Title-keyword indexing of intergovernmental organization materials; Pro-Cite can greatly improve public access to IGO documents.
Pro-Cite can greatly improve public access to IGO documents.
A microcomputer and Pro-Cite 1.4 (Personal Bibliographic Software, international, intergovernmental organization (IGO) materials at the Richter Library of the University of Miami. Library policy with regard to IGO materials is to exclude them from the card and online catalogs.
As a result, public awareness of these materials is low. Likewise, the notorious lack of adequate bibliographic tools for IGO documents poses an additional barrier to access, and IGO publications traditionally have presented a challenge to librarians and users alike.
In this article, we discuss briefly the complexities of acquiring, processing, and providing access to IGO materials and how, through title-keyword indexing, we were able to improve public access to these publications.
This objective was accomplished by: increasing public awareness of these unique sources of international information; providing multiple access points through keyword retrieval; and offering the librarian a practical tool for managing IGO material.
The Complex World of IGOs Like many federal depository libraries, the University of Miami Library Government Publications and Maps Department has for many years acquired, processed, housed, and serviced materials from international, intergovernmental organizations. IGOs include agencies such as the United Nations family of organizations, the World Health Organization, and the International Labor Office, among others. See Figure 1 for a select listing of IGOS.
IGOs are concerned with social science matters, and they are made up of member governments who, through cooperation, negotiation, and compromise, plan and carry out policies in an attempt to resolve major social, economic, and political issues.
IGOs are large-scale producers and disseminators of information on many subjects and in many forms. Examples of IGO materials are: reports, studies, periodicals, tracts and indexes, directories, meeting records, resolutions, charts, posters, and statistical data.
Selected intergovernmental Agencies
Name: Acronym African Development Bank: ADB Bank for international Settlements:BIS Caribbean Community: CARICOM Caribbean Development Bank: CDB Caribbean Epidemiology Center: CA - REC Council of Europe: CE European Communities: EC European Conference of Ministers of
Transport: ECMT Food and Agriculture Organization:
FAO General Agreement on Tariffs and
Trade: GATT Inter-American Development Bank:
IDB Intergovernmental Committee for Migration:
ICM International Atomic Energy Agency:
IAEA International Bank for Reconstruction
and Development: BANK International Civil Aviation Organization:
ICAO International Development Agency:
IDA International Finance Corporation: IFC International Labor Officel: ILO International Monetary Fund: FUND International Telecommunications
Union: ITU League of Nations: LEAGUE Organization for Economic Cooperation
and Development: OECD Organization of American States (formerly
Pan American Union): PA Organization of Petroleum Exporting
Countries: OPEC Pan American Health Organization:
PAS United Nations: UN UN Centre for Human Settlements:
UNCHS UN Children's Fund: UNICEF UN Conference on Trade and Development:
UNCTAD UN Economic Commission for Latin
America and the Caribbean: CE - PAL UN Educational, Scientific, and Cultural
Organization: UNESCO UN High Commissioner on Refugees:
UNHCR UN University: UNU Universal Postal Union: UPU Western European Union: WEU World Health Organization: WHO World Meteorological Organization:
Barriers to Access
According to Library of Congress documents specialist Robert W. Schaaf, there are many barriers impeding user access to information from international agencies, and he cites, for example, the lack of good bibliographic tools. Indeed, for some IGOS, the only bibliographic tool is the organization's sales catalog. Additionally, IGO documentation tends to be riddled with confusing symbols and classification systems. Finally, the mechanism for acquiring publications directly from the issuing agency is hindered by an inadequate number of sales agents, and by the fact that intergovernmental organizations generally have limited depository library programs, or none at all.
These barriers to access notwithstanding, IGO materials have great research value. They cover virtually all subjects and all geographic areas, and they are usually the sole source for statistics that cut across national boundaries.
For these reasons, many research and academic libraries establish standing orders with IGOs whenever the circumstances allow it, or they have contracts with the major vendor of IGO publications, UNIPUB. However, many IGO materials are intended for restricted distribution within the organization and among member governments. Therefore, treatment of this material often differs from conventional library methods of acquisition, processing, and servicing, with acquisition being a matter of persistent pursuit.
Title-Keyword Indexing of IGOs Once IGO materials have been acquired, they may be assigned Library of Congress call numbers and they may be integrated into the general library collection, or they may be kept together as a separate collection within a department. At Miami, we opted for the latter, and, as a result, the collection has grown over the forty-plus years it has existed. In fact, it has grown to the point where we decided that we needed at least a keyword indexing system to facilitate access to the IGO collection, since the material has not received full cataloging and is not in the main card catalog.
Therefore, we began entering selected titles, primarily serials and statistical titles, into a database written in BASIC. Dubbed the "KWICIE" file for Keyword-In-Context Index Expanded, its function was to compile a title-keyword index with information on the publication date and location of IGOs in the government documents department.
The first version of KWICIE was large, requiring two bound volumes, and covered 1980-1985. In 1986, we issued annual supplements, cumulating these and printing at yearly intervals, through the end of 1989. We realized then that the size had reached its maximum for one supplement. Considering the speed and ease of operation and greater variety of options available in Pro-Cite relative to KWICIE, we decided to switch, and, in January of 1990, entered all newly received IGOs using Pro-Cite 1.4 on an EBM personal computer with 640K RAM and a 20MB hard disk running PC-DOS 3.2.
Pro-Cite is a database and text management system that has received positive reviews in the library literature. Among its features are: keyword searching; sorting and indexing; and formatting bibliographies according to the rules of punctuation that have been set by style sheet authorities such as ANSI, MLA, APA, Turabian, Chicago Manual of Style, and others. It is accompanied by an excellent manual, and the program is, overall, easy to learn and use.
The program has a few drawbacks: it is menu-driven, which tends to frustrate the veteran user, and the amount of time the program requires to search, index, or sort records grows appreciably as the file increases in size. Pro-Cite shares these flaws with other similar microcomputer applications software. Still, we find its strengths far outweigh any perceived weaknesses.
For best results, we assigned three fields to capture the date, title, and locally assigned call number, all and any of which may be searched online for fast retrieval.
Fields in Pro-Cite are variable-length, and the entire title field is used for keyword extraction. One of the convenient features in Pro-Cite is the generation of a stopword list that is activated automatically at the time of indexing.
Besides the three fields mentioned, and where there have been significant changes in the title, or when publications have ceased or been superseded, this information may be entered in a Notes field.
Sample Call Numbers UNESCO 1: (yr) Report of the Director General on the activities of the organization UNESCO 2: (ct) General publications UNESCO 3: (no) Arid zone research UNESCO 4: (no) Current school enrollment statistics UNESCO 5: (no) Educational studies and documents UNESCO 5/2: (no) Educational studies and documents (new series)
Template Title:Status of women: China Date: 1 989 Call:UNESCO 70/3:25 Figure 2
Our classification system for IGO materials is based loosely on the Superintendent of Documents classification scheme used with depository U.S. government publications. Thus, the call numbers begin with acronyms for each IGO, followed by a numeral for each title, a colon, a number for serials, or a cutter number for monographs, as in Figure 3.
By correlating prefixes with issuing agency, it is possible to arrange the publications by agency, and this in turn, enhances the value of the collection as a dedicated IGO collection.
Additionally, another useful feature of directional prefixes in the call number is the fact that they allude to the location of the publication in the department, i.e., "A&I" for materials in the Abstracts & Index reference area; DESK" for materials on the desk reference shelves; PER" for the periodicals area; and "UN SERIALS". The prefixes, then, may be sorted online, for shelflisting and other purposes.
The finished product is a simple keyword-in-context index of our IGO collection, which may be used by librarians and USCTS alike (Figure 5). To staff members who are familiar with the collection of IGO materials, the keyword index offers a shortcut to the collection, and to new documents librarians and library assistants, the keyword index sometimes offers the only direct route to a source.
At present, we are using OUT file of IGO publications in Pro-Cite as an adjunct to the two well-known commercial indexes of IGO publications: Kraus International's International Bibliography and CIS's Index to International Statistics.
Boolean searching, ease of updating records, convenient sorting and indexing, and customized bibliographies make ProCite the right tool for enhancing the library's collection of publications from intergovernmental agencies. Whether using it as a permanent means for cataloging and indexing IGOS, a temporary measure preceding the implementation of an integrated online system, or until better bibliographic tools become available in electronic format, Pro-Cite offers the documents librarian a viable alternative.
1. A. D. Roberts, The Documents and Publications of International Organizations," Reader in Documents of International Organizations, ed. Robert D. Stevens and Helen C. Stevens, pp. 3-24. Microcard Edition Books, 1973.
2. Robert W. Schaaf, "Information Policies of International Organizations," Government Publications Review 17.1 (1990): 49-61.
3. Sheila E. Jaeger, Microcomputer Keyword Indexing in Government Documents," Library Software Review 4 (January-February 1988): 4IA2.
o-Cite version 1.4 Personal Bibliographic Software, Inc. 412 Longshore Drive Ann Arbor, Michigan 48105 313-996-1580
* IBM personal computer or true
compatibles, OCLC M300, and
the Apple Macintosh
* $395 (for first time users) or
* $95 (for registered owners of
Pro-Cite 1.0-1.2) or
* $45 (for registered owners of
Sample Directional Call Number Prefixes
Date:1973 - Call:A&1-2
Title:Panorama of EC industry
Date:1989 - Call:DESK EC23:989 Figure 4
Sample Entries from the Title-Keyword Index
ACCESS Transport for disabled people: a review of provisions for journey planning and pedestrian access; 1990. ECMT 2:T772j.
ADVANTAGES Changing comparative advantages in China: effects on food, feed and fibre markets; 1990. OECD 35:C539/2.
AGRICULTURAL Agricultural policies for the 1990's; 1990. OECD 32:A278 /4.
The life and fate of the ancient library of Alexandria; 1990. UNESCO 2:A374.
ASSESSMENT Substitute fuels for road transport, a technology assessment; 1990. OECD 2:F953/6.
Statistics on external indebtedness. Bank and trade-related non-bank external claims on individual borrowing countries and territories; amounts at endJune 1989 and changes in the first half of 1 989; 1990. OECD 2:E96/13.
The saving behaviour of Japanese households; 1990. OECD 110:73. BORROWING
Statistics on external indebtedness. Bank and trade-related non-bank external claims on individual borrowing countries and territories; amounts at endJune 1 989 and changes in the first half of 1989; 1 990. OECD 2:E96/13.
CARE Health care systems in transition: the search for efficiency; 1990. OECD 112:7.
CATALOGUE Road monitoring for maintenance management. Vol. 2, damage catalogue for developing countries; 1990OECD 16/4:M226/v.2.
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|Author:||Wise, Mary Porter; Kirby, Diana Gonzalez|
|Publication:||Computers in Libraries|
|Date:||Nov 1, 1990|
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