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Tourism and its effects on community.

Introduction

Tourists are going to travel within different aims and also their view is different on destination community from each other. Coincident with positive phenomenon, tourism industry development could be accompanied by negative and ruin effects. For example, cultural tourisms are travelling within familiar objections to land and destination people and cultural indices to that destination, and they respect on community by cultural elements. While tourisms especially coastal tourists considering little such a challenges and usually they have given ruin effects on host culture. Of course, accepting influence of community from entering tourisms depend on many factors. Those people that I entering to a community considering as an important affaire in this field. The more the tourists entering to destination, they can influence more and more by staying there. One of the fields that are to be effectual entering of tourist focused on social environment. It includes the style and form of human group assembly that is setting as a determined organization within natural environment. Also it is consist of value and criteria that is determine relationships and contributions among human groups according to it [2]

Problem description:

Since each of the regions includes belief, value, and its determined culture that is going on seed to seed and actually it forms their identity, the entrance of tourists could be ruining theses identities.

Some of the researchers have been paid on relationship between tourism and increase of penalty and crime. The result of many searches include the increase of penalty and crime rate on some of the regions at the tourisms season [3]

"Net known indicated that tourisms within a community have designed to evaluation and knowing again on deferent human groups. Therefore, upper class of people could be cooperated inside of tourists' life; but in way of social and publican affaires, some of the communities especially agricultural community preferred to live on their closed environment. And the called communities there are trivial differences of all disturbances and non-compatibility or cold and drying disturbances ..." [4] the factors between tourisms of culture and the host community create an important influence that is shown on local residencies imitate of tourisms behavior. This behavioral imitation result in phenomenon like change in language applying, dressing and culture and or helping to increase crime, gambling, prostitution and changing form of material and non-materials of local culture [5]

Tourism-social influences:

Probably tourism impacts are changing during time and within growth of destination regions. Shared key factors include the following issues: featured kind of tourism activities, features of a host community on destination area and exchanged nature between visitors and residents. Similar specter of impacts presented and also considered time and place important within tourism impacts.

In reason of being seasonal activity of tourism, its impacts include more and more severity on special times. And it results from two key points: holiday period and district. Since the district controlled on main sources of tourisms like sunrise or snowing rate annually is considered as an important factor in tourisms. Capability of tourists in viewing of tourism destination on a special time of year like annually school holidays might be considered as an important factor of tourism activity, seasonally.

Tourism influences on own tourists, also. And the impacts could be considered on their behavior of tourism destination. Also it is possible influenced in time of returning of a tourist. For example, it is possible tourists' experiences influence on their decision making for the future time of visiting. Thus some of the experiences must be required in that destination although thinking about it and its impacts within its tourism selection can be featured in the other places.

Tourism-economic impacts:

Tourisms especially on the developing countries could be improve future employment by way of creating changes on employment forms of traditional agriculture to servicing industry cause to stimuli of society and cause to increase of higher wages.

Social and cultural impacts:

Generally, cultural tourisms within each of the region can be followed by under criteria [6]

1. Recovering and the importance of distinctions and lost cultural works of local residents

2. Recognizing possibility and providing regional familiarity on space dimension and cultural identity and improving a sense of dependency to a culture in a better way

3. Creating economical infrastructures in a long period

4. Increase of employment within a standstill economy

It must be noted that cultural tourisms have the both of advantages and disadvantages inside of economical and cultural affairs. Tourisms can cause to presentation of rudeness and rupture in field of culture and society that is formed about tourism-host community reactive. The rudeness or negative works of tourisms in field of culture-society could be followed under circumstances:

1. Degradation of cultural works: visiting more and more of tourists from historical and ancient places have been resulting in gradual ruining. The called carelessness might be bringing out due to inattention to accepting-capacity of called place or due to activity of unskilled tourisms.

2. Cultural transformation: by considering fragility of cultural heritage, it is possible to invalidate local cultural patterns of nobility within tourism improvement.

3. Cultural rudeness: there isn't mutual agreement by way of differences in language, habitats and customs among local residents and tourists.

4. Cultural invasion: it is possible by way of excessiveness in creating tourism attraction and exposing currency trading within cultural facades have gone away in tourism destination, credit and validity of religious right, habitats and customs, ceremonies and exhibitions, handicraft industries, music, and other cultural patterns in connection of its unsuitable and non-compatible presentation as a tourism attractions. In other words local values are conveying into the goods.

5. Social rudeness and mischief: tourisms might be influenced on social damages like carousal, addiction and criminality [7].

The following table is indicated on the negative and positive effects of cultural tourism's Pierce Moscardo [8].

One of the key factors on tourism focused on take part of individuals and activities that is paid on it. Visitor's nature and the host community in relation to tourism cultural and social effects are considered in a higher level. The Exchanging between two groups on influencing over kind of topics would be important. When there are exists many differences between host culture and original community it is possible to increase their effects.

Suggestions:

Today by considering that all communities are travelling within different cultures and different beliefs might be influencing on residence of destination society (even sometimes they can influenced within host society), and it is possible to change cultures that is continued seed to seed and forms resident's identity. We must reach to possible influences in field of controlling tourisms behavior indirectly and also in higher order of getting and knowing of residents from richest and basic cultures. Holding cultural congress within city levels and cultural places (universities and many other offices) and inviting of tourists and residents especially young people could be bring out effectual steps on reducing tourism impacts.

References

[1.] Karobi, Mahdi, 2003. "Tourism Culture", Tourism studies letters, Tehran: Alameh Tabatabai university, no. 2, winter, p: 21-48.

[2.] Rahnomai, mohammad tagi, 2000. Iran's environmental powers, Tehran: sagacity and powerfulness, first edition.

[3.] Zahedi, Shams-o-din, 2006. stable echo-tourism and tourism bases (based on environment), Tehran: Allameh Tabatabayi University, 1385, first edition.

[4.] Mahalati, Selah-a-din, 2009. Jastari in times of leisure ( tourisms and travelling), Tehran: Beheshti Martyr University, printing center and publications.

[5.] Shalchian Tahere, 2003. "works between culture and tourism role within creating agreement between Islamic religion and Christianity ,tourism studies letters, Tehran: Alameh Tabatabayi university, no. 3, winter, p: 17-38.

[6.] Beachleitner, Reinhard, 1999. Cultural tourism in rural communities-journal if business research-vo144.

[7.] Tayeb, Alireza, 2000. setting of cultural consideration within scientific programming for tourism improvement, economical-publican information magazine, 157-158: 217-218.

[8.] Garachlo, Mahdi, 2006. Tourism geography and time of leisure programming, Tehran's university jihad publication, first edition

[9.] Torabian, Poneh. Thesis (Evaluating acceptable level of negative social impacts of visitors on Iran's local communities (parishan rural settings) 2009, Alameh tabatabayi accounting and Management College.

Corresponding Author

Mohammad Ebrahim Alinejad, Department of Geography, Sari Branch, Islamic Azad University, Sari, Iran.
The following criteria must be considered in relationships of tourism
economical impacts.

Tourism advantages         Tourism disadvantages

Obtaining income and       Economy of tourism income is seasonal.
increasing of gross        Also it is dangerous depend on tourism
national income, helping   income and single productivity like
to increase of cost        Thailand country. Increase of
income, helping to         non-skilled staffs within at least
employment-making          wages, inflation, opportunities, and
governmental income,       sever dependency on tourisms
helping to regional
development, revival
of poor regions life
and non-industry

Various activity of        Abusing of some people by establishing
employment-making          facial corporations and degradation
sector such as
restaurants,
coffeehouse, agencies,
and so on.

Cost effectiveness and     Without chimney industry rate of
advantages                 consuming fossil fuels must not
                           ignored tourisms centers

Improving and              Exposing pressure on transformation
development of             vehicles and generally on
infrastructures            infrastructure factors of regions such
                           as providing water, waste waters,
                           taxi, police services and passengers
                           terminals

Preserving and             Environmental infections and
improving of               degradation, plant covering
environment                degradation and coasts infection

Modernism process          Negative effect on host people and
facility and providing     competing in respect of enjoying usual
tourism and procreative    services within tourisms
facility and either for
local residents or for
tourisms and generally
increase of publican
welfare

Necessary applying of      Trading and increase of land price and
unfavorable coastal        non-allocation of land to the
lands for agricultural     important objectives such as building,
affaires within tourism    making-schools and green spaces
affaires

Factor       Positive effects             Negative effects

Using of     1. increase of support       1.Change in custom
a culture    from traditional culture     and art activities
as an                                     in way of making
attractive   2. displaying of national    appropriate bed for
factor       and tribal identities        attracting tourisms

             3. Recreation of speaking,   2. entering to
             language and traditional     traditional limits
             arts and ...
                                          3. crowding and
             4. recreation of forgotten   assembling more
             custom and tradition life,   and more in
             ceremonies and mourning      traditional places

             5. boasting sense to their   4. cultural and
             culture                      social unsuitable
                                          effects and faint
             6. tourism is a tool for     of cultural
             speaking civilizations       identity sense

             7. newborn of arts and
             local technique and
             traditional cultural
             activities

             8. improving cultural and
             social life in communities

             9. reconstruction of local
             architecture traditions

             10. Increasing necessity
             preserving of potential
             regions and beauty that is
             including cultural and
             beauty values.
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Title Annotation:ORIGINAL ARTICLE
Author:Alinejad, Mohammad Ebrahim; Razaghi, Zahra
Publication:Advances in Environmental Biology
Article Type:Report
Geographic Code:7IRAN
Date:Aug 1, 2012
Words:1724
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