks empirical
                            studies.
Ostroff and Ford (1989)     TNA focus on the
                            individual.
Taylor, O'Driscoll and      Ad-hoc approaches to
Binning (1998)              TNA.
Wright and Geroy (1992)     Ad-hoc approaches to
                            TNA.

Cowley, Bergen, Young       Changes in legislation
and Kavanagh (2000)         imply changes in the
                            practice of nursing.
Asku (2005)                 The hotel industry does
                            not have rigorous TNA
                            processes.
Alliger, Tannenbaum,        New models for training
Bennett, Traver and         evaluation are needed.
Shotland (1997)
Bowman and Wilson           TNA process quality relies
(2008)                      heavily on the agents who
                            conduct it.
M. Brown and Dodd           Changes of context
(1998)                      generate training needs.
                            TNA process can support
                            the change.
Burke (1996)                Changes in context may
                            generate training needs.

Clarke (2003)               Studies neglect the
                            influence of context on
                            training needs. Social
                            relationships are the
                            primary influence in the
                            TNA process.
Felstead and Ashton         Innovative practices
(2000)                      generate training needs.
                            There are few systematic
                            studies on TNA.
Gorman, McDonald,           External economic crises
Moore, Glassman,            and new technologies
Takeuchi and Henry          affect the needs for skill
(2003)                      development.

Haccoun and Saks (1998)     Individual and contextual
                            variables generate needs
                            for training and affect the
                            outcomes of courses.

Hansson (2007)              TD&E processes
                            performed in an
                            unsystematic manner.
Hennessy and Hicks          Reforms in the context of
(1998)                      nurses' performance
                            generate training needs.
Markaki, Antonakis, Hicks   Greece has no validated
and Lionis (2007)           TNA instruments.

Pun and Chin (1999)         Policies and total quality
                            programs generate new
                            levels of skill demand.
F. W. Brown, Boyle and      Ad-hoc approaches to
Boyle (2002)                TNA.
Skinner, Saunders and       To align educational
Beresford (2004)            programs and the
                            institutional objective.
                            Stakeholder participation
                            in the TNA process.
Castley (1996)              The need to develop
                            sectoral TNA approaches
                            in the public sector.
Smallbone, Supri and        Technological changes
Baldock (2000)              generate training needs.

While, Ullman and Forbes    Lack of TNA tools.
(2007)
Erffmeyer, Russ and Hair    Little importance is given
(1991)                      to the TNA processes in
                            organizations.
Petridou and Spathas        Need to consider
(2001)                      individual variables to
                            assess training needs.

Supino and Richardson       The need to map leaders'
(1999)                      and medical students'
                            perceptions of their
                            training needs.
Holton, Bates and Naquin    Ad-hoc approaches to
(2000)                      TNA. Employee
                            participation in the TNA
                            process is crucial.

Magalhaes and Borges-       Lack of studies comparing
Andrade (2001)              self and peer-based TNA
                            evaluations.

Versloot, de Jong and       There are few studies on
Thijssen (2001)             the relationship between
                            organizational context and
                            the training offered.

Wickramasinghe (2006)       Ad-hoc approaches to
                            TNA.
Hennessy, Hicks, Hilan      The poor definition of
and Kawonal (2006)          nurses' roles creates
                            confusion about the actual
                            training needs.
Hennessy, Hicks and         The low number of
Koesno (2006)               midwives to meet the
                            demand in Indonesia has
                            generated extra work and
                            poor quality in services.
Blunch and Castro (2007)    Emerging technologies
                            and other context variables
                            can generate training
                            needs.
Tao, Yeh and Sun (2006)     Need for approaches to
                            assess training needs via
                            the Web.

Devitt and Murphy (2004)    Needs to validate TNA
                            methods directed toward
                            doctors' performances.
Al-Khayyat (1998)           Ad-hoc approaches to
                            TNA.
Lareki, Morentin and        Lack of information on
Amenabar (2010)             faculty members' actual
                            needs and the type of
                            format that should be
                            utilized for training.
Kaskutas et al. (2010)      Falls from heights in
                            residential construction are
                            common, especially
                            among inexperienced
                            workers.
Taormina (2009)             Lack of empirical study on
                            TNA.

Table 4
Design, Nature and Instruments of TNA

Author(s)                   Research Design

Hicks and Hennessy          Survey
(1997)
Al-Khayyat and Elgamal      Survey
(1997)
Anderson (1994)             Theoretical
Borges-Andrade and Lima     Survey
(1983)
J. Brown (2002)             Theoretical
Fan and Cheng (2006)        Survey

Gould et al. (2004)         Theoretical
Leat and Lovell (1997)      Theoretical
Miller (2001)               Survey
Moore and Dutton (1978)     Theoretical
Reed and Vakola (2006)      Action Research

Roberson et al. (2003)      Theoretical
Sheperd (1995)              Theoretical
Ostroff and Ford (1989)     Theoretical
Taylor, O'Driscoll and      Theoretical
Binning (1998)
Wright and Geroy (1992)     Case Study
Cowley et al. (2000)        Case Study
Asku (2005)                 Survey
Alliger et al. (1997)       Theoretical

Bowman amd Wilson           Survey
(2008)
M. Brown and Dodd           Survey
(1998)
Burke (1996)                Survey
Clarke (2003)               Survey
Felstead and Ashton         Survey
(2000)
Gorman et al. (2003)        Action Research
Haccoun and Saks (1998)     Theoretical

Hansson (2007)              Survey
Hennessy and Hicks          Survey
(1998)
Markaki et al. (2007)       Survey
Pun and Chin (1999)         Survey

F. W. Brown et al. (2002)   Survey
Skinner, Saunders and       Survey
Beresford (2004)
Castley (1996)              Theoretical
Smallbone et al. (2000)     Survey
While et al. (2007)         Survey

Erffmeyer et al. (1991)     Survey
Petridou and Spathis        Survey
(2001)
Supino and Richardson       Survey
(1999)
Holton et al. (2000)        Action-Research
Magalhaes and Borges-       Survey
Andrade (2001)
Versloot et al. (2001)      Survey
Wickramasinghe (2006)       Survey

Hennessy, Hicks, Hilan,     Survey
et al. (2006)
Hennessy, Hicks and         Survey
Koesno (2006)
Blunch and Castro (2007)    Survey
Tao et al. (2006)           Survey

Devitt and Murphy (2004)    Survey
Al-Khayyat (1998)           Case Study
Lareki et al. (2010)        Survey
Kaskutas et al. (2010)      Survey

Taormina (2009)             Survey

Author(s)                   Nature of Research

Hicks and Hennessy          Quantitative
(1997)
Al-Khayyat and Elgamal      Quantitative
(1997)
Anderson (1994)             -
Borges-Andrade and Lima     Qualitative /Quantitative
(1983)
J. Brown (2002)             -
Fan and Cheng (2006)        Qualitative / Quantitative

Gould et al. (2004)         -
Leat and Lovell (1997)      -
Miller (2001)               Qualitative /Quantitative
Moore and Dutton (1978)     -
Reed and Vakola (2006)      Qualitative

Roberson et al. (2003)      -
Sheperd (1995)              -
Ostroff and Ford (1989)     -
Taylor, O'Driscoll and      -
Binning (1998)
Wright and Geroy (1992)     Qualitative
Cowley et al. (2000)        Qualitative
Asku (2005)                 Qualitative / Quantitative
Alliger et al. (1997)       Quantitative
                            (Meta-Analysis)
Bowman amd Wilson           Qualitative
(2008)
M. Brown and Dodd           Quantitative
(1998)
Burke (1996)                Qualitative / Quantitative
Clarke (2003)               Qualitative / Quantitative
Felstead and Ashton         Qualitative /Quantitative
(2000)
Gorman et al. (2003)        Qualitative / Quantitative
Haccoun and Saks (1998)     -

Hansson (2007)              Quantitative
Hennessy and Hicks          Quantitative
(1998)
Markaki et al. (2007)       Quantitative
Pun and Chin (1999)         Qualitative / Quantitative

F. W. Brown et al. (2002)   Qualitative
Skinner, Saunders and       Qualitative
Beresford (2004)
Castley (1996)              -
Smallbone et al. (2000)     Qualitative
While et al. (2007)         Qualitative / Quantitative

Erffmeyer et al. (1991)     Quantitative
Petridou and Spathis        Quantitative
(2001)
Supino and Richardson       Quantitative
(1999)
Holton et al. (2000)        Qualitative
Magalhaes and Borges-       Quantitative
Andrade (2001)
Versloot et al. (2001)      Qualitative
Wickramasinghe (2006)       Qualitative / Quantitative

Hennessy, Hicks, Hilan,     Quantitative
et al. (2006)
Hennessy, Hicks and         Quantitative
Koesno (2006)
Blunch and Castro (2007)    Quantitative
Tao et al. (2006)           Qualitative

Devitt and Murphy (2004)    Quantitative
Al-Khayyat (1998)           Qualitative / Quantitative
Lareki et al. (2010)        Qualitative / Quantitative
Kaskutas et al. (2010)      Qualitative / Quantitative

Taormina (2009)             Quantitative

Author(s)                   Instruments

Hicks and Hennessy          Questionnaire
(1997)
Al-Khayyat and Elgamal      Questionnaire
(1997)
Anderson (1994)             -
Borges-Andrade and Lima     Questionnaire
(1983)
J. Brown (2002)             -
Fan and Cheng (2006)        Interviews and
                            Questionnaire
Gould et al. (2004)         -
Leat and Lovell (1997)      -
Miller (2001)               Questionnaire
Moore and Dutton (1978)     -
Reed and Vakola (2006)      Interviews and
                            Questionnaires
Roberson et al. (2003)      -
Sheperd (1995)              -
Ostroff and Ford (1989)     -
Taylor, O'Driscoll and      -
Binning (1998)
Wright and Geroy (1992)     -
Cowley et al. (2000)        Questionnaire
Asku (2005)                 Questionnaires
Alliger et al. (1997)       -

Bowman amd Wilson           Interviews and
(2008)                      Questionnaires
M. Brown and Dodd           Questionnaire
(1998)
Burke (1996)                Questionnaire
Clarke (2003)               Questionnaires
Felstead and Ashton         Interviews and
(2000)                      Questionnaires
Gorman et al. (2003)        Questionnaire
Haccoun and Saks (1998)     -

Hansson (2007)              Questionnaire
Hennessy and Hicks          Questionnaire
(1998)
Markaki et al. (2007)       Questionnaire
Pun and Chin (1999)         Interviews and
                            Questionnaire
F. W. Brown et al. (2002)   Interviews
Skinner, Saunders and       Interviews and
Beresford (2004)            Questionnaires
Castley (1996)              -
Smallbone et al. (2000)     Interviews
While et al. (2007)         Interviews and
                            Questionnaire
Erffmeyer et al. (1991)     Questionnaire
Petridou and Spathis        Questionnaire
(2001)
Supino and Richardson       Questionnaire
(1999)
Holton et al. (2000)        Interview
Magalhaes and Borges-       Questionnaire
Andrade (2001)
Versloot et al. (2001)      Questionnaires
Wickramasinghe (2006)       Interviews and
                            Questionnaire
Hennessy, Hicks, Hilan,     Questionnaire
et al. (2006)
Hennessy, Hicks and         Questionnaire
Koesno (2006)
Blunch and Castro (2007)    Questionnaire
Tao et al. (2006)           Interviews and
                            Questionnaire
Devitt and Murphy (2004)    Questionnaire
Al-Khayyat (1998)           Questionnaire
Lareki et al. (2010)        Questionnaire
Kaskutas et al. (2010)      Interviews and
                            Questionnaire
Taormina (2009)             Questionnaire

Table 5
Research Field, Participants, Procedures, Level of Analysis and Area

Author(s)                   Research Field/
                            Participants
Hicks and Hennessy          Public Hospital Sector.
(1997)                      420 nurses.

Al-Khayyat and Elgamal      9 Banks. 387 subjects.
(1997)
Anderson (1994)             -
Borges-Andrade and Lima     Public Agricultural
(1983)                      Technology Company.

J. Brown (2002)             -
Fan and Cheng (2006)        Subsidiary life insurance
                            companies. 10 subjects.

Gould et al. (2004)         -
Leat and Lovell (1997)      -
Miller (2001)               Unions in Italy, Holland,
                            England, and Belgium.
                            100 subjects.

Moore and Dutton (1978)     -
Reed and Vakola (2006)      Public health clinics. 632
                            subjects.

Roberson et al. (2003)      -
Sheperd (1995)              -
Ostroff and Ford (1989)     -
Taylor, O'Driscoll and      -
Binning (1998)
Wright and Geroy (1992)     Public TD&E business
Cowley et al. (2000)        Public health organization.
                            23 subjects.
Asku (2005)                 Private hotel. 114 subjects.

Alliger et al. (1997)       -

Bowman and Wilson           Transportation business.
(2008)

M. Brown and Dodd           Agricultural cooperative.
(1998)                      36 subjects.

Burke (1996)                Private services business.
                            1608 subjects.
Clarke (2003)               Public social organization.
                            59 subjects.

Felstead and Ashton         2,224 subjects from
(2000)                      various parts of the UK.

Gorman et al. (2003)        Los Angeles City Hall.
                            162 subjects.

Haccoun and Saks (1998)     -
Hansson (2007)              5,824 private companies in
                            26 countries.
Hennessy and Hicks          Public and private
(1998)                      hospitals. 216 subjects.
Markaki et al. (2007)       55 subjects from various
                            medical areas.

Pun and Chin (1999)         130 organizations from
                            Hong Kong.
F. W. Brown et al. (2002)   21 public and private
                            schools.

Skinner et al. (2004)       31 subjects.

Castley (1996)              -
Smallbone et al. (2000)     39 small and medium
                            businesses. 35 subjects.

While et al. (2007)         420 subjects from various
                            regions of the UK
                            (workers and
                            stakeholders).

Erffmeyer et al. (1991)     American Society of
                            TD&E. 93 subjects.
Petridou and Spathis        444 public servants.
(2001)

Supino and Richardson       677 subjects.
(1999)

Holton et al. (2000)        About 2,000 public
                            servants in two U.S. states

Magalhaes and Borges-       370 subjects from a public
Andrade (2001)              banking institution.

Versloot et al. (2001)      7 private service providing
                            organizations.

Wickramasinghe (2006)       219 organizations.

Hennessy, Hicks, Hilan,     856 subjects from various
et al. (2006)               public health institutions.

Hennessy, Hicks and         332 subjects from different
Koesno (2006)               public health institutions.

Blunch and Castro (2007)    Organizations from 5
                            countries (not specified)

Tao et al. (2006)           -

Devitt and Murphy (2004)    Senior and junior doctors.
Al-Khayyat (1998)           Members of the banking
                            studies institute.
Lareki et al. (2010)        University of the Basque
                            Country. 472 faculty
                            members.
Kaskutas et al. (2010)      St. Louis Carpenters'
                            Joint Apprenticeship
                            Program. 1061 subjects.

Taormina (2009)             Organizations in Hong
                            Kong. 156 subjects.

Author(s)                   Collection Procedures/            Level of
                            Data Analysis                     Analysis
Hicks and Hennessy          Questionnaire sent and            Micro
(1997)                      returned by mail.
                            ANOVA.
Al-Khayyat and Elgamal      Printed questionnaire. t-         Macro
(1997)                      test, correlation, regression.
Anderson (1994)             -                                 -
Borges-Andrade and Lima     Self-administered printed         Micro
(1983)                      questionnaire (in person
                            and by mail).
J. Brown (2002)             -                                 -
Fan and Cheng (2006)        Delphi technique. Content         Micro
                            analysis. Wilcoxon Signed
                            Rank test.
Gould et al. (2004)         -                                 -
Leat and Lovell (1997)      -                                 -
Miller (2001)               Questionnaire sent by             Micro
                            Internet. Content analysis.
                            Average, Standard
                            deviation, minimums and
                            maximums.
Moore and Dutton (1978)     -                                 -
Reed and Vakola (2006)      Research inside the               Meso
                            organization. Collective
                            interviews. Content
                            analysis.
Roberson et al. (2003)      -                                 -
Sheperd (1995)              -                                 -
Ostroff and Ford (1989)     -                                 -
Taylor, O'Driscoll and      -                                 -
Binning (1998)
Wright and Geroy (1992)     Telephone interview.              -
Cowley et al. (2000)        Observation. Semi-                -
                            structured interview.
Asku (2005)                 Self-administered printed         Micro
                            interview. One week to
                            respond. Average,
                            Standard deviation,
                            frequency.
Alliger et al. (1997)       Bibliographic research on         -
                            the Internet. Correlation of
                            averages. Confidence
                            interval.

Bowman and Wilson           Self-administered printed         -
(2008)                      interview. Personal
                            interviews.
M. Brown and Dodd           Self-administered face-to-        Macro
(1998)                      face interview. t-test,
                            correlation of averages.
Burke (1996)                Secondary data.                   Meso
                            Frequency.
Clarke (2003)               Self-administered and             Meso
                            printed interviews. Focal
                            groups and individual
                            interviews. Content
                            analysis, Mann-Whitney
                            test (Z), significance test,
                            Average, Standard
                            deviation.
Felstead and Ashton         Questionnaires sent by            Macro
(2000)                      mail. Semi-structured
                            interviews by telephone.
                            Content analysis,
                            multivariate statistics.
Gorman et al. (2003)        Focus groups. Semi-               Meso
                            structured face-to-face
                            interviews. Closed printed
                            questionnaires.
                            Correlations (within),
                            combined SAS linear
                            model, maximum
                            restricted probability
                            (REML).
Haccoun and Saks (1998)     -                                 -
Hansson (2007)              Regression, t-test, residual      -
                            analysis.
Hennessy and Hicks          Questionnaires sent by            Micro
(1998)                      mail. ANOVA.
Markaki et al. (2007)       Questionnaires sent by            Micro
                            mail. Test of internal
                            consistency, kappa cohen,
                            oblique rotation (varimax),
                            Bartlett's Test.
Pun and Chin (1999)         Questionnaires sent by            Micro
                            mail. Levene's test, t-test.
F. W. Brown et al. (2002)   Semi-structured face-to-          Micro
                            face interviews. Focus
                            groups. Content Analysis.
Skinner et al. (2004)       Focus groups. Content             Macro
                            analysis.

Castley (1996)              -                                 -
Smallbone et al. (2000)     Semi-structured face-to-          Macro
                            face interviews. Focus
                            groups. Content analysis.
While et al. (2007)         Questionnaires sent by            Micro
                            mail. Focus groups. Semi-
                            structured face-to-face
                            interviews. Content
                            analysis, Kendall Tau,
                            internal consistency,
                            correlation within groups.
Erffmeyer et al. (1991)     Questionnaires sent by            Meso
                            mail. Average, frequency.
Petridou and Spathis        Printed self-administered         Meso
(2001)                      face-to-face questionnaire.
                            Stepwise logistic regression.
Supino and Richardson       Questionnaires sent by            Meso
(1999)                      mail. Fisher's exact,
                            Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-
                            Whitney, U test
Holton et al. (2000)        Questionnaires sent by            Macro
                            mail, in person and phone
                            interviews. Content
                            analysis, descriptive and
                            inferential statistics (not
                            specified)
Magalhaes and Borges-       Printed questionnaires sent       Meso
Andrade (2001)              by mail. Factor analysis,
                            varimax rotation, internal
                            consistency, t-test, Pearson
                            correlation (two-tailed).
Versloot et al. (2001)      Semi-structured face-to-          -
                            face interviews. Content
                            analysis.
Wickramasinghe (2006)       Questionnaires sent by            Macro
                            mail. ANOVA, chi-square.
Hennessy, Hicks, Hilan,     Document analysis, face-          Micro
et al. (2006)               to-face interviews, self-
                            administered
                            questionnaires. Factor
                            analysis, varimax.
Hennessy, Hicks and         Printed questionnaire self-       Micro
Koesno (2006)               administered in person.
                            Factor analyses, varimax,
                            ANOVA.
Blunch and Castro (2007)    Questionnaires sent by            Macro
                            mail.

Tao et al. (2006)           Content analysis                  -

Devitt and Murphy (2004)    Mann-Whitney test.                -
Al-Khayyat (1998)           There are no details in the       Micro
                            article.
Lareki et al. (2010)        Questionnaires sent by the        Micro
                            intranet. Factorial analysis,
                            Pearson's Test.
Kaskutas et al. (2010)      Focus groups, observation,        Micro
                            questionnaire. Content
                            analysis, average,
                            frequency.
Taormina (2009)             Printed questionnaires.           Macro
                            Correlation, regression,
                            SEM.

Author(s)                   Area

Hicks and Hennessy          Medicine
(1997)

Al-Khayyat and Elgamal      Management
(1997)
Anderson (1994)             Education
Borges-Andrade and Lima     Psychology
(1983)

J. Brown (2002)             Management
Fan and Cheng (2006)        Management

Gould et al. (2004)         Medicine
Leat and Lovell (1997)      Management
Miller (2001)               Management


Moore and Dutton (1978)     Management
Reed and Vakola (2006)      Management

Roberson et al. (2003)      Psychology
Sheperd (1995)              Medicine
Ostroff and Ford (1989)     Psychology
Taylor, O'Driscoll and      Management
Binning (1998)
Wright and Geroy (1992)     Management
Cowley et al. (2000)        Medicine

Asku (2005)                 Management

Alliger et al. (1997)       Psychology

Bowman and Wilson           Psychology
(2008)

M. Brown and Dodd           Management
(1998)

Burke (1996)                Management

Clarke (2003)               Management

Felstead and Ashton         Management
(2000)

Gorman et al. (2003)        Management

Haccoun and Saks (1998)     Psychology
Hansson (2007)              Management

Hennessy and Hicks          Medicine
(1998)
Markaki et al. (2007)       Medicine

Pun and Chin (1999)         Management

F. W. Brown et al. (2002)   Education

Skinner et al. (2004)       Management

Castley (1996)              Management
Smallbone et al. (2000)     Management

While et al. (2007)         Medicine

Erffmeyer et al. (1991)     Marketing

Petridou and Spathis        Management
(2001)

Supino and Richardson       Medicine
(1999)

Holton et al. (2000)        Public
                            Management

Magalhaes and Borges-       Psychology
Andrade (2001)

Versloot et al. (2001)      Education

Wickramasinghe (2006)       Management

Hennessy, Hicks, Hilan,     Medicine
et al. (2006)

Hennessy, Hicks and         Medicine
Koesno (2006)

Blunch and Castro (2007)    Economy

Tao et al. (2006)           IT /
                            Management
Devitt and Murphy (2004)    Medicine
Al-Khayyat (1998)           Management

Lareki et al. (2010)        Education

Kaskutas et al. (2010)      Management

Taormina (2009)             Management

Table 6
Independent and Dependent Variables Used in TNA Research

Author(s)         Independent Variable(s)

Al-Khayyat and    Clarity of mission in the area of
Elgamal (1997)    Personnel Development. Resource
                  allocation. Personnel Development
                  Policies. Managers' attitudes

Felstead and      Organizational characteristics: total
Ashton (2000)     quality programs, formal evaluation
                  systems, investment in personnel,
                  organization of meetings, freedom
                  of expression granted to employees.
Hansson (2007)    Organizational characteristics:
                  training policies, union action,
                  employees over the age of 45,
                  employees with university degrees,
                  size.
Petridou and      Individual characteristics: gender,
Spathis (2001)    age, education, attitude towards
                  training, hierarchy level and time on
                  the job.
Blunch and        Organizational characteristics: have
Castro (2007)     ISO 9000 or 14000 certification

Taormina (2009)   Employees' Manifested Needs

Author(s)         Dependent Variable(s)

Al-Khayyat and    TNA, Instructional Design, Training
Elgamal (1997)    Implementation, Training evaluation
                  (independent related to [right arrow])
                  employee satisfaction, performance,
                  productivity
Felstead and      Individual skills: problem solving,
Ashton (2000)     communication, teamwork.

Hansson (2007)    Organizational characteristics:
                  TD&E expenses, number of trained
                  employees.

Petridou and      Type of training offered to
Spathis (2001)    individuals.

Blunch and        Organizational characteristics:
Castro (2007)     training implementation, trained
                  employees.
Taormina (2009)   Organizational Socialization,
                  Organizational Culture
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Author:Ferreira, Rodrigo Rezende; Abbad, Gardenia
Publication:Brazilian Administration Review - BAR
Article Type:Report
Geographic Code:3BRAZ
Date:Jan 1, 2013
Words:9241
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