Training needs assessment: where we are and where we should go.
New workplace demands and requirements are causing major changes in formal education as well as in professional training. Some factors seem to introduce a new scenario for organizations: the rapid pace of technological change in the information society, the increasing content knowledge required for production, the reduction in the product life cycle, and rapidly changing production processes. The need for workers' continuous learning is one of the various effects of these pressures.
In this context, Training Needs Assessment (TNA) processes have a strategic role because they provide clear guidelines as to which professional skill deficiencies must be remedied and what the profile of future trainees should be. For McGehee and Thayer (1961), training needs come from underdeveloped skills, insufficient knowledge or inappropriate worker attitudes. Mager and Pipe (1979) define training needs as identified differences between the employees' current performance and the performance that the organization expects of them.
Training Needs Assessment refers to the organizational process of collecting and analyzing data that supports decision making about when training is the best option (or not) to improve individuals' performances, define who should be trained, and exactly what content should be taught (Clarke, 2003). For Wright and Geroy (1992) TNA should be a systematic process of collection, analysis and interpretation of data on individual, group and/or organizational skill gaps. They should have seven key characteristics: (a) be based mainly on culture and organizational philosophy; (b) be proactive instead of reactive; (c) have a method that permits the distinction between situations that can be addressed through training and those that cannot; (d) allow various organizational actors who are directly or indirectly interested and involved in training to participate; (e) be based on observable skills rather than leaders', managers' and professionals" perceptions; (f) consider the varied use of sampling techniques and data analysis; and (g) in the end, have a cost/benefit analysis.
However, despite its importance, research shows that training needs diagnoses have been done in an unsystematic manner in organizational settings (Clarke, 2003; Ferreira, Abbad, Pagotto, & Meneses, 2009; Ford & Noe, 1987; McGehee & Thayer, 1961; Moore & Dutton, 1978; Ostroff & Ford, 1989; Taylor, O'Driscoll, & Binning, 1998; Wexley, 1984). There is still relatively little theoretical and empirical research on TNA (Kraiger, 2003). Literature review devoted to the subject is rare. In Management, studies lack systematic theoretical and methodological approaches which may provide consistency to TNA research and practices. We can say that the theoretical and methodological characteristics of TNA scientific knowledge are, somehow, unknown. It seems that much of what was recommended by seminal authors (Mahler & Monroe, 1952; McGehee & Thayer, 1961; Moore & Dutton, 1978, among others) is still not completely incorporated into TNA research and practice.
For over 50 years, Training, Development and Education (TD&E) literature has been concerned with the importance of systematic procedures for TNA and the investigation of internal and external variables that influence or originate needs for training in work contexts (McGehee & Thayer, 1961). However, the scientific production in the area has yet to provide plausible answers to this and other important questions surrounding the topic.
It is precisely in such a theoretical and empirical context that this article is justified. In order to help find possible ways to fill these gaps, it is of great importance to describe the current state of scientific literature on TNA, bringing to light and evaluating the methods and theories employed until today and drawing some possible scenarios to the future. Thus, this article is based on two research questions. Where are we when it comes to the current state of TNA scientific production? Based on the current state of TNA production, where should (or could) research and practice go?
Article selection strategy
The search for articles was initially performed based on literature reviews about TD&E published in the Annual Review of Psychology (Aguinis & Kraiger, 2009; Latham, 1988; Salas & Cannon-Bowers, 2001; Tannenbaum & Yukle, 1992; Wexley, 1984) and reviews published in Brazilian scientific journals (Abbad, Pilati, & Pantoja, 2003; Borges-Andrade & Abbad, 1996), as well as summaries of dissertations and doctoral theses. As to the multilevel evaluation, two seminal texts were consulted: that of Ostroff and Ford (1989) and Koslowski, Brown, Weissbein, Cannon-Bowers and Salas (2000).
The following databases were consulted: Web of Knowledge (ISI), Ovid, Proquest, Wiley Online Library, Emerald, PsycNet (APA), CAPES Database and Scielo. The search for articles occurred in two steps, between the months of February and March 2008 and August and September 2010. The criterion year of publication was undetermined, given the research objectives. The key expressions used were: training, training needs analysis, training needs analysis and learning, corporate training and university, training needs assessment, training needs evaluation, training, development and education, learning needs.
The primary criterion established for article selection was that it had to be published in a scientific peer reviewed journal. There were 90 articles, which, after reading the summaries, and assessing the adequacy of the subject, were reduced to 61, of which 51 will be analyzed in this study. Our decision to analyze 51 studies is based on operational questions, like the relationship between the complexity of data analysis, time and workforce. The articles examined in this study are a sample of convenience and do not overstrain the knowledge on TNA.
Criteria and procedures for article analysis
Twelve criteria for analysis of selected articles were determined, as shown in Table 1. The articles were analyzed by the authors and two members of a research group.
We analyzed articles ranging from 1978 to 2010. The scientific literature on TNA experienced considerable quantitative growth between 1990 and 2010. Research in the area remained practically nonexistent in the period 1970 to 1989.
As to the country(ies) in which research data was collected, according to Table 2, there is a clear predominance which took place in England (15). There is also a considerable number of studies on TNA in the United States (11).
Table 3 shows the authors, countries, aims, and key research questions.
Keeping in mind our research questions and objectives and the recommendations by Baumeister and Leary (1997), we present the discussion as follows.
TNA: where are we?
This section is dedicated to show where our analysis suggests TNA scientific knowledge currently is, in methodological and theoretical terms. Our recommendations about what to do (where to go) given such results are presented in the next section. In sum, one can say that TNA approaches (in practice and research) had a considerable methodological advancement in past decades, shifting from ad-hoc frameworks (Clarke, 2003; Ferreira et al., 2009; Ford & Noe, 1987; McGehee & Thayer, 1961; Moore & Dutton, 1978; Ostroff & Ford, 1989; Taylor et al., 1998; Wexley, 1984) to a more professional and scientific basis. But there are still several methodological weaknesses and a very long path to move forward in theoretical terms. It is also important to say that TNA research experienced a great growth in publications in the last two decades, especially in the 2000's (Kraiger, 2003).
Regarding the main research questions, one can say that the analyzed studies aimed, primarily, to respond:
* How can one respond to workers' qualification needs?
* How can one systematize and operationalize TNA processes and practices?
* How can one identify and measure training needs?
* What are the possibilities and limitations of practice, research and current TNA models?
As to the theoretical and empirical issues investigated, it can be said that most studies aimed at addressing one or more of the following:
* Diagnose training needs for professionals;
* Describe challenges for TNA practice;
* Describe weaknesses in current TNA approaches;
* Describe/propose TNA procedures;
* Construct TNA instruments.
It seems that TNA practice and research still have an almost exclusively diagnostic/procedural and reactive focus, concerning how to do it in the present. Apparently, prospective TNA approaches, based on literature on competence and competences management (Boyatzis, 1982; Cockerill, 1989; McClelland, 1973; Prahalad & Hamel, 1990; Sparrow & Bognanno, 1994), are still rare. Research are mainly applied, investigating methodological or practical problems and solutions related to TNA systems. This is of great value, but there is still a critical lack of theory development and/or evaluation. Still, there is no apparent concern with developing organizational policies on TNA. Some important theoretical issues that are almost absent in the studies are: the relationships between the TNA concepts, work needs, and competence or competences management based on future scenarios (Sparrow & Bognanno, 1994); the missed conceptual link between individual and organizational needs; and to propose new kinds of needs, as learning needs, educational needs, development needs, avoiding practices and research to be dependent on only one kind of possible instructional solution to meet competence gaps (training).
Methodologically, it is possible to note the prevalence of survey-type studies (34.63%). Eleven (11) theoretical essays, three (3) case studies and three (3) action research studies were also obtained. There is a relative predominance of quantitative studies (20). Mixed studies (qualitative/quantitative) and qualitative data showed moderate frequency (11 and 10, respectively). There is also a relative dominance of questionnaires as data collection instruments (26.49%). Some research (9) used questionnaires and interviews, which suggests consonance with qualitative/quantitative studies. Four (4) studies reported using only interviews. Thirteen (13) research theoretical reports were not subject to this analysis criterion. The methodological diversity of scientific knowledge on TNA must be prized (Baumeister & Leary, 1997). The use of multiple data collection methods (e.g. questionnaire, interviews, focus groups) and analysis (e.g. content analysis, descriptive and inferential statistics) is highly desirable to investigate complex phenomenon, as in the social and behavioral sciences. On the other hand, we can note that this methodological diversity is accompanied by a high diversity in results and conclusions as well, even regarding the same object (training needs at work). There is no convergence of results: some authors define training needs as a occupational competence gap (e.g. Borges-Andrade & Lima, 1983); others understand it as a performance gap at multiple levels (e.g. Asku, 2005); and others suggest it being the number of vacancies in an organizational sector (e.g. Castley, 1996). Therefore, we do not know if the methods are flawed, the object is too complex, or both (or even none of these). We risk saying that this area of knowledge is still seeking its object (consequently, the way(s) to theorize and measure it).
The research design most commonly employed in the analyzed studies also deserves attention. Survey-type studies, descriptive or correlational, and with purposive samples imply a series of limitations regarding external validity, generalization, inference robustness, and conclusion validity (among others). In practical terms (to managers' decision-making), this may be a minor problem, but, in scientific terms, we should look at this more carefully. As soon as we do not have robust research designs in the area (e.g. experimental or quasi-experimental), it is hard to separate what is the phenomenon per si (training needs at work), its antecedents and consequents, and what are methodological flaws.
As for the levels of analysis, in most studies (19) the question of levels does not apply, because the author did not argue or discuss such a question. There is a relative predominance of studies that investigated the micro level of TNA (16). In relation to the meso and macro levels, there are a balanced number of studies (8). It seems that in Management research focus is on the macro level of analysis, while in Psychology there is a shift to the micro level. These results contradict the findings of Chiu, Thompson, Mak, and Lo (1999), who said that the most studied level of analysis was macro (organizational), followed by the meso (groups, tasks and processes), with the individual being the least studied. Otherwise, it is clear that multilevel analysis and modeling is still a neglected technique when it comes to TNA practice and research, even with clear indications that theory and data in this area can have a hierarchical structure (Koslowski, Brown, Weissbein, Cannon-Bowers, & Salas, 2000; McGehee & Thayer, 1961; Mossholder & Bedeian, 1983; Ostroff & Ford, 1989), which is recommended by multilevel literature as a premise to use such methods (Hox, 2010; Hox & Roberts, 2011; Kreft & De Leeuw, 1998; Raubendush & Bryk, 1986; Snijders & Bosker, 1994).
Regarding the area, there is a predominance of studies in Management (25), followed by studies applied to Medicine (11) and Psychology (7). Others areas also include TNA techniques, Education, Public Management, Marketing and Information Technology. This is quite interesting and shows that needs at work is a multi/inter/trans-disciplinary research object, being of interest to multiple knowledge fields. Perhaps this justifies the field's theoretical and methodological diversity.
Regarding the independent and dependent variables, few studies (6 out of 51) aimed to correlate variables, which is a measure adopted for testing models and hypotheses. Some independent variables were: clarity of mission in the area of personnel development, presence of total quality programs, level of investment in personnel development. Some dependent variables were: TNA, instructional design, employee satisfaction, productivity, communication, TD&E expenditures. Methodologically, these were quantitative and survey-type studies, with purposive samples, using questionnaires. All studies report significant relationships between the variables of interest. An important result is that training policies are positively related to training needs, showing how important is for organizations to have policies devoted to training and learning (Hansson, 2007). But is important to affirm that these results can have several alternative explanations, since the methods employed do not permit causality inferences (Baumeister & Leary, 1997).
TNA: where should (or could) we go?
According to the TNA strengths and weaknesses in practice and research presented earlier, we have a rich research agenda that could be structured.
First, TNA initiatives should have a broader and more proactive focus, shifting from exclusively reactive and diagnostic to a theory development and review framework. The issue on whether a competence gap should be faced by training or others types of instructional events (such as development, instruction, education or even informal learning at work) has not yet been discussed. It seems inappropriate to define a priori that a competence gap necessarily signifies a training need. We suggest that another types of needs should be discussed, such as learning needs, educational needs, development needs, among others. A deep theoretical and epistemological refinement of needs at work concepts and methods could achieve such an agenda.
It is also important that TNA practice and research do not focus only on present competences related to professional roles (Borges-Andrade & Lima, 1983), but also on emerging competences that can be important to the organization in the future (Felstead & Ashton, 2000). Besides promoting training events with higher probabilities of positive impact at work, this would also allow the development of long-term training and TNA policies, which, by the way, is neglected in the studies analyzed. Still, concerning competences, we noted that there is no consensus about it as the only construct that permits investigating training needs. This is of great concern since training investment decisions are being made based on a diversity of indicators that depend more on the context and less on the individual (Asku, 2005; Castley, 1996), constituting, in fact, other types of needs than training. Thus, we suggest that the literature on competence and competences management (Boyatzis, 1982; Cockerill, 1989; McClelland, 1973; Prahalad & Hamel, 1990; Sparrow & Bognanno, 1994) should be used as a primary resource for TNA practice and research, assuming that (gap of) competences are the only way to investigate human training needs at work.
Methodologically, we can say that TNA practice and research has advanced in the past decades, employing scientific techniques to develop instruments (Hennessy & Hicks, 1998), proposing TNA models (Al-Khayyat & Elagamal, 1997) and being marked by methodological diversity, for example. However, TNA current methods still present flaws, as we showed earlier. First of all, we should have more mixed techniques, based on qualitative and quantitative data simultaneously (While, Ullman, & Forbes, 2007). Research and practice should also utilize a more heterogeneous and probabilistic sample, avoiding questioning only top managers, and including randomly chosen employees at different levels. This would allow triangulation of evidence, highly important to scientific and professional decision-making. Secondly, studies, especially TNA research, should employ more robust designs, such as quasi-experimental or experimental studies. This would allow for a more reliable set of conclusions about whether or not to invest in training and would help to improve TNA theories and concepts.
Regarding level of analysis, the adoption of multilevel modeling in TNA research is urgent. Since 1950, several studies have suggested that TNA theory and data can have a hierarchical arrangement (Koslowski et al., 2000; McGehee & Thayer, 1961; Mossholder & Bedeian, 1983; Ostroff & Ford, 1989). Nevertheless, current practice and research neglects to discuss this issue. Research should be based in at least three levels and their respective variables, followed with statistical multilevel regression analysis: internal and external organizational contexts (as laws, technology, politics, structure); organizational area or unit characteristics (number of employees, training budget, organizational level); and individual characteristics (training needs, competences domains, age, education, learning style). In this scenario, we could more deeply investigate needs antecedents and consequents and needs definitions between levels (including groups of individuals).
Regarding areas of application, TNA must continue to expand. We can suggest that TNA is applicable to several areas of knowledge, as our results indicated. Wherever one is interested in professional education planning and executing, TNA approaches can be employed (technology, medicine, management, marketing, mental health, education, psychology). Perhaps, this is why TNA is such an interesting and exciting theme.
Received 21 January 2012; received in revised form 13 August 2012; accepted 27 September 2012; published online 17 December 2012.
Abbad, G., Pilati, R., & Pantoja, M. J. (2003). Avaliacao de treinamento: analise da literatura e agenda de pesquisa [Training evaluation: literature review and research agenda.] Revista de Administracao da USP, 38(3), 205-218.
Aguinis, H., & Kraiger, K. (2009). Benefits of training and development for individuals and teams, organizations and society. Annual Review of Psychology, 60(1), 451-474. doi:
Al-Khayyat, R. (1998). Training and development needs assessment: a practical model for partner institutes. Journal of European Industrial Training, 22(1), 18-27. doi: 10.1108/03090599810197658
Al-Khayyat, R. M., & Elgamal, M. A. (1997). A macro model of training and development: validation. Journal of European Industrial Training, 21(3), 87-101. doi: 10.1108/03090599710161793
Alliger, G. M., Tannenbaum, S. I., Bennett, W., Jr., Traver, H., & Shotland, A. (1997). A meta-analysis of the relations among training criteria. Personnel Psychology, 50(2), 341-358. doi: 10.1111/j .1744-6570.1997.tb00911 .x
Anderson, G. (1994). A proactive model for training needs analysis. Journal of European Industrial Training, 18(3), 23-28. doi: 10.1108/03090599410056577
Asku, A. A. (2005). Defining training needs of five-star hotel personnel: an application in the antalya region of Turkey. Managerial Auditing Journal, 20(9), 945-953. doi: 10.1108/02686900510625299
Baumeister, R. F., & Leary, M. R. (1997). Writing narrative literature reviews. Review of General Psychology, 1(3), 311-320.
Blunch, N-H., & Castro, P. (2007). Enterprise-level training in developing countries: do international standards matter? International Journal of Training and Development, 11(4), 314-324. doi: 10.1111/j.1468-2419.2007.00284.x
Borges-Andrade, J. E., & Abbad, G. (1996). Treinamento e desenvolvimento: reflexoes sobre suas pesquisas cientificas. Revista de Administracao da USP, 31(2), 112-125.
Borges-Andrade, J. E., & Lima, S. V. L. (1983). Avaliacao de necessidades de treinamento: um metodo de analise de papel ocupacional. Tecnologia Educacional, 12(54), 6-22.
Bowman, J., & Wilson, J. P. (2008). Different roles, different perspectives: perceptions about the purpose of training needs analysis. Industrial and Commercial Training, 40(1), 38-41. doi: 10.1108/00197850810841639
Boyatzis, R. E. (1982). The competent management: a model for effective performance. New York: John Wiley.
Brown, F. W., & Dodd, N. G. (1998). Utilizing organizational culture gap analysis to determine human resource development needs. Leadership & Organization Development Journal, 19(7), 374-385. doi: 10.1108/01437739810242531
Brown, J. (2002). Training needs assessment: a must for developing an effective training program. Public Personnel Management, 31(4), 569-578.
Brown, M., Boyle, B., & Boyle, T. (2002). Professional development and management training needs for heads of department in UK secondary schools. Journal of Educational Administration, 40(1), 31-43. doi: 10.1108/09578230210415634
Burke, R. J. (1996). Training needs at different organizational levels within a professional services firm. Industrial and Commercial Training, 28(5), 24-28. doi: 10.1108/00197859610122081
Castley, R. J. Q. (1996). The sectoral approach to the assessment of skill needs and training requirements. International Journal of Manpower, 17(1), 56-68. doi: 10.1108/01437729610110620
Chiu, W., Thompson, D., Mak, W., & Lo, K. L. (1999). Re-thinking training needs analysis: a proposed framework for literature review. Personnel Review, 28(1/2), 77-90. doi: 10.1108/00483489910249009
Clarke, N. (2003). The politics of training needs analysis. Journal of Workplace Learning, 15(4), 141153. doi: 10.1108/13665620310474598
Cockerill, T. (1989). The kind of competence for rapid change. Personnel Management, 21(9), 52-56.
Cowley, S., Bergen, A., Young, K., & Kavanagh, A. (2000). A taxonomy of needs assessment elicited from a multiple case study of community nursing education and practice. Journal of Advanced Nursing, 31(1), 126-134. doi: 10.1046/j.1365-2648.2000.01252.x
Devitt, N., & Murphy, J. (2004). A survey of the information management and technology training needs of doctors in an acute NHS trust in the United Kingdom. Health Information and Libraries Journal, 21(3), 164-172. doi: 10.1111/j.1471-1842.2004.00492.x
Erffmeyer, R. C., Russ, K. R., & Hair, J. F. (1991). Needs assessment and evaluation in sales training programs. Journal of Personal Selling and Sales Management, 11(1), 17-30.
Fan, C. K., & Cheng, C. (2006). A study to identify the training needs of life insurance sales representatives in Taiwan using the Delphi approach. International Journal of Training and Development, 10(3), 212-226. doi: 10.1111/j.1468-2419.2006.00255.x
Felstead, A., & Ashton, D. (2000). Tracing the link: organisational structures and skill demands. Human Resource Management Journal, 10(3), 5-21. doi: 10.1111/j.1748-8583.2000.tb00023.x
Ferreira, R. R., Abbad, G. S. da, Pagotto, C. P. do, & Meneses, P. P. M. (2009). Avaliacao de necessidades organizacionais de treinamento: o caso de uma empresa Latino-Americana de administracao aeroportuaria. Revista Eletronica de Administracao, 15(2), 1-26. Retrieved from http://www.read.ea.ufrgs.br/edicoes/pdf/artigo_590.pdf
Ford, J. K., & Noe, R. A. (1987). Self-assessed training needs: the effects of attitudes toward training, managerial level, and function. Personnel Psychology, 40(1), 39-63. doi: 10.1111/j. 17446570.1987.tb02376.x
Gorman, P., McDonald, B., Moore, R., Glassman, A., Takeuchi, L., & Henry, M. J. (2003). Custom needs assessment for estrategic HR planning: the Los Angeles county experience. Public Personnel Management, 32(4), 475-496.
Gould, D., Kelly, D., White, I., & Chidgey, J. (2004). Training needs analysis: a literature review and reappraisal. International Journal of Nursing Studies, 41(5), 471-486. doi: 10.1016/j.ijnurstu.2003.12.003
Haccoun, R. R., & Saks, A. M. (1998). Training in the 21st century: some lessons from the last one. Canadian Psychology, 39(1/2), 33-51. doi: 10.1037/h0086793
Hansson, B. (2007). Company-based determinants of training and the impact of training on company performance. Personnel Review, 36(2), 311-331. doi: 10.1108/00483480710726163
Hennessy, D., & Hicks, C. (1998). A cross-cultural tool to identify continuing education needs. International Nursering Review, 45(4), 109-114. doi: 10.1046/j.1466-7657.45.no.4issue340.4.x
Hennessy, D., Hicks, C., Hilan, A., & Kawonal, Y. (2006). A methodology for assessing the professional development needs of nurses and midwives in Indonesia: paper 1 of 3. Human Resources for Health, 4(8), 1-8. doi: 10.1186/1478-4491-4-8
Hennessy, D., Hicks, C., & Koesno, H. (2006). The training and development needs of midwives in Indonesia: paper 2 of 3. Human Resources for Health, 4(9), 1-12. doi: 10.1186/1478-4491-4-9
Hicks, C., & Hennessy, D. (1997). The use of a customized training needs analysis tool for nurse practitioner development. Journal of Advanced Nursing, 26(2), 389-398.
Holton, E. F., III, Bates, R. A., & Naquin, S. S. (2000). Large-scale performance-driven training needs assessment: a case study. Public Personnel Management, 29(2), 249-267.
Hox, J. (2010). Multilevel analysis: techniques and applications. New York: Routledge.
Hox, J., & Roberts, J. K. (2011). Handbook of advanced multilevel analysis. New York: Routledge.
Kaskutas, V., Dale, A. M., Lipscomb, H., Gaal, J., Fuchs, M., & Evanoff, B. (2010). Changes in fall prevention training for apprentice carpenters based on a comprehensive needs assessment. Journal of Safety Research, 41(3), 221-227. doi: 10.1016/j.jsr.2010.01.006
Koslowski, S. W. J., Brown, K., Weissbein, D., Cannon-Bowers, J., & Salas, E. (2000). A multilevel approach to training effectiveness: enhancing horizontal and vertical transfer. In K. Klein & S. W. J. Koslowski (Eds.), Multilevel theory, research and methods in organization (pp. 157-210). San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
Kraiger, K. (2003). Perspectives on training and development. In W.C. Borman, D.R. Ilgen, & R. J. Klimoski (Eds.), Handbook of psychology: volume 12, industrial and organizational psychology (pp. 171-192). Hoboken, NJ: Wiley.
Kreft, I. G. G., & De Leeuw, J. (1998). Introducing multilevel modeling. London: Sage.
Lareki, A., Morentin, J. I. M. de, & Amenabar, N. (2010). Towards an efficient training of university faculty on ICTs. Computers & Education, 54(2), 491-497. doi: 10.1016/j.compedu.2009.08.032
Latham, G. P. (1988). Human resource training and development. Annual Review of Psychology, 39, 545-582. doi: 10.1146/annurev.ps.39.020188.002553
Leat, M. J., & Lovell, M. J. (1997). Training needs analysis: weaknesses in the conventional approach. Journal of European Industrial Training, 21(4), 143-153. doi: 10.1108/03090599710171396
Magalhaes, M. L., & Borges-Andrade, J. E. (2001). Auto e hetero-avaliacao no diagnostico de necessidades de treinamento. Estudos de Psicologia, 6(1), 35-50. doi: 10.1590/S1413294X2001000100005
Mager, R. F., & Pipe, P. (1979). Analysing performance problems. Belmont: Lake Publishing
Mahler, W., & Monroe, W. (1952). How industry determines the need for and effectiveness of training (Report N[degrees] 929). Kentucky: Personnel Research Branch, Department of the Army.
Markaki, A., Antonakis, N., Hicks, C. M., & Lionis, C. (2007). Translating and validating a training needs assessment tool into greek. BMC Health Services Research, 7(65), 1-7. doi: 10.1186/1472-6963-7-65
Mcclelland, D. (1973). Testing for competence rather than intelligence. American Psychologist, 28(1), 1-14.
McGehee, W., & Thayer, P. W. (1961). Training in business and industry. New York: Wiley.
Miller, D. (2001). Transnational worker representation and transnational training needs: the case of European work councils. International Journal of Training and Development, 5(1), 34-51. doi: 10.1111/1468-2419.00120
Moore, M. L., & Dutton, P. (1978). Training needs analysis: review and critique. Academy of Management Review, 3(3), 532-545. doi: 10.5465/AMR.1978.4305749
Mossholder, K. W., & Bedeian, A. G. (1983). Cross-level inference and organizational research: perspectives on interpretation and application. Academy of Management Review, 8(4), 547-558. doi: 10.5465/AMR.1983.4284651
Ostroff, C., & Ford, K. (1989). Introducing a levels perspective to training needs assessment. In I. Goldstein (Ed.), Training and Career Development (pp. 25-62). San Francisco: Jossey Bass.
Petridou, E. N., & Spathis, C. T. (2001). Designing training interventions: human or technical skills training? International Journal of Training and Development, 5(3), 185-195. doi: 10.1111/1468-2419.00131
Prahalad, C. K., & Hamel, G. (1990). The core competence of the corporation. Harvard Business Review, 68(3), 79-91.
Pun, K. F., & Chin, K. S. (1999). Bridging the needs and provisions of quality education and training: an empirical study in Hong Kong industries. International Journal of Quality & Realiability Management, 16(8), 792-810. doi: 10.1108/02656719910289186
Raubendush, S. W., & Bryk, A. S. (1986). A hierarchical model for studying school effects. Sociology of Education, 59(1), 1-17.
Reed, J., & Vakola, M. (2006). What role can a training needs analysis play in organizational change? Journal of Organizational Change Management, 19(3), 393-407. doi: 10.1108/09534810610668382
Roberson, L., Kulik, C. T., & Pepper, M. B. (2003). Using needs assessment to resolve controversies in diversity training design. Group and Organization Management, 28(1), 148-174. doi: 10.1177/1059601102250028
Salas, E., & Cannon-Bowers, J. A. (2001). The science of training: a decade of progress. Annual Review of Psychology, 52(1), 471-499. doi: 10.1146/annurev.psych.52.1.471
Sheperd, J. C. (1995). Training needs analysis. necessity or luxury? Journal of Nursing Management, 3(6), 319-322. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2834.1995.tb00115.x
Skinner, D., Saunders, M. N. K., & Beresford, R. (2004). Towards a shared understanding of skill shortages: differing perceptions of training and development needs. Education + Training, 46(4), 182-193. doi: 10.1108/00400910410543973
Smallbone, D., Supri, S., & Baldock, R. (2000). The implications of new technology for the skill and training needs of small and medium-sized printing firms. Education + Training, 42(4/5), 299308. doi: 10.1108/00400910010347768
Snijders, T. A. B., & Bosker, R. (1994). Modeled variance in two-level models. Sociological Methods and Research, 22(3), 342-363. doi: 10.1177/0049124194022003004
Sparrow, P. R., & Bognanno, M. (1994). Competence requirement forecasting: issues for international selection and assessment. In C. Mabey & P. Iles (Orgs.), Managing learning (pp. 57-69). London: Routledge.
Supino, P. G., & Richardson, L. D. (1999). Assessing research methodology training needs in emergency medicine. Academic Emergency Medicine, 6(4), 280-285.
Tannenbaum, S. I., & Yulk, G. (1992). Training and development in work organizations. Annual Review of Psychology, 43, 399-441. doi: 10.1146/annurev.ps.43.020192.002151
Tao, Y-H., Yeh, C. R., & Sun, S-I. (2006). Improving training needs assessment processes via the internet: system design and qualitative study. Internet Research, 16(4), 427-449. doi: 10.1108/10662240610690043
Taormina, R. J. (2009). Organizational socialization: the missing link between employee needs and organizational culture. Journal of Managerial Psychology, 24(7), 650-676.
Taylor, P., O'Driscoll, M., & Binning, J. (1998). A new integrated framework for training needs analysis. Human Resource Management Journal, 8(2), 29-50. doi: 10.1111/j. 1748 8583.1998.tb00165.x
Versloot, B. M., Jong, J. A., & Thijssen, J. G. (2001). Organisational context of structured on-the-job training. International Journal of Training and Development, 5(1), 2-22. doi: 10.1111/14682419.00118
Wexley, K. N. (1984). Personal training. Annual Review of Psychology, 35, 519-551.
While, A., Ullman, R., & Forbes, A. (2007). Development and validation of learning needs assessment scale: a continuing professional education tool for multiple sclerosis specialist nurses. Journal of Clinical Nursing, 16(6), 1099-1108. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2702.2007.01693.x
Wickramasinghe, V. M. (2006). Training objectives, transfer, validation and evaluation: a sri lankan study. International Journal of Training and Development, 10(3), 227-247. doi: 10.1111/j.1468 2419.2006.00256.x
Wright, P. C., & Geroy, G. D. (1992). Needs analysis theory and the effectiveness of larg-scale government-sponsored training programmes: a case study. Journal of Management Development, 11(5), 16-27. doi: 10.1108/02621719210014527
Rodrigo Rezende Ferreira *
E-mail address: firstname.lastname@example.org
Universidade de Brasilia--UnB
Brasilia, DF, Brazil.
E-mail address: email@example.com
Universidade de Brasilia--IP/UnB
Brasilia, DF, Brazil.
* Corresponding author: Rodrigo Rezende Ferreira
Campus Universitario Darcy Ribeiro, Instituto Central de Ciencias, Departamento de Administracao, Brasilia, DF, 70910-900, Brazil.
Table 1 Selected Articles' Analysis Criteria and Their Definitions # Analysis Criteria Definition 1 Country(ies) of research Country(ies) in which data collection occurred (if theoretical, the country in which the article was written will be taken into account) 2 Research aim(s) Main aim(s) of the research 3 Main theoretical Issues present in the and/or empirical organizational and academic question(s) research contexts 4 Research design Survey, case study, action research, theoretical 5 Research's nature Qualitative, quantitative, qualitative/quantitative 6 Instruments Questionnaire, interview and measures 7 Research field and Location(s) in which data participants collection occurred and description of participants. 8 Independent Variable(s) Construct(s) that influence other construct(s) 9 Dependent Variable(s) Construct(s) that is(are) influenced by other construct(s) 10 Procedures for collecting/ Description of procedures for analyzing data data collection and data analysis techniques 11 Subject Area Area for application of study 12 Level of analysis Level of analysis focused on the study (macro = organizational / meso = macro processes, tasks, groups / micro = individual) Table 2 Country(ies) in Which Data Collection Occurred #. Country(ies) Number of studies conducted 1. England 15 2. United States 11 3. China 4 4. Canada 3 5. Indonesia 2 6. Transnational 2 7. Brazil 2 8. Greece 2 9. Kuwait 2 10. Spain 1 11. Australia 1 12. Netherlands 1 13. Ireland 1 14. Sri Lanka 1 15. Turkey 1 16. Uninformed 2 Table 3 Country(ies), Aims and Main Theoretical and/or Empirical Question(s) Author(s) Country(ies) where Research was Conducted Hicks and Hennessy England (1997) Al-Khayyat and Elgamal Kuwait (1997) Anderson (1994) Australia Borges-Andrade and Lima Brazil (1983) J. Brown (2002) - Fan and Cheng (2006) China Gould, Kelly, White and England Chidgey (2004) Leat and Lovell (1997) England Miller (2001) England Moore and Dutton (1978) United States Reed and Vakola (2006) Ireland Roberson, Kulik and United States Pepper (2003) Sheperd (1995) England Ostroff and Ford (1989) - Taylor, O'Driscoll and New Zealand/ United Binning (1998) States Wright and Geroy (1992) Canada Cowley, Bergen, Young England and Kavanagh (2000) Asku (2005) Turkey Alliger, Tannenbaum, United States Bennett, Traver and Shotland (1997) Bowman and Wilson England (2008) M. Brown and Dodd United States (1998) Burke (1996) Canada Clarke (2003) England Felstead and Ashton England (2000) Gorman, McDonald, United States Moore, Glassman, Takeuchi and Henry (2003) Haccoun and Saks (1998) Canada Hansson (2007) Transnational (26 countries) Hennessy and Hicks England/ Australia/ (1998) United States Markaki, Antonakis, Hicks Greece and Lionis (2007) Pun and Chin (1999) China F. W. Brown, Boyle and England Boyle (2002) Skinner, Saunders and England Beresford (2004) Castley (1996) England Smallbone, Supri and England Baldock (2000) While, Ullman and Forbes England (2007) Erffmeyer, Russ and Hair United States (1991) Petridou and Spathas Greece (2001) Supino and Richardson United States (1999) Holton, Bates and Naquin United States (2000) Magalhaes and Borges- Brazil Andrade (2001) Versloot, de Jong and Netherlands Thijssen (2001) Wickramasinghe (2006) Sri Lanka Hennessy, Hicks, Hilan Indonesia and Kawonal (2006) Hennessy, Hicks and Indonesia Koesno (2006) Blunch and Castro (2007) United States Tao, Yeh and Sun (2006) China Devitt and Murphy (2004) England Al-Khayyat (1998) Kuwait Lareki, Morentin and Spain Amenabar (2010) Kaskutas et al. (2010) United States Taormina (2009) China Author(s) Research Aim(s) Hicks and Hennessy Evaluate training needs of (1997) nurses. Al-Khayyat and Elgamal Develop TD&E model. (1997) Anderson (1994) Describe challenges to plan and develop educational actions. Borges-Andrade and Lima Propose the adoption of a (1983) TNA approach. Evaluate training needs of a particular occupational role. J. Brown (2002) To describe steps for performing an TNA process. Fan and Cheng (2006) Identify training needs of life insurance salespeople. Gould, Kelly, White and To review the TNA Chidgey (2004) literature. Leat and Lovell (1997) Propose an integrated TNA model. Miller (2001) To describe the training needs of transnational trade union representatives. Moore and Dutton (1978) To review TNA literature. Reed and Vakola (2006) To investigate how the TNA process can contribute to organizational changes. Roberson, Kulik and Evaluate needs and design Pepper (2003) courses for minorities of an organization Sheperd (1995) To describe the importance of the TNA process for nurses. Ostroff and Ford (1989) Propose a multilevel approach to TNA Taylor, O'Driscoll and Propose a theoretical TNA Binning (1998) model. Wright and Geroy (1992) Describe the strengths and weaknesses of a TNA process. Cowley, Bergen, Young To describe the training and Kavanagh (2000) needs of nurses. Describe the taxonomy of needs. Asku (2005) To propose an TNA procedure. Alliger, Tannenbaum, To evaluate the Bennett, Traver and relationship of training Shotland (1997) evaluation variables. Bowman and Wilson To describe the experience (2008) of managers who conducted TNA. M. Brown and Dodd Test the effectiveness of (1998) the approach to competitive prices to evaluate training needs. Burke (1996) To compare training needs between hierarchical levels. Clarke (2003) To analyze the influence of internal and external context in the process of TNA. Felstead and Ashton To analyze the impact (2000) organizational innovations have on training needs. Gorman, McDonald, To describe an experience Moore, Glassman, of building a skill Takeuchi and Henry development model. (2003) Haccoun and Saks (1998) To describe the main contributions of Organizational Psychology for understanding training results. Hansson (2007) To examine variables that may cause training needs in different countries. Hennessy and Hicks To test a TNA instrument (1998) in the U.S. and Australia. Markaki, Antonakis, Hicks Translate, adapt and and Lionis (2007) validate a TNA instrument in Greece. Pun and Chin (1999) Compare training needs diagnosed using different methods. F. W. Brown, Boyle and Identify secondary school Boyle (2002) managers' training needs. Skinner, Saunders and Describe stakeholder Beresford (2004) perception of employees' training needs. Castley (1996) To propose a sectoral approach to evaluate training needs. Smallbone, Supri and To investigate current and Baldock (2000) emerging training needs in the printing industry. While, Ullman and Forbes Develop and validate a (2007) TNA scale. Erffmeyer, Russ and Hair Describe how TNA has (1991) been used in TD&E processes. Petridou and Spathas Evaluate training needs (2001) based on personal and professional characteristics. Supino and Richardson To describe university (1999) managers' and academics' perceptions of training needs. Holton, Bates and Naquin To develop and implement (2000) a TNA method in the public sector. Magalhaes and Borges- To develop a TNA method Andrade (2001) that includes attitudes. To study the relationship between self and peer- based TNA evaluations. Versloot, de Jong and To study the Thijssen (2001) characteristics of organizational contexts that favor each type of training. Wickramasinghe (2006) To examine TNA practices Hennessy, Hicks, Hilan Validate an instrument to and Kawonal (2006) evaluate nurses' training needs. Hennessy, Hicks and To evaluate midwives' Koesno (2006) training needs. Blunch and Castro (2007) To identify training needs based on productivity and organizational climate. Tao, Yeh and Sun (2006) To demonstrate how web- based technologies can contribute to the TNA process. Devitt and Murphy (2004) To evaluate doctors' training needs. Al-Khayyat (1998) Propose a TNA model Lareki, Morentin and To address faculty Amenabar (2010) members' learning needs. Kaskutas et al. (2010) Conduct a needs assessment to determine gaps in the school-based apprentice carpenters' fall prevention training. Taormina (2009) Address two research gaps in the literature between employee needs and organizational socialization. Author(s) Main Theoretical and/or Empirical Question(s) Hicks and Hennessy Changes in context and (1997) nursing practice. Definition of the role of the nurse. Al-Khayyat and Elgamal Deficiency of relevant (1997) theoretical and methodological approach in the literature. Anderson (1994) Current approaches to TD&E based on traditional models. Borges-Andrade and Lima Develop rigorous TNA (1983) research and practice. To align needs with strategic goals. J. Brown (2002) Need to develop rigorous TNA practices and research. Fan and Cheng (2006) Need to conduct an appropriate TNA process for the reality of the organization. Gould, Kelly, White and ad-hoc TNA research and Chidgey (2004) practices. Leat and Lovell (1997) Performance analysis focused only on the individual level. Miller (2001) Change in the action context of the union representative (transnational study). Moore and Dutton (1978) Little theoretical development of TNA processes. Neglected organizational strategy of the TNA processes. Reed and Vakola (2006) Inaccurate decisions by TD&E professionals performing TNA. Roberson, Kulik and Minorities have specific Pepper (2003) training needs. Emphasis on the fact that organizational level can hide individual needs. Sheperd (1995) TNA should take into account changes in the practice of nursing. The literature lacks empirical studies. Ostroff and Ford (1989) TNA focus on the individual. Taylor, O'Driscoll and Ad-hoc approaches to Binning (1998) TNA. Wright and Geroy (1992) Ad-hoc approaches to TNA. Cowley, Bergen, Young Changes in legislation and Kavanagh (2000) imply changes in the practice of nursing. Asku (2005) The hotel industry does not have rigorous TNA processes. Alliger, Tannenbaum, New models for training Bennett, Traver and evaluation are needed. Shotland (1997) Bowman and Wilson TNA process quality relies (2008) heavily on the agents who conduct it. M. Brown and Dodd Changes of context (1998) generate training needs. TNA process can support the change. Burke (1996) Changes in context may generate training needs. Clarke (2003) Studies neglect the influence of context on training needs. Social relationships are the primary influence in the TNA process. Felstead and Ashton Innovative practices (2000) generate training needs. There are few systematic studies on TNA. Gorman, McDonald, External economic crises Moore, Glassman, and new technologies Takeuchi and Henry affect the needs for skill (2003) development. Haccoun and Saks (1998) Individual and contextual variables generate needs for training and affect the outcomes of courses. Hansson (2007) TD&E processes performed in an unsystematic manner. Hennessy and Hicks Reforms in the context of (1998) nurses' performance generate training needs. Markaki, Antonakis, Hicks Greece has no validated and Lionis (2007) TNA instruments. Pun and Chin (1999) Policies and total quality programs generate new levels of skill demand. F. W. Brown, Boyle and Ad-hoc approaches to Boyle (2002) TNA. Skinner, Saunders and To align educational Beresford (2004) programs and the institutional objective. Stakeholder participation in the TNA process. Castley (1996) The need to develop sectoral TNA approaches in the public sector. Smallbone, Supri and Technological changes Baldock (2000) generate training needs. While, Ullman and Forbes Lack of TNA tools. (2007) Erffmeyer, Russ and Hair Little importance is given (1991) to the TNA processes in organizations. Petridou and Spathas Need to consider (2001) individual variables to assess training needs. Supino and Richardson The need to map leaders' (1999) and medical students' perceptions of their training needs. Holton, Bates and Naquin Ad-hoc approaches to (2000) TNA. Employee participation in the TNA process is crucial. Magalhaes and Borges- Lack of studies comparing Andrade (2001) self and peer-based TNA evaluations. Versloot, de Jong and There are few studies on Thijssen (2001) the relationship between organizational context and the training offered. Wickramasinghe (2006) Ad-hoc approaches to TNA. Hennessy, Hicks, Hilan The poor definition of and Kawonal (2006) nurses' roles creates confusion about the actual training needs. Hennessy, Hicks and The low number of Koesno (2006) midwives to meet the demand in Indonesia has generated extra work and poor quality in services. Blunch and Castro (2007) Emerging technologies and other context variables can generate training needs. Tao, Yeh and Sun (2006) Need for approaches to assess training needs via the Web. Devitt and Murphy (2004) Needs to validate TNA methods directed toward doctors' performances. Al-Khayyat (1998) Ad-hoc approaches to TNA. Lareki, Morentin and Lack of information on Amenabar (2010) faculty members' actual needs and the type of format that should be utilized for training. Kaskutas et al. (2010) Falls from heights in residential construction are common, especially among inexperienced workers. Taormina (2009) Lack of empirical study on TNA. Table 4 Design, Nature and Instruments of TNA Author(s) Research Design Hicks and Hennessy Survey (1997) Al-Khayyat and Elgamal Survey (1997) Anderson (1994) Theoretical Borges-Andrade and Lima Survey (1983) J. Brown (2002) Theoretical Fan and Cheng (2006) Survey Gould et al. (2004) Theoretical Leat and Lovell (1997) Theoretical Miller (2001) Survey Moore and Dutton (1978) Theoretical Reed and Vakola (2006) Action Research Roberson et al. (2003) Theoretical Sheperd (1995) Theoretical Ostroff and Ford (1989) Theoretical Taylor, O'Driscoll and Theoretical Binning (1998) Wright and Geroy (1992) Case Study Cowley et al. (2000) Case Study Asku (2005) Survey Alliger et al. (1997) Theoretical Bowman amd Wilson Survey (2008) M. Brown and Dodd Survey (1998) Burke (1996) Survey Clarke (2003) Survey Felstead and Ashton Survey (2000) Gorman et al. (2003) Action Research Haccoun and Saks (1998) Theoretical Hansson (2007) Survey Hennessy and Hicks Survey (1998) Markaki et al. (2007) Survey Pun and Chin (1999) Survey F. W. Brown et al. (2002) Survey Skinner, Saunders and Survey Beresford (2004) Castley (1996) Theoretical Smallbone et al. (2000) Survey While et al. (2007) Survey Erffmeyer et al. (1991) Survey Petridou and Spathis Survey (2001) Supino and Richardson Survey (1999) Holton et al. (2000) Action-Research Magalhaes and Borges- Survey Andrade (2001) Versloot et al. (2001) Survey Wickramasinghe (2006) Survey Hennessy, Hicks, Hilan, Survey et al. (2006) Hennessy, Hicks and Survey Koesno (2006) Blunch and Castro (2007) Survey Tao et al. (2006) Survey Devitt and Murphy (2004) Survey Al-Khayyat (1998) Case Study Lareki et al. (2010) Survey Kaskutas et al. (2010) Survey Taormina (2009) Survey Author(s) Nature of Research Hicks and Hennessy Quantitative (1997) Al-Khayyat and Elgamal Quantitative (1997) Anderson (1994) - Borges-Andrade and Lima Qualitative /Quantitative (1983) J. Brown (2002) - Fan and Cheng (2006) Qualitative / Quantitative Gould et al. (2004) - Leat and Lovell (1997) - Miller (2001) Qualitative /Quantitative Moore and Dutton (1978) - Reed and Vakola (2006) Qualitative Roberson et al. (2003) - Sheperd (1995) - Ostroff and Ford (1989) - Taylor, O'Driscoll and - Binning (1998) Wright and Geroy (1992) Qualitative Cowley et al. (2000) Qualitative Asku (2005) Qualitative / Quantitative Alliger et al. (1997) Quantitative (Meta-Analysis) Bowman amd Wilson Qualitative (2008) M. Brown and Dodd Quantitative (1998) Burke (1996) Qualitative / Quantitative Clarke (2003) Qualitative / Quantitative Felstead and Ashton Qualitative /Quantitative (2000) Gorman et al. (2003) Qualitative / Quantitative Haccoun and Saks (1998) - Hansson (2007) Quantitative Hennessy and Hicks Quantitative (1998) Markaki et al. (2007) Quantitative Pun and Chin (1999) Qualitative / Quantitative F. W. Brown et al. (2002) Qualitative Skinner, Saunders and Qualitative Beresford (2004) Castley (1996) - Smallbone et al. (2000) Qualitative While et al. (2007) Qualitative / Quantitative Erffmeyer et al. (1991) Quantitative Petridou and Spathis Quantitative (2001) Supino and Richardson Quantitative (1999) Holton et al. (2000) Qualitative Magalhaes and Borges- Quantitative Andrade (2001) Versloot et al. (2001) Qualitative Wickramasinghe (2006) Qualitative / Quantitative Hennessy, Hicks, Hilan, Quantitative et al. (2006) Hennessy, Hicks and Quantitative Koesno (2006) Blunch and Castro (2007) Quantitative Tao et al. (2006) Qualitative Devitt and Murphy (2004) Quantitative Al-Khayyat (1998) Qualitative / Quantitative Lareki et al. (2010) Qualitative / Quantitative Kaskutas et al. (2010) Qualitative / Quantitative Taormina (2009) Quantitative Author(s) Instruments Hicks and Hennessy Questionnaire (1997) Al-Khayyat and Elgamal Questionnaire (1997) Anderson (1994) - Borges-Andrade and Lima Questionnaire (1983) J. Brown (2002) - Fan and Cheng (2006) Interviews and Questionnaire Gould et al. (2004) - Leat and Lovell (1997) - Miller (2001) Questionnaire Moore and Dutton (1978) - Reed and Vakola (2006) Interviews and Questionnaires Roberson et al. (2003) - Sheperd (1995) - Ostroff and Ford (1989) - Taylor, O'Driscoll and - Binning (1998) Wright and Geroy (1992) - Cowley et al. (2000) Questionnaire Asku (2005) Questionnaires Alliger et al. (1997) - Bowman amd Wilson Interviews and (2008) Questionnaires M. Brown and Dodd Questionnaire (1998) Burke (1996) Questionnaire Clarke (2003) Questionnaires Felstead and Ashton Interviews and (2000) Questionnaires Gorman et al. (2003) Questionnaire Haccoun and Saks (1998) - Hansson (2007) Questionnaire Hennessy and Hicks Questionnaire (1998) Markaki et al. (2007) Questionnaire Pun and Chin (1999) Interviews and Questionnaire F. W. Brown et al. (2002) Interviews Skinner, Saunders and Interviews and Beresford (2004) Questionnaires Castley (1996) - Smallbone et al. (2000) Interviews While et al. (2007) Interviews and Questionnaire Erffmeyer et al. (1991) Questionnaire Petridou and Spathis Questionnaire (2001) Supino and Richardson Questionnaire (1999) Holton et al. (2000) Interview Magalhaes and Borges- Questionnaire Andrade (2001) Versloot et al. (2001) Questionnaires Wickramasinghe (2006) Interviews and Questionnaire Hennessy, Hicks, Hilan, Questionnaire et al. (2006) Hennessy, Hicks and Questionnaire Koesno (2006) Blunch and Castro (2007) Questionnaire Tao et al. (2006) Interviews and Questionnaire Devitt and Murphy (2004) Questionnaire Al-Khayyat (1998) Questionnaire Lareki et al. (2010) Questionnaire Kaskutas et al. (2010) Interviews and Questionnaire Taormina (2009) Questionnaire Table 5 Research Field, Participants, Procedures, Level of Analysis and Area Author(s) Research Field/ Participants Hicks and Hennessy Public Hospital Sector. (1997) 420 nurses. Al-Khayyat and Elgamal 9 Banks. 387 subjects. (1997) Anderson (1994) - Borges-Andrade and Lima Public Agricultural (1983) Technology Company. J. Brown (2002) - Fan and Cheng (2006) Subsidiary life insurance companies. 10 subjects. Gould et al. (2004) - Leat and Lovell (1997) - Miller (2001) Unions in Italy, Holland, England, and Belgium. 100 subjects. Moore and Dutton (1978) - Reed and Vakola (2006) Public health clinics. 632 subjects. Roberson et al. (2003) - Sheperd (1995) - Ostroff and Ford (1989) - Taylor, O'Driscoll and - Binning (1998) Wright and Geroy (1992) Public TD&E business Cowley et al. (2000) Public health organization. 23 subjects. Asku (2005) Private hotel. 114 subjects. Alliger et al. (1997) - Bowman and Wilson Transportation business. (2008) M. Brown and Dodd Agricultural cooperative. (1998) 36 subjects. Burke (1996) Private services business. 1608 subjects. Clarke (2003) Public social organization. 59 subjects. Felstead and Ashton 2,224 subjects from (2000) various parts of the UK. Gorman et al. (2003) Los Angeles City Hall. 162 subjects. Haccoun and Saks (1998) - Hansson (2007) 5,824 private companies in 26 countries. Hennessy and Hicks Public and private (1998) hospitals. 216 subjects. Markaki et al. (2007) 55 subjects from various medical areas. Pun and Chin (1999) 130 organizations from Hong Kong. F. W. Brown et al. (2002) 21 public and private schools. Skinner et al. (2004) 31 subjects. Castley (1996) - Smallbone et al. (2000) 39 small and medium businesses. 35 subjects. While et al. (2007) 420 subjects from various regions of the UK (workers and stakeholders). Erffmeyer et al. (1991) American Society of TD&E. 93 subjects. Petridou and Spathis 444 public servants. (2001) Supino and Richardson 677 subjects. (1999) Holton et al. (2000) About 2,000 public servants in two U.S. states Magalhaes and Borges- 370 subjects from a public Andrade (2001) banking institution. Versloot et al. (2001) 7 private service providing organizations. Wickramasinghe (2006) 219 organizations. Hennessy, Hicks, Hilan, 856 subjects from various et al. (2006) public health institutions. Hennessy, Hicks and 332 subjects from different Koesno (2006) public health institutions. Blunch and Castro (2007) Organizations from 5 countries (not specified) Tao et al. (2006) - Devitt and Murphy (2004) Senior and junior doctors. Al-Khayyat (1998) Members of the banking studies institute. Lareki et al. (2010) University of the Basque Country. 472 faculty members. Kaskutas et al. (2010) St. Louis Carpenters' Joint Apprenticeship Program. 1061 subjects. Taormina (2009) Organizations in Hong Kong. 156 subjects. Author(s) Collection Procedures/ Level of Data Analysis Analysis Hicks and Hennessy Questionnaire sent and Micro (1997) returned by mail. ANOVA. Al-Khayyat and Elgamal Printed questionnaire. t- Macro (1997) test, correlation, regression. Anderson (1994) - - Borges-Andrade and Lima Self-administered printed Micro (1983) questionnaire (in person and by mail). J. Brown (2002) - - Fan and Cheng (2006) Delphi technique. Content Micro analysis. Wilcoxon Signed Rank test. Gould et al. (2004) - - Leat and Lovell (1997) - - Miller (2001) Questionnaire sent by Micro Internet. Content analysis. Average, Standard deviation, minimums and maximums. Moore and Dutton (1978) - - Reed and Vakola (2006) Research inside the Meso organization. Collective interviews. Content analysis. Roberson et al. (2003) - - Sheperd (1995) - - Ostroff and Ford (1989) - - Taylor, O'Driscoll and - - Binning (1998) Wright and Geroy (1992) Telephone interview. - Cowley et al. (2000) Observation. Semi- - structured interview. Asku (2005) Self-administered printed Micro interview. One week to respond. Average, Standard deviation, frequency. Alliger et al. (1997) Bibliographic research on - the Internet. Correlation of averages. Confidence interval. Bowman and Wilson Self-administered printed - (2008) interview. Personal interviews. M. Brown and Dodd Self-administered face-to- Macro (1998) face interview. t-test, correlation of averages. Burke (1996) Secondary data. Meso Frequency. Clarke (2003) Self-administered and Meso printed interviews. Focal groups and individual interviews. Content analysis, Mann-Whitney test (Z), significance test, Average, Standard deviation. Felstead and Ashton Questionnaires sent by Macro (2000) mail. Semi-structured interviews by telephone. Content analysis, multivariate statistics. Gorman et al. (2003) Focus groups. Semi- Meso structured face-to-face interviews. Closed printed questionnaires. Correlations (within), combined SAS linear model, maximum restricted probability (REML). Haccoun and Saks (1998) - - Hansson (2007) Regression, t-test, residual - analysis. Hennessy and Hicks Questionnaires sent by Micro (1998) mail. ANOVA. Markaki et al. (2007) Questionnaires sent by Micro mail. Test of internal consistency, kappa cohen, oblique rotation (varimax), Bartlett's Test. Pun and Chin (1999) Questionnaires sent by Micro mail. Levene's test, t-test. F. W. Brown et al. (2002) Semi-structured face-to- Micro face interviews. Focus groups. Content Analysis. Skinner et al. (2004) Focus groups. Content Macro analysis. Castley (1996) - - Smallbone et al. (2000) Semi-structured face-to- Macro face interviews. Focus groups. Content analysis. While et al. (2007) Questionnaires sent by Micro mail. Focus groups. Semi- structured face-to-face interviews. Content analysis, Kendall Tau, internal consistency, correlation within groups. Erffmeyer et al. (1991) Questionnaires sent by Meso mail. Average, frequency. Petridou and Spathis Printed self-administered Meso (2001) face-to-face questionnaire. Stepwise logistic regression. Supino and Richardson Questionnaires sent by Meso (1999) mail. Fisher's exact, Kruskal-Wallis and Mann- Whitney, U test Holton et al. (2000) Questionnaires sent by Macro mail, in person and phone interviews. Content analysis, descriptive and inferential statistics (not specified) Magalhaes and Borges- Printed questionnaires sent Meso Andrade (2001) by mail. Factor analysis, varimax rotation, internal consistency, t-test, Pearson correlation (two-tailed). Versloot et al. (2001) Semi-structured face-to- - face interviews. Content analysis. Wickramasinghe (2006) Questionnaires sent by Macro mail. ANOVA, chi-square. Hennessy, Hicks, Hilan, Document analysis, face- Micro et al. (2006) to-face interviews, self- administered questionnaires. Factor analysis, varimax. Hennessy, Hicks and Printed questionnaire self- Micro Koesno (2006) administered in person. Factor analyses, varimax, ANOVA. Blunch and Castro (2007) Questionnaires sent by Macro mail. Tao et al. (2006) Content analysis - Devitt and Murphy (2004) Mann-Whitney test. - Al-Khayyat (1998) There are no details in the Micro article. Lareki et al. (2010) Questionnaires sent by the Micro intranet. Factorial analysis, Pearson's Test. Kaskutas et al. (2010) Focus groups, observation, Micro questionnaire. Content analysis, average, frequency. Taormina (2009) Printed questionnaires. Macro Correlation, regression, SEM. Author(s) Area Hicks and Hennessy Medicine (1997) Al-Khayyat and Elgamal Management (1997) Anderson (1994) Education Borges-Andrade and Lima Psychology (1983) J. Brown (2002) Management Fan and Cheng (2006) Management Gould et al. (2004) Medicine Leat and Lovell (1997) Management Miller (2001) Management Moore and Dutton (1978) Management Reed and Vakola (2006) Management Roberson et al. (2003) Psychology Sheperd (1995) Medicine Ostroff and Ford (1989) Psychology Taylor, O'Driscoll and Management Binning (1998) Wright and Geroy (1992) Management Cowley et al. (2000) Medicine Asku (2005) Management Alliger et al. (1997) Psychology Bowman and Wilson Psychology (2008) M. Brown and Dodd Management (1998) Burke (1996) Management Clarke (2003) Management Felstead and Ashton Management (2000) Gorman et al. (2003) Management Haccoun and Saks (1998) Psychology Hansson (2007) Management Hennessy and Hicks Medicine (1998) Markaki et al. (2007) Medicine Pun and Chin (1999) Management F. W. Brown et al. (2002) Education Skinner et al. (2004) Management Castley (1996) Management Smallbone et al. (2000) Management While et al. (2007) Medicine Erffmeyer et al. (1991) Marketing Petridou and Spathis Management (2001) Supino and Richardson Medicine (1999) Holton et al. (2000) Public Management Magalhaes and Borges- Psychology Andrade (2001) Versloot et al. (2001) Education Wickramasinghe (2006) Management Hennessy, Hicks, Hilan, Medicine et al. (2006) Hennessy, Hicks and Medicine Koesno (2006) Blunch and Castro (2007) Economy Tao et al. (2006) IT / Management Devitt and Murphy (2004) Medicine Al-Khayyat (1998) Management Lareki et al. (2010) Education Kaskutas et al. (2010) Management Taormina (2009) Management Table 6 Independent and Dependent Variables Used in TNA Research Author(s) Independent Variable(s) Al-Khayyat and Clarity of mission in the area of Elgamal (1997) Personnel Development. Resource allocation. Personnel Development Policies. Managers' attitudes Felstead and Organizational characteristics: total Ashton (2000) quality programs, formal evaluation systems, investment in personnel, organization of meetings, freedom of expression granted to employees. Hansson (2007) Organizational characteristics: training policies, union action, employees over the age of 45, employees with university degrees, size. Petridou and Individual characteristics: gender, Spathis (2001) age, education, attitude towards training, hierarchy level and time on the job. Blunch and Organizational characteristics: have Castro (2007) ISO 9000 or 14000 certification Taormina (2009) Employees' Manifested Needs Author(s) Dependent Variable(s) Al-Khayyat and TNA, Instructional Design, Training Elgamal (1997) Implementation, Training evaluation (independent related to [right arrow]) employee satisfaction, performance, productivity Felstead and Individual skills: problem solving, Ashton (2000) communication, teamwork. Hansson (2007) Organizational characteristics: TD&E expenses, number of trained employees. Petridou and Type of training offered to Spathis (2001) individuals. Blunch and Organizational characteristics: Castro (2007) training implementation, trained employees. Taormina (2009) Organizational Socialization, Organizational Culture
|Printer friendly Cite/link Email Feedback|
|Author:||Ferreira, Rodrigo Rezende; Abbad, Gardenia|
|Publication:||Brazilian Administration Review - BAR|
|Date:||Jan 1, 2013|
|Previous Article:||An examination of human resource management practices' influence on organizational commitment and entrenchment.|
|Next Article:||Organizing prisons through public-private partnerships: a cross country investigation.|