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Traditional medicinal plants of the Dusun Tobilung of Kampong Toburon, Kudat, Sabah, Malaysia.

Abstract

A documentation of the traditional medicinal plant knowledge and knowledge of their uses by the Dusun Tobilung was conducted in 1999 in Kampong Toburon, Kota Belud, Sabah. Based on interviews with seventeen informants within the study site, information on the traditional medicinal plants was classified according to their vernacular and Malay names, scientific and family names, parts of plants used and uses. A total of forty-nine species of plants from thirty-three families are hereby reported. All of the plants were collected within the study site. Interestingly only four out of thirty-four plants were cultivated by the villagers while the rest were found growing as garden weed or in the forest.

Introduction

Arthur (1954) pioneered research into ethnic Materia Medica in Sabah. Ensuing studies on the uses of plants in traditional Dusun medicine included that on the Dusun uses of ceremonial plants (Wati 1978), Dusun/Kadazan of Tambunan (Guntavid 1983, 1992), Dusun/Kadazan in Sabah (Ahmad 1993), Dusun in Kampong Sayap (Ahmad 1995), Kadazan/Dusun of Tambunan (Kulip 1996), Kadazan/Dusun of Kuala Penyu (Kulip 1999) and Kadazandustm Tatana ofKuala Penyu (Hj. Ibrahim et al. 2002).

The Dusun Tobilung community in Kampong Taburon was chosen as the site for the present study as it is the ethnic community of one of us (G. Pasok). Kampong Toburon (6[degrees]30'N 116[degrees]30'E) is situated approximately 48 km away from Kota Belud town (Tangah and Wong 1995). It is surrounded by the Crocker and Sir James Brooke Ranges. The main mode of transportation is by pick-up truck. The joumey takes approximately one and one-half hours.

Kampong Toburon is divided into Kampong Toburon Damang, headed by village headman Mr. Anggun Ripou, and Kampong Toburon Tembulawan, headed by Mr. Madsikoh Sombion. The study site is dominated by Dusun Tobilung, the majority of whom are paddy farmers and live in bamboo houses built on stilts.

Objective of Study

The objective of the study was to document knowledge of traditional medicinal plants and their uses by the Dusun Tobilung of Kampong Toburon, Kota Belud.

Methodology

Information was compiled by the direct interview as well as rapid appraisal method using questionnaires. Plant specimens collected were preserved in ethanol prior to drying in the laboratory. Specimens were identified using keys and cross referencing with other herbaria.

Results and Discussion

Information on the traditional medicinal plants of the Dusun Tobilung, their scientific, vernacular and Malay names, uses, parts of plants used, distribution status, informants and voucher numbers are listed in Table 1.

Nearly all the informants were in the 45 and above age group and six of them were women. Only two of them were known healers or bobolians while the rest have knowledge of traditional medicinal plants but were not bobolians. All the informants had acquired knowledge of traditional medicinal plants from a family member. In every village only one to two people were well-versed with the use(s) of the plants in traditional medicine. On the average, youths demonstrated a lack of knowledge or experience compared to the more senior members of the community on the uses of traditional medicinal plants. Nearly all members of the community approached who were below the age of 45 years preferred visiting the Government hospital in Kota Marudu and using Western medicine versus traditional medicinal plants in treating even non-life threatening ailments because Western medicine took effect quickly and was easier to use.

Conclusion

The documentation of traditional knowledge is inherently important as it provides necessary reference for effective policymaking for the preservation of the natural environment and national heritage. Its importance as cultural evidence can no longer be denied in light of diminishing knowledge.
Table 1. List of traditional medicinal plants of the Dusun Tobilung

Scientific name Tobilung name Malay name

ANNONACEAE
Polyalthia insignis Dolipanas Mempisang
APOCYNACEAE
Alstonia macrophylla Mengalang Setinggi
ARACEAE
Acorus calamus Komburongo Jerangau
COMPOSITAE
Eupatoria odoratum Sojar/Konsuma Rumput Jepun
COMPOSITAE
Blumea balsamifera Tawawo Daun sambung
CONVULVACEAE
Indet Tawar tangau --
CRASSULACEAE
Kalanchoe pinnata Kapal Sedingin
CYPERACEAE
Kylinga brevifolia Kingkimut Rumput teki
DILLENIACEAE
Dillenia suffruticosa Doringin Simpoh air
DILLENIACEAE
Tetracera scandena Pampan Mempelas
EUPHORBIACEAE
Croton argyratus Litak Merlokan
EUPHORBIACEAE
Jatropha curcas Susumalong Jarak Belanda
EUPHORBIACEAE
Phyllanthus amarus Koronipon Dukung anak
EUPHORBIACEAE
Ricinus communis Rangasan Jarak besar
GRAMINAE
Paspalum sp. Kulubung tambang --
GRAMINAE
Cymbopogon nardus Sogumau tandaa Serai wangi
GRAMINAE
Dinochloa scandenis Wadan Root
HYPERICACEAE
Cratoxylum sumatranum Morugion --
LABIATAE
Ocinum sanctum Bawing kuda Selasih
LAURACEAE
Litsea odorifera Tandas Padang mawas
LAURACEAE
Cinnamomum iners Magkapur Teja
LEGUMINOSAE
Derris elliptica Limpodos/tubo/gam Tuba
 ut
LEGUMINOSAE
Cassia occidentalis Kurubawa manuk --
LEGUMINOSAE
Cassia alata Kurubawai Gelenggang
LEGUMINOSAE
Dalbergia sp. Kowilan --
LILIACEAE
Indet. Tawar tokoro --
MALVACEAE
Urema lobata Tondolupang Pulut-pulut
MALVACEAE
Sida rhombifolia Kotopon wogok Seleguri padang
MARANTHACEAE
Donax cannaeformis Lias Bemban gajah
MELASTOMACEAE
Melastoma malabathricum Golosing/galata Senduduk
MENISPERMACEAE
Fibraurea chloroleuca Tonsisitou Akar mengkunyit
MYRTACEAE
Psidium guajava Bayabas Jambu batu
OLEACEAE
Chinanthus phriflorus Lampada tikus --
PASSIFLORACEAE
Passiflora foetida Tampasak Letup-letup
PALMAE
Areca catechu Tingaton Pinang
PIPERACEAE
Piper samentosum Dangkar Kadok
RUBIACEAE
Neonaucleae gigantean Sintap --
RUBIACEAE
Psychotria goysulosa Siroromuk --
RUBIACEAE
Uncaria acidi Langkawit --
RUBIACEAE
Mussaenda frondosa Baliadok --
RUTACEAE
Murraya koenigii Tontuk pelanuk Daun kari
RUTACEAE
Citrus microcarpa Limau nipis Limau nipis
SIMAROUBACEAE
Brucea javanica Riringit Lada pahit
STERCULIACEAE
Pterospermum sp. Sungkolingan Bayur
THYMELAEACEAE
Wikotroemia
adrosaemifolia Sinantali --
UMBILLIFERAE
Centella asiatica Tolingo ralan Pegaga
VERBENACEAE
Callicarpa longifolia Gonggoloput --
VITACEAE/LEEACEAE
Leea indica Tatip-tatip Mali-mali
ZINGIBERACEAE
Alpinia conchingera Mayo-layo Lengkuas ranting

Scientific name Part used Application

ANNONACEAE
Polyalthia insignis Fruit, stem "Susuk" (#)
APOCYNACEAE
Alstonia macrophylla Sap To treat epileptic
 seizures
ARACEAE
Acorus calamus Stem To ward off evil and
 evil behavior
COMPOSITAE
Eupatoria odoratum Leaves To treat cuts
COMPOSITAE
Blumea balsamifera Whole plant To treat gastrospasms
CONVULVACEAE
Indet Leaves As anti-inflammation
CRASSULACEAE
Kalanchoe pinnata Whole plant As antipyretic
CYPERACEAE
Kylinga brevifolia Fruit To treat boils
DILLENIACEAE
Dillenia suffruticosa Leaves To treat headaches
DILLENIACEAE
Tetracera scandena Sap Invigorating
EUPHORBIACEAE
Croton argyratus Bark To ward off evil and
 evil behavior
EUPHORBIACEAE
Jatropha curcas Bark, leaves To treat sprains
EUPHORBIACEAE
Phyllanthus amarus Roots To treat ailments
 involving the liver
EUPHORBIACEAE
Ricinus communis To treat temporary
 deafness
GRAMINAE
Paspalum sp. Leaves As antidote for bodily
 pains
GRAMINAE
Cymbopogon nardus Ruas As postpartum aid
GRAMINAE
Dinochloa scandenis Sap To treat visible ulcers
 or tumors
HYPERICACEAE
Cratoxylum sumatranum Bark To ward off evil and
 evil behavior
LABIATAE
Ocinum sanctum Leaves To soothe rashes and
 eczema
LAURACEAE

Litsea odorifera Bark, roots As anti-hypertensive
LAURACEAE
Cinnamomum iners Bark, roots To treat tuberculosis
LEGUMINOSAE
Derris elliptica Stem Stops crying
LEGUMINOSAE
Cassia occidentalis Roots To treat hoarseness
LEGUMINOSAE
Cassia alata Leaves To treat rashes and
 eczema
LEGUMINOSAE
Dalbergia sp. Leaves To treat colds
LILIACEAE
Indet. Isi bawang To treat hernia
MALVACEAE
Urema lobata Stem As anti-inflammation
MALVACEAE
Sida rhombifolia Roots As antidote for poison
MARANTHACEAE
Donax cannaeformis Sap from shoots To treat conjunctivitis
MELASTOMACEAE
Melastoma malabathricum Roots, leaves To treat cuts
MENISPERMACEAE
Fibraurea chloroleuca Sap from stem Invigorating
MYRTACEAE
Psidium guajava Leaves To treat gastrospasms
OLEACEAE
Chinanthus phriflorus Roots To eliminate toothaches
PASSIFLORACEAE
Passiflora foetida Whole plant To treat asthma
PALMAE
Areca catechu Fruit To treat cuts
PIPERACEAE
Piper samentosum Leaves As antipyretic
RUBIACEAE
Neonaucleae gigantean Leaves To eliminate headaches
RUBIACEAE
Psychotria goysulosa Sap from stem To eliminate headaches
RUBIACEAE
Uncaria acidi Leaves To eliminate toothaches
RUBIACEAE
Mussaenda frondosa Leaves To eliminate headaches
RUTACEAE
Murraya koenigii Roots To treat gingivitis
RUTACEAE
Citrus microcarpa Whole plant As antidote for poison
SIMAROUBACEAE
Brucea javanica Leaves To treat gastrospasms
STERCULIACEAE
Pterospermum sp. Bark To ward off evil and
 evil behavior
THYMELAEACEAE
Wikotroemia
adrosaemifolia Bark To eliminate headaches
UMBILLIFERAE
Centella asiatica Leaves To treat tinnitus
VERBENACEAE
Callicarpa longifolia Leaves To eliminate headaches
VITACEAE/LEEACEAE
Leea indica Leaves To eliminate headaches
ZINGIBERACEAE
Alpinia conchingera Rhizome As anti-inflammation

Scientific name Informant

ANNONACEAE
Polyalthia insignis 15
APOCYNACEAE
Alstonia macrophylla 5
ARACEAE
Acorus calamus 4
COMPOSITAE
Eupatoria odoratum 5
COMPOSITAE
Blumea balsamifera 7
CONVULVACEAE
Indet 11
CRASSULACEAE
Kalanchoe pinnata 15
CYPERACEAE
Kylinga brevifolia 1
DILLENIACEAE
Dillenia suffruticosa 14
DILLENIACEAE
Tetracera scandena 14
EUPHORBIACEAE
Croton argyratus 13
EUPHORBIACEAE
Jatropha curcas 8
EUPHORBIACEAE
Phyllanthus amarus 8
EUPHORBIACEAE
Ricinus communis 14
GRAMINAE
Paspalum sp. 14
GRAMINAE
Cymbopogon nardus 10
GRAMINAE
Dinochloa scandenis 6
HYPERICACEAE
Cratoxylum sumatranum 10
LABIATAE
Ocinum sanctum 16
LAURACEAE
Litsea odorifera 10
LAURACEAE
Cinnamomum iners 10
LEGUMINOSAE
Derris elliptica 13
LEGUMINOSAE
Cassia occidentalis 10
LEGUMINOSAE
Cassia alata 17
LEGUMINOSAE
Dalbergia sp. 4
LILIACEAE
Indet. 15
MALVACEAE
Urema lobata 11
MALVACEAE
Sida rhombifolia 13
MARANTHACEAE
Donax cannaeformis 10
MELASTOMACEAE
Melastoma malabathricum 2
MENISPERMACEAE
Fibraurea chloroleuca 15
MYRTACEAE
Psidium guajava 2
OLEACEAE
Chinanthus phriflorus 14
PASSIFLORACEAE
Passiflora foetida 13
PALMAE
Areca catechu 4
PIPERACEAE
Piper samentosum 4
RUBIACEAE
Neonaucleae gigantean 10
RUBIACEAE
Psychotria goysulosa 10
RUBIACEAE
Uncaria acidi 10
RUBIACEAE
Mussaenda frondosa 10
RUTACEAE
Murraya koenigii 10
RUTACEAE
Citrus microcarpa 3
SIMAROUBACEAE
Brucea javanica 10
STERCULIACEAE
Pterospermum sp. 13
THYMELAEACEAE
Wikotroemia adrosaemifolia 14
UMBILLIFERAE
Centella asiatica 14
VERBENACEAE
Callicarpa longifolia 9
VITACEAE/LEEACEAE
Leea indica 10
ZINGIBERACEAE
Alpinia conchingera 10


Acknowledgments

We express heartfelt thanks to the people of Kampong Toburon for their cooperation and generosity. We also thank the District Office in Kota Belud, staff of the Herbarium Muzium Negeri Sabah and Herbarium of the Forest Research Centre in Sepilok, Sandakan, Sabah. Funding from the University in the form of a short-term grant (UMS 44/98) to M. M. Yusoff, is also gratefully acknowledged.

References

Arthur, H. R.

1954 A Phytochemical Survey of Some Plants of North Borneo. d. Pharm. Pharmacol. 6:66-72n, kultus dan hokum adat di Sabah. Kota Kinabalu: Sabah Foundation. 159 pp.

Ahmad, F.

1993 Medicinal Plants used by the Dusun/Kadazan Community in Sabah. Sabah Museum Journal, 1(1):15-17.

1995 Medicinal Plants used by the Dusun Community in Kg. Sayap, Ranau. IN: G. Ismail and L. B. Din, eds., A Scientific Journey Through Borneo. Sayap-Kinabalu Park, Sabah. Kuala Lumpur: Pelanduk Publications, pp. 145-155.

Guntavid, J. P.

1983 Tinjauan awal tumbuh-tumbuhan ubatan tradisional negeri Sabah. BSc Honors Thesis. Kota Kinabalu: Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia (Sabah).

1992 Traditional Medicinal Plants: Their uses by the Tangala Murut and the Dusun/Kadazan of Tambunan. A Paper presented at the Borneo Research Council Second Biennial Conference, 13-17 July, Kota Kinabalu, Sabah, Malaysia.

Hj. Ibrahim, S., N. Linsin, J. Kulip and M. M. Yusoff

2002 An Annonated Checklist of the Medicinal Plants of the Kadazandusun Tatana of Kuala Penyu. Paper presented to the Borneo Research Council Seventh Biennial Seminar, Universiti Malaysia Sabah, Kota Kinabalu.

Kulip, J.

1996 A Survey of Indigenous Plants Used for Food and Medicine by the Kadazandusun Ethnic in Tambunan, Sabah, East Malaysia. A Paper presented at the Borneo Research Council Fourth Biennial, 10-15 June, Bandar Seri Bengawan, Brunei Darussalam.

1999 Medicinal Plants of KadazanDusun of Kuala Penyu, Sabah. Paper presented at the Fourth Sabah Inter-Agency Tropical Ecosystem (SITE), Shangri-La Tanjong Am, Kota Kinabalu.

Tangah, J. and K. M. Wong

1995 A Sabah Gazetter. Sabah. Sandakan: Sabah Forestry Department.

Wati, A.

1978 Dusun--satu tinjauan dalam konteks kepercayaan, kultus dan hokum adat di Sabah. Kota Kinabalu: Sabah Foundation.

M. M. Yusoff, * B. Ahmad & G. Pasok

Institute for Tropical Biology & Conservation, Universiti Malaysia Sabah,

Locked Bag 2073, 88999 Kota Kinabalu, Sabah Malaysia

* Corresponding author. E-mail: mashitah@ums.edu.my; telephone: 088-320135; fax: 088-320291.
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Title Annotation:Research Notes
Author:Pasok, G.
Publication:Borneo Research Bulletin
Geographic Code:9MALA
Date:Jan 1, 2003
Words:1838
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