Tourist segmentation in Taiwan's wineries: a cultural perspective.
Wine tourism has been the focus in numerous studies. For example, Mitchell and Hall (2006) found in their review of the literature that the focus in the majority of the studies was on Australia, New Zealand, and North America, where wine tourism has significantly expanded. The results in these studies showed commonalities in wine tourists' motivation for visiting, visit satisfaction, and visiting patterns, and similarities in tasting, purchasing, and consuming.
In Taiwan, researchers have focused on the lifestyles and service satisfaction of wine tourists (Chen, 2009) as well as their motivation, knowledge, and demographics (Li, 2004). Other researchers have examined the positive relationship between leisure experience and wine tourists' behavior (Wang, 2009), and also the segmentation of tourists according to their vacation lifestyles (Chen & Shen, 2005). As Galloway, Mitchell, Getz, Crouch, and Ong (2008) observed, in analysis of wine tourists, socioeconomic variables and personality characteristics are commonly used for market segmentation.
In this study, we used two major cultural variables--values and lifestyle--to segment wine tourists and reveal important insights into their personality, expectations, and motivation. Individuals' values are characterized by the personal beliefs and codes of conduct that guide their behavior. According to de Mooij (1998), values form the core of a culture and influence the perception of symbols and rituals. The term lifestyle is a relatively new concept that encompasses individuals' behavior and reflects their personality characteristics. Plummer (1974) stated that lifestyle patterns combine demographics with psychological characteristics. Furthermore, lifestyle is an essential bridge between individuals and culture, which enables individuals to share stories about diversity and continuity of experience (Chaney, 2004).
Taiwanese and Western wine tourists behave differently because of their different cultural background, distinctive values, and individual beliefs. Understanding these differences can help determine the impact of Taiwanese culture on wine tourists' visiting patterns.
Culture and Values
Culture plays a significant role in shaping human behavior. Gordon (2000) has described how people are conditioned by their gender, class, age, and the culture to which they belong, as well as by society and the opinions of people who surround and influence them. Chaney (2001) stated that cultural characteristics are how people identify both themselves and members of other social groups. Hofstede (2001) noted that values are invisible until they become evident in a person's behavior, whereas culture manifests itself in visible elements such as symbols, heroes, and rituals. In addition, numerous attitudes and behaviors are based on values and, collectively, they characterize cultures or nations (Watson, Lysonski, Gillan, & Raymore, 2002).
The concept of values includes many senses, behaviors, and attitudes that can be expressed in different ways, and that influence individual and group behaviors, as well as guiding actions and decisions. For example, the List of Values (LOV; Kahle, Beatty, & Homer, 1986) that was developed to measure the individual values of a consumer, includes nine basic constructs: (a) sense of belonging, (b) fun and enjoyment in life, (c) warm relationships with others, (d) self-fulfillment, (e) being well-respected, (f) excitement, (g) security, (h) self-respect, and (i) sense of accomplishment.
Culture and Lifestyle
Antonides and Van Raaij (1998) and de Mooij (2004) discussed the role of lifestyle in culture, and defined lifestyle as a set of values, interests, opinions, and behavior of consumers. Lifestyle also includes values, attitudes, and behavioral elements that are often a reflection of the culture to which people belong (de Mooij, 2004), and it is considered a way of categorizing and expressing the way people live their lives (Chaney, 2001). Consumers are aware of cultural influences and make conscious lifestyle choices based on these influences. Lifestyle choices are reflexive, constituting the ways in which people develop, and are formed by an association of patterns which can also be categorized and adopted by others (Chaney, 2001).
Lifestyle is based on cognitive levels such as motives, attitudes, interests, opinions, and activities. It also helps to reveal many aspects of an individual's life and influences how they deal with a wide range of problems (Wells, 1975; Wells & Tigert, 1971; Zins, 1998). Wind (1972) noted that a lifestyle can be measured by the individual's role as a consumer and by his or her activities, interests, and opinions (AIO). As Plummer (1974) stated, lifestyle segmentation, in its focus on people instead of products, groups them into different lifestyle types according to their range of AIO. Furthermore, Zins applied psychographic concepts to establish eight lifestyle constructs: (1) hedonism, (2) work orientation, (3) leisure orientation, (4) creativity, (5) health and environmental orientation, (6) cocoon, (7) social orientation, and (8) egocentrism.
Bruwer, Li, and Reid (2002) observed that lifestyle is linked to values. In their study of the Australian domestic wine market, consumers were clustered into five groups: purposeful inconspicuous premium drinkers, ritual-oriented conspicuous wine enthusiasts, enjoyment-oriented social drinkers, fashion- or image-oriented drinkers, and basic wine drinkers. Bruwer et al. used the approach of Grunert, Brunso, and Bisp (1997), who noted that it is through lifestyle that consumers link a product to their life values. In this study we used lifestyle (or psychographic) segmentation to predict consumers' behavior and understand their consumption habits.
Market segmentation is a tool for researchers to classify groups of people into different categories. Psychographic segmentation is an effective way to segment markets (Urbonavicius & Kasnauskiene, 2005). According to Chen, Huang, and Cheng (2009), segmentation and typology construction has been used by tourism researchers to predict traveler behavior. Smith (1956) stated that market segmentation involves viewing a heterogeneous market as a number of smaller heterogeneous markets that differ from one another because of consumers' product preferences. As Plummer (1974) stated, no population is homogeneous; thus, it is important to identify and distinguish differences among individuals. As a result, researchers have agreed that segmentation using psychographic variables such as motivation, lifestyle, activities, interests, opinions, values, and personality, can be useful for identifying differences among wine tourists (Galloway et al., 2008).
Numerous researchers (Bruwer et al., 2002; Spawton, 1991; Yuan, Cai, Morrison, & Linton, 2005) have focused on the wine industry in the Western world. However, because consumption in the growing Asian market is increasing and new tendencies in wine-drinking behavior are emerging, further studies on the organization and development of this wine industry need to be conducted. Therefore, our objectives in the present study were as follows: (a) to segment Taiwanese wine tourists using culture-related variables such as values and lifestyle, and also sociodemographic and psychographic variables to provide a detailed image of the tourists' behavior, preferences, and habits; (b) to further illustrate and examine potential cultural differences among all segmented groups in this study; (c) to help winery owners to better understand the behavior of wine tourists and offer them appropriate service strategies related to the wine tourists' attitudes, customs, values, and lifestyles; and (d) to provide winery owners with better marketing strategies focused on wine tourists' needs.
We used descriptive analysis to determine the characteristics of the respondents (women = 54.7%, men = 45.3%). The largest group was aged between 18 and 25 years (36.7%), with 23.8% aged between 36 and 45 years; with regard to marital status 52.9% were single, and 42.2% were married with children. Regarding education, education, 71.5% of the respondents held a bachelor's degree, 15.7% had a master's degree, and 12.8% had a high school diploma. The respondents comprised students (32.5%), those employed in private industries (28.0%), those employed by the military, government, or educational institutions (18.9%), housewives (6.8%), and others (12.8%). Because of the high number of students visiting wineries during the holiday period, 40.4% of the respondents earned NT$20,000 (US$660) or less per month, and 25.2% earned between NT$35,001(US$1,155) and NT$60,000 (US$1,980). The largest group of the respondents came from Western Taiwan (46.0%), followed by those from the south (26.2%) and the north (25.0%).
Research Design and Procedure
In 2010, the Council of Agriculture in Taiwan certified 12 wineries and within this group 20 awards were presented (Agriculture Food Agency, 2010). The 12 certified wineries were designated as high-quality leisure wineries in Taiwan from 2009-2012 (Council of Agriculture, 2012). Of these wineries, we chose Shu-Sheng and Shin-Yi as the subjects of this study because of their wide range of products.
The wine tourist survey we compiled for use in this study consists of five sections: a) wine-drinking values, assessed using the nine LOV values (Kahle, 1983); b) questions related to participants' lifestyles, assessed using a lifestyle measurement scale (Zins, 1998), which includes eight dimensions with 23 items; c) questions related to the frequency of participants' winery visits; d) participants' consumption behavior; and e) demographic questions. For the first two sections, participants were asked to rate each item on a 5-point Likert scale ranging from 1 (strongly disagree) to 5 (strongly agree). Overall, 509 survey forms were distributed during the Chinese New Year holiday period at the Shu-Sheng and Shin-Yi wineries and 428 valid responses were collected.
Reliability and Validity Analysis
Validity and reliability tests were performed to ensure the stability of each dimension of the survey. Cronbach's alpha for all the items was .793, which is well above the acceptable limit of .600 (Wu, 2009). In addition, the Cronbach's alphas for values and lifestyle were .915 and .883, respectively.
Segmentation and Classification
Factor analysis was employed to reveal the structure and correlation of the constructs. The 23 lifestyle items were factor analyzed using principal components analysis with orthogonal varimax rotation. The Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin (KMO) measure of sampling adequacy was calculated and Bartlett's test of sphericity was conducted to verify that the survey data were suitable for factor analysis. The KMO value was .88, above the limit of .50 for a satisfactory analysis, and Bartlett's test result was significant at p < .001. Thus, the relationship between the variables and factor analysis was appropriate (Hinton, Brownlow, McMurray, & Cozens, 2004). The 23 lifestyle items were then grouped into five factors (explaining 56.8% of the variance) and all items with communalities below .40 were removed to maintain higher loadings on the factors. The five factors, with eigenvalues ranging from 1.155 to 6.909 were labeled as follows: Factor 1, Self; Factor 2, Leisure; Factor 3, Health; Factor 4, Justice; and Factor 5, Responsibility. The results of the factor analysis and each dimension that belongs to the corresponding LOV items are shown in Table 2.
The representative variables from Table 1 were further classified into clusters with a two-stage cluster analysis using Ward's minimum variance method to merge the attributes into the appropriate number of clusters, after which the K-means method was employed to test their validity. The profile of the three groups of wine tourists, that is, conservative, hedonistic, and reward-seeking, are shown in Table 2.
The conservative group was dominated by young, single female students in the process of completing, or already holding, a bachelor's degree. Of those who worked, the majority earned NT$20,000 or less per month while the others earned between NT$35,001 and NT$60,000. They drank wine mainly because it was an important way to establish relationships, and they enjoyed the taste of wine and drinking wine with their everyday meals. Moreover, they enjoyed drinking fruit alcohol with friends, mostly in the evening. They consisted of both first-time visitors and those who stopped at the winery on the way to nearby attractions.
The hedonistic group was dominated by single men aged between 18 and 25 years, who were still students and did not earn more than NTD$20,000 per month. They enjoyed the taste of wine and drank mainly on special occasions and during the evenings with friends. The majority consisted of first-time visitors on an incidental stop.
The reward-seeking group was dominated by married women aged between 36 and 45 years, with children. They were employed in private industries and earned between NT$20,000 and NT$60,000 per month. They enjoyed drinking fruit alcohol on special occasions because they enjoyed the taste, and they drank wine once or twice a week with their meals. Furthermore, they enjoyed drinking with friends at the end of the day. The majority were first-time visitors on an incidental stop at the vineyard.
Cultural Comparisons Between Characteristics of Tourists in Taiwan and Western Countries
Tourist characteristics. In this study, female tourists outnumbered male tourists. This is consistent with participants in previous Taiwanese (Liao, 2005; Yeh, 2008) and Western studies (Fraser, Alonso, & Cohen, 2008; Getz & Brown, 2006; Tassiopoulos, Nuntsu, & Haydam, 2004). In previous studies conducted in Taiwan it has been reported that the majority of Taiwanese winery visitors consist of young, single, educated women with low or moderate incomes (Liao, 2005; Tsao, 2005; Yeh, 2008).
Alonso (2009) found in his study of New Zealand's wineries, that the average age of wine tourists was between 46 and 59 years. Several researchers (e.g., Bruwer & Li, 2007; Getz & Brown, 2006; Mitchell & Hall, 2006; Shor & Mansfeld, 2009) found that a typical winery visitor was a middle-aged, well-educated professional person with moderate to high income, showing that older wine consumers are more prevalent in the Western world.
Wine tourist behavior. In this study, Taiwanese tourists visited the wineries on their way to nearby attractions and rated the winery's cultural characteristics as an important factor in their decision to visit. This result is similar to those obtained in other Taiwanese wine tourist studies, such as those by Wu and Cheng (2003), Hsiao (2005), and Yeh (2008). However, for our respondents leisure services and activities were of lesser importance. This can be explained by the fact that this study was conducted during the Chinese New Year holiday period when Taiwanese people tend to travel with family members or friends.
Alonso (2009) found that tourists in New Zealand visited wineries for wine, food, staff friendliness, knowledge, and pleasant winery surroundings, and Alant and Bruwer (2004) showed that first-time wine tourists visited to taste and enjoy different wines and to discover new flavors. Marzo-Navarro and Pedraja-Iglesias (2009) found that tourists in Spain mainly visited a wine region to participate in wine-related activities and to enjoy the culture and gastronomy. On the other hand, Bruwer (2003) found that tourists in South Africa visited wineries to taste and purchase wine as well as enjoy the so-called "winescape".
In this study, Taiwanese tourists drank wine for several reasons: the special taste of wine, as part of social gatherings, and pairing wine with a meal. According to Chuang and Chuang (2008), social--as opposed to purely business --gatherings encourage drinking wine, which can explain why drinking during social events is so important in Asian societies. Batra (2008) found that wine tourists in Thailand mainly drank wine to experience the harmonic atmosphere of drinking wine when paired with food and the social status symbolized by wine, and for health reasons.
According to the findings in previous research, Western tourists seem eager to increase their knowledge about wine and enjoy a wine-tasting experience, but Taiwanese tourists visit wineries only for casual recreation. The wine-tourism experience includes more than visiting wineries, as it encompasses numerous wine-related activities (Batra, 2008; Charters & Ali-Knight, 2002). The lack of interest by Taiwanese wine tourists in these activities presents an opportunity for winery owners to alter their marketing strategies to entice more visitors to taste and buy their wine products.
Cultural attributes of wine tourists. The majority of the first-time vineyard visitors in this study named as their most important wine values: warm relationships with others, and fun and enjoyment in life, followed by self-fulfillment. They all consumed wine on special occasions and spent relatively little money on wine. Shor and Mansfeld (2009) reported a similar result with Israeli wine tourists. Self-fulfillment, fun and enjoyment in life, and warm relationships with others were their most important values, and half of the respondents visited a winery as a well-planned travel experience.
The hedonistic group of male wine-tourist participants in this study showed up more strongly in terms of values than those in the two other groups (conservative and reward seeking), which were dominated by women. Fraser et al. (2009) found that, of the wine tourists in New Zealand, men were generally more interested in wine compared with women, who visited wineries mainly because they enjoyed the atmosphere and the food. Cobe (2007) reported that women prefer exploring, sharing, and pairing wines, but men are more concerned with the prestige and rating of particular wines. In addition, Batra (2008) suggested that as men drank wine much more than women, this explains why women rate wine value lower than men. Atkin, Nowak, and Garcia (2007), in their study on wine consumers, found gender differences in information search procedures, leading to retail implications. They found that men preferred small wineries and were more likely to read books about wine, whereas women preferred national and international wineries and were more likely to gain information by asking staff members or reading menus and labels. Results showed that women were likely to purchase the same wine when they returned to the wineries.
Limitations and Directions for Future Research
A limitation in this study is that we focused on only two wineries during the Chinese New Year holiday in Taiwan, so that the majority of our participants were students. Further studies could be undertaken during other periods, such as the summer vacation. Furthermore, the responses of the majority of the respondents who did not regularly drink wine or fruit alcohol were still counted as valid because their opinions were also important. In this regard, future researchers should compare the cultural perspectives of wine tourists who drink wine regularly with the cultural perspectives of those who do not drink wine regularly.
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National Kaohsiung University of Hospitality and Tourism
Les Grands Chais de France, Bordeaux, France
Huei-Ju Chen, Leisure and Recreation Management Department, National Kaohsiung University of Hospitality and Tourism; Mathilde Sasias, Les Grands Chais de France, Bordeaux, France.
Correspondence concerning this article should be addressed to: Huei-Ju Chen, Leisure and Recreation Management Department, National Kaohsiung University of Hospitality and Tourism, No. 1 Songhe Rd., Xiaogang District, Kaohsiung 81271, Taiwan, ROC. Email: email@example.com
Table 1. Analysis of the Wine Tourists' Lifestyle Lifestyle variables Factor loading 1 2 3 Self orientation 02. I have a colorful life .796 03. I frequently leave my home .773 01. I enjoy life thoroughly .763 04. I am passionate about travel .649 07. I have a high standard of living .637 22. Above all, I arrange my life for my own desires and needs .523 08. I lead a simple and modest life .479 Leisure orientation 11. I read quite a lot for entertainment and .759 relaxation 09. I do some artistic work, such as music, painting, drawing, modeling, and amateur .710 theater 12. I read quite a lot for further training and expanding my knowledge .666 10. I meditate or do yoga, autogenic training, or practice other methods of .650 relaxation/extension of consciousness 13. I often follow my cultural interests .615 Health orientation 18. I lead a life of regular, settled ways .735 14. I have a healthy lifestyle .710 16. I participate in sports/gymnastics/ .603 fitness regularly 15. I am particularly environmentally .538 conscious 17. I lead a contemplative life .520 Justice orientation 05. I work extraordinarily hard 06. I am deeply engrossed in my work 20. I actively stand up for needy or people who face discrimination Responsibility orientation 21. I am engaged in politics 23. I live entirely for my family 19. I travel a lot for business Eigenvalue 6.909 1.932 1.718 Variance (%) 30.03 38.43 45.90 Cumulative variance (%) 30.03 8.39 7.47 Number of items 7 5 5 Cronbach's [alpha] .846 .764 .767 Lifestyle variables 4 5 Self orientation 02. I have a colorful life 03. I frequently leave my home 01. I enjoy life thoroughly 04. I am passionate about travel 07. I have a high standard of living 22. Above all, I arrange my life for my own desires and needs 08. I lead a simple and modest life Leisure orientation 11. I read quite a lot for entertainment and relaxation 09. I do some artistic work, such as music, painting, drawing, modeling, and amateur theater 12. I read quite a lot for further training and expanding my knowledge 10. I meditate or do yoga, autogenic training, or practice other methods of relaxation/extension of consciousness 13. I often follow my cultural interests Health orientation 18. I lead a life of regular, settled ways 14. I have a healthy lifestyle 16. I participate in sports/gymnastics/ fitness regularly 15. I am particularly environmentally conscious 17. I lead a contemplative life Justice orientation 05. I work extraordinarily hard .805 06. I am deeply engrossed in my work .759 20. I actively stand up for needy or people .406 who face discrimination Responsibility orientation 21. I am engaged in politics .736 23. I live entirely for my family .613 19. I travel a lot for business .418 Eigenvalue 1.355 1.155 Variance (%) 51.80 56.82 Cumulative variance (%) 5.89 5.02 Number of items 3 3 Cronbach's [alpha] .693 .469 Note. N = 428. Table 2. Profile of Wine Tourists' Characteristics Conservative tourists Number of respondents 226 (52.8%) Gender Female (59.7%) Age 18-25 years old (36.7%) Marital status Single (52.7%) Education Bachelor's degree (73.5%) Occupation Students (32.7%) Income $20,000 (or less) (39.8%) $35,001-60,000 (22.1%) Living location West (46.0%) Reason for drinking wine For social reasons (48.7%) Enjoy a new taste (47.8%) Accompany a meal (37.2%) Person with habit of drinking Senior (46.5%) wine with the family Other (31.4%) Drinking frequency Special occasions (38.9%) Occasionally (24.3%) Time of day of wine consumption In the evening (66.4%) Any time (34.5%) Drinking partner Friends (76.1%) Type of wine Fruit alcohol (79.6%) Amount spent per month on wine $100 (and/or below) (29.6%) Visit to wineries First time (57%) Time of visit Weekend (40%) Main reasons for visiting wineries --Travel attractions near the winery (46%) --Winery cultural characteristics (38%) --Incidental stop (45%) Values--Warm relationship with others (3.54%) --Fun and enjoyment in life (3.49%) --Self-fulfillment (3.14%) Hedonistic tourists Number of respondents 68 (15.9%) Gender Male (60.3) Age 18-25 years old (52.9%) Marital status Single (70.6%) Education Occupation Students (47.1%) Income $20,000 (or less) (54.4%) Living location West (51.5) Reason for drinking wine Enjoy a new taste (44.1) For social reasons (42.6%) Accompany a meal (32.4%) Person with habit of drinking Senior (47.1%) wine with the family Other (41.2%) Drinking frequency Special occasions (33.8%) Once a week (or more) (22.1%) Time of day of wine consumption In the evening (69.1%) Any time (30.9%) Drinking partner Friends (76.5%) Type of wine Fruit alcohol (70.6%) Amount spent per month on wine $101-500 (27.9%) Visit to wineries First time (55%) Time of visit Weekend (45%) Main reasons for visiting wineries --Travel attractions near the winery (60%) --Winery cultural characteristics (38%) --Incidental stop (44%) Values--Warm relationship with others (3.71%) --Fun and enjoyment in life (3.59%) --Self-fulfillment (3.26%) Reward-seeking tourists Number of respondents 134 (31.3%) Gender Female (53.7) Age 36-45 years old (31.3%) Marital status Married with children (50%) Education Bachelor's degree (68.7%) Occupation Private industry (38.8%) Income $20,000 (or less) (34.3%) $35,000-60,000 (32.8%) Living location West (43.3%) Reason for drinking wine Enjoy a new taste (41.0%) Accompany a meal (35.1%) For social reasons (29.9%) Person with habit of drinking Senior (40.3%) Other (32.8%) wine with the family Drinking frequency Special occasions (41.0%) Occasionally (23.1%) Once a week (or more) (23.1%) Time of day of wine consumption In the evening (72.4%) Any time (27.6%) Drinking partner Friends (74.6%) Type of wine Fmit alcohol (74.6%) Amount spent per month on wine Do not need to spend money (25.4%) Visit to wineries First time (59%) Time of visit Weekend (59%) Main reasons for visiting wineries --Travel attractions near the winery (59%) --Winery cultural characteristics (40%) --Incidental stop (47%) Values--Warm relationship with others (3.80%) --Fun and enjoyment in life (3.65%) --Self-fulfillment (3.18%)
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|Author:||Chen, Huei-Ju; Sasias, Mathilde|
|Publication:||Social Behavior and Personality: An International Journal|
|Date:||Mar 1, 2014|
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