Timothy Korkanoon: a child artist at the Merri Creek Baptist Aboriginal School, Melbourne, Victoria, 1846-47 --a new interpretation of his life and work.
In Museum Victoria there is a large pencil drawing by an Aboriginal resident of Coranderrk known as Timothy (Museum Victoria XP 86705, and see Figure 1). The drawing and the artist have been the subject of four studies (Allen 2004; Lydon 2002, 2005; Sayers 1996). According to Sayers (1996:112), 'Only one drawing by Timothy is known, the large work in pencil on two sheets of paper in the Museum of Victoria and this work possibly includes a self-portrait next to the inscription "Timothy/Coranderrk"'. However, there are five drawings in the private papers of George Augustus Robinson (Chief Protector of Aborigines of the Port Phillip Aboriginal Protectorate from 1839 until its closure in early 1850) that merit further investigation as to whether they may also be attributed to this artist (Figures 4 to 8). If so, this would be a new interpretation of these artworks, Sayers (1996:139) having catalogued them as, 'Unknown, possibly Woi-worung people'.
Historical information about Timothy
We are able to glean several important facts about Timothy. Sayers (1996:112f) reconstructed that he was a Wurundjeri man; a contemporary of Barak; that he was included in lists of Coranderrk residents compiled in July and November 1863; that in 1866 he was in his early thirties; and that he died in 1875. Further analysis of protectorate records and his 1865 marriage certificate provides additional information. He is first listed in Thomas' 1846 census of Boonwurrung and Woiwurrung families as 'Krookgunin', a male aged under 14 years (Thomas Papers in Clark and Heydon 1998:Appendix 5.1). He was a student at the Merri Creek Baptist Aboriginal School from 1846-47, where, presumably, he learned to read and write in English. In schoolmaster Edward Peacock's monthly censuses of attendance at the Merri Creek Baptist Aboriginal School, he is recorded as 'Coroconing', and is listed from January 1846 until September 1847 (Peacock in Thomas Papers Mss 214/10 in Clark and Heydon 1998:Appendix 6.2). Before becoming the schoolmaster at the Merri Creek Baptist Aboriginal School in November 1845, Peacock had attempted to hold a class at Ryrie's station on the Upper Yarra in September (Clark and Heydon 1998:84). Given that Ryrie's station was Timothy's birthplace (see below), it is likely that Peacock's involvement with Timothy commenced from this time. In September 1847 many Woiwurrung families removed their children from the school owing to the effects of an influenza epidemic that was ravaging the Aboriginal population in Melbourne (see Clark and Heydon 2004:82), and this may explain his absence from the school from that date.
[FIGURE 1 OMITTED]
On 4 October 1859 Timothy was before the City Court in Melbourne on a charge of drunkenness. The charge was dismissed; however, the magistrate admonished Timothy to leave the town and to abstain from intoxicating drink. William Thomas was in attendance, and being able to speak in Timothy's tongue (Woiwurrung), he communicated the magistrate's request (Argus, 5 October 1859). The admonition appears to have had little effect, for two days later Timothy was assaulted by a drunken companion named John Killing. Killing went before the Court of Criminal Sessions on 29 October on the charge of assault. Despite a plea of 'not guilty', the evidence from a witness named John Boehm persuaded the jury that Killing was guilty, and Justice Pohlman sentenced him to three months' imprisonment. Boehm testified that on 6 October 1859:
he was walking along Simpson's Road, when he overtook the prisoner and Timothy. Presently the two latter quarrelled, and the prisoner not being content with knocking the aboriginal down with a huge sapling (the production of which in Court occasioned a marked sensation), struck him while on the ground. Witness interfered, but was in turn attacked by the prisoner, who was considerably in liquor. Eventually, the prisoner walked, or rather ran, away, till he was taken into custody. This evidence was corroborated by several witnesses, including Dr. Fitzgerald, who gave medical testimony as to the nature of the wounds. In &fence, the prisoner simply sought to make capital of his drunkenness (Argus, 31 October 1859).
Timothy was in trouble a further time, when on 4 May 1865 at Coranderrk he was fined 15 shillings for drunkenness (Victoria 1877:81).
In the Board for the Protection of Aborigines 1863 census, its Coranderrk listing provided by John Green contains 'Timothy, Aboriginal name Koorook-Koonong' (John Green 1863 Coranderrk census in Australian Archives (Victorian Branch) CRS B312 IT5). On 8 August 1867 he was found by Dr J Gibson to be suffering from dysentery (Victoria 1869:25).
Timothy Korkanoon married Annie Yallieyourook on 22 September 1865 in the schoolroom at the Coranderrk Aboriginal settlement (Victorian Marriage Certificate No. 2961, Reg. No. 304; Figure 2). As well as his full name, from the certificate we learn the following: his place of birth was 'about Yerring, Evelyn'; his age was estimated at 27; and his occupation was given as 'Resident of the Aboriginal settlement'. Residence was given as Coranderrk, Gracedale, Evelyn. His father was Mongderring, whose rank or profession was given as 'wild aboriginal', and his mother was Gorragourok. His marital status was 'widower 1862, no children'. His spouse was Annie Yallieyourook, place of birth; Goulburn, age about 18 years. Her father was recorded as Tommy Wordiarrbirrum, whose rank or profession was recorded as 'wild aboriginal' and her mother was Banderoot who was recorded as marital status, spinster. The witnesses were John Green, the superintendent of the Coranderrk Aboriginal station, and Hannah Ramsay. Permission for the marriage was by written consent of Mr John Green, who was Annie Yallieyourook's guardian, because she was under 21 years of age. Timothy signed his name as 'Timothy Korkanoon' and Annie made her mark.
Timothy's birthplace, Yering, is about eight kilometres from Coranderrk. This location is central to the estate of the Wurundjeri-willam, one of two patrilines of the Wurundjeri-baluk. Yering was particularly associated in the 1840s with Bebejan's mob, and included Bebejan, his brother Tuart, and Bebejan's son William Barak (see Clark 1990:384). The Yering pastoral run was first taken up by the Ryrie brothers (Alexander, William and Donald) and James Graham from the Monaro district of New South Wales in 1837 --their pastoral licence was for 43 000 acres from the Woori Yallock to the Olinda creeks, bordered on the north by the Yarra River. Dairy, comprising 25 000 acres on the Upper Yarra opposite Woori Yallock Creek, was acquired by Donald Ryrie in 1846. In 1850 Donald Ryrie sold Yering to Paul De Castella and Adolphe de Meuron. In 1855 De Castella and Frederic-Guillaume de Pury bought Dairy from Donald Ryrie. William Gardiner acquired Dalry in 1858, and sold it to William Nicholson in 1861 (Billis and Kenyon 1974:197f). While we cannot be definitive about Timothy's movements between 1847 and 1863, other than that he was in Melbourne in October 1859, we do know that Wurundjeri families were at Yering and surrounding stations during this time as described and depicted in diary entries and various lithographs of scenes at Yering and Dairy (based on sketches or photographs by Hubert De Castella, older brother of Paul De Castella, who stayed at Yering from 1854-56), which show Aboriginal people on these stations (De Castella 1987:62-3, 94-5), so it is not unreasonable to suggest he may have lived on or near his natal lands during some of this time.
[FIGURE 2 OMITTED]
Photographic portrait of Timothy
The Coranderrk station of some 4850 acres (1963 hectares) was established in 1863 and most of the remaining 250 east Kulin Aboriginal people, including Timothy, had made their home on the station by 1866 (Barwick 1998:72). In May 1866 one of Australia's first travelling photographers, Charles Walter, was commisioned by Redmond Barry, the President of the Melbourne Intercolonial Exhibition, to make a series of portraits of the Aboriginal residents of Coranderrk. These portraits were incorporated into a large display panel and subsequently sent to scientists in Russia, Italy and England. They were also made into a photograph album for the Green family. Thus, we are fortunate to have photographs of Timothy (Figure 3). Along with these portraits there exist three lists made by Charles Walter (n.d., 1866a, 1866b) for the collection of portraits he took at Coranderrk. The lists provide us with variant spellings of Timothy's Indigenous name.
In the first list (undated but presumably compiled in 1866 during his trip to Coranderrk), entitled 'List of the Aborigines settled at Coranderrk their approx, age and former place of abode (or tribe)', Charles Walter made the following entry: 'Timothy Yarra Yarra 34 years'. This list is in the von Hugel collection of manuscripts in the University Museum of Archaeology and Anthropology at Cambridge University.
In Waiter's (1866a) second list, dated November 1866 and headed 'Natives of Victoria' (in Museum Victoria), is the following information:
Approxim. Native name Assumed name Tribe Age Garruk coonoon Timothy Yarra Yarra 34 Annie (Timothy's L) Yarra Yarra 18 (belonged to the Goulburn tribe) In the third list, dated December 1866 and entitled 'Portraits of the aborigines of the colony Victoria' (in Museum Victoria), Walter (1866b) records: Approxim. Native name Engl. Name Tribe Age Garruk coonun Timothy Yarra Yarra 34 Annie (Timothy's lubra) Yarra Yarra: 18 from Goulburn tribe
[FIGURE 3 OMITTED]
Timothy's known work
Sayers' (1996:22) analysis of the drawing in Museum Victoria (Figure 1) is that it is:
an extraordinary pencil drawing ... made up of two large sheets of lined paper mounted onto cardboard and depicts various aspects of traditional life, mostly hunting. In the lower right-hand corner two men are coming together in a gesture of meeting, surrounded by rows of seated onlookers...Elsewhere, however, the drawing is characterised by a sense of animation, of the chase. Timothy's drawing has another interesting feature: it appears to include a self-portrait. Next to the inscription 'Timothy/Coranderrk' and isolated from the composition above is a drawing of an Aboriginal man in European dress, holding a book or a sheet of paper. Everywhere else in the drawing men and women wear the traditional skin cloaks. Perhaps an even more significant feature is the frieze that runs across the top. How are we to interpret this? It seems to be a map, or more likely a cosmography--a depiction of the phases of the moon, or of a lunar eclipse.
According to Lydon (2002:125), the drawing comprises 'two pencil sketches glued to cardboard and cloth backing ... The drawing comprises seven scenes of Aboriginal life: a cosmological frieze of stars, clouds, and planets, hunting scenes, ranks of men, and of women, and a ceremonial meeting'.
Allen (2004:78) has suggested that the work was 'done between 1863 and 1875. It could be either two separate drawings or a single work on two sheets of paper.' Allen believes the artist has included himself in the work:
The photographic portrait bears a striking resemblance to the small kneeling figure to the left of the signature. The bearded man sits at the edge of a group of 10 men with spears upright and five women with children holding digging sticks. The most extraordinary element is the top panel, which appears to depict an eclipse or other lunar phenomenon.
The interpretations of Sayers, Lydon and Allen of the Coranderrk artwork are very similar--the greatest variance concerns the content of the frieze along the top edge of the drawing. It does appear to be a cosmography showing lunar phases and other cosmological phenomena. Timothy's sketch is undated; however, given that it has the inscription 'Timothy/Coranderrk' we can infer from this that it was drawn while he was a resident at the Coranderrk station, where he lived from 1863 until his death in 1875, thus we can say with some confidence that it dates from either the 1860s or the 1870s. Museum Victoria acquired the sketch in 1985 from G Brown (Sayers 1996:124).
The sketches in the GA Robinson papers
In the Papers of GA Robinson, Volume 63, 'Miscellanea' part B: 'Aboriginal vocabularies, sketches, and oddments', five sketches precede the notation 'Melbourne Victoria 10th Oct. 1851 Ab. Nt. production of art' (see Clark 2001:114-9). The five sketches are some of the earliest known Aboriginal pencil drawings in Victoria. Other early Kulin drawings on paper from the mid-1840s have been discussed by Cooper (1996), who asserts they are the earliest recorded drawings in untraditional mediums made by a Victorian Aborigine.
Unfortunately, it is not possible to learn anything about how Robinson acquired the five sketches--his journal for the period October to December 1851 is missing. The entry in Robinson's papers refers to the date he acquired them and does not necessarily mean that they were the day the drawings were created. Robinson was a regular visitor to the Merri Creek school from its inception, and it is possible that he purchased the sketches because he knew the artist(s). In late 1851 he was making arrangements for his return to England in May 1852, and he acquired a range of Aboriginal cultural material, including several daguerreotypes of leading Aboriginal people in Melbourne whom he knew intimately.
Each of the five pencil drawings is approximately 19 centimetres by 15.8 centimetres on white unlined paper. Two are of European buildings, two are concerned with aspects of hunting and one is some kind of representation of kingship. Evidence to attribute these sketches to Timothy may be found in a comparison of subject matter, style and handwriting with the known work in Museum Victoria. In addition, comparison has been sought between the handwriting of the known work, the possible 'new' works and with Timothy's signature on his marriage certificate. A description of the five sketches is provided below, followed by a discussion of the evidence available to support the contention that these may be attributed to Timothy.
Figure 4, entitled 'King of man/black man spear', is a drawing of the torso and head of a man rising above a treed landscape beside some spears in the ground. The human figure appears to be wearing European clothing. In the foreground are two incomplete sketches of emus.
Figure 5 is a drawing of a building with what appears to be a waterwheel and a post and rail fence with split palings, and is entitled 'Near farm by M'. The M may refer to the Merri Creek, the Merri Creek Aboriginal School, or Dight's Mill. Sayers (1996:139) transcribed the last letter as 'N[ative]'. This may be a representation of Dight's Mill, which was near the Merri Creek Aboriginal School. Revealing an eye for detail, the sketch shows smoke coming from its two chimneys.
[FIGURE 4 OMITTED]
[FIGURE 5 OMITTED]
[FIGURE 6 OMITTED]
Figure 6 is a hunting scene of a man holding a shield of boughs and a garrik (spear thrower or woomera) and an emu that he has just speared with the hunting spear. It is titled 'Then the/black man spearing hym'. In the background are three incomplete sketches of emus, and in the foreground an incomplete sketch of a human figure. This sketch is characterised by a sense of animation of the chase, and in this respect is very similar to the Coranderrk sketch (see Sayers 1996:22).
Figure 7 is a drawing of two men walking in the bush carrying spears. Although it is captioned, the words are hardly legible. They may read: 'Poor/old man him son with/sn with/hym you and hym you/ stick in in cooley'. Guli/Kuli is the Woiwurrung word for 'Aboriginal man' (Blake, BJ 1991:84). Sayers (1996:139) considers the last word may be 'baby'. The two men are wearing traditional skin cloaks. There is considerable concordance between the drawings of these men and the Coranderrk sketch, especially their body shapes, their heads, their hair and their skin cloaks.
[FIGURE 7 OMITTED]
Figure 8 is an uncaptioned drawing of a house. The house seems to match Lucy Edgar's (1865:2) description of the 'Mission house' at the Merri Creek school--a dwelling constructed of wattle and daub and consisting of four rooms and a front verandah. The drawing has a series of incomplete numbers running from 1 to 53 at the top of the page, suggesting it was made in a school copy-book. From an account in the Port Phillip Patriot (20 November 1846), we know the school pupils used copy-books when, during the school's second public meeting held at the Mechanics Hall in Collins Street, Melbourne, on 18 November 1846, the children demonstrated their ability in reading and writing, using copy-books (Blake, LJ 1973:10). The size of the paper is consistent with the books used by schools at this time in Port Phillip (Peter Hoban, personal communication, 17 December 2009).
[FIGURE 8 OMITTED]
Evidence to support identification of author as Timothy
In this next section, the evidence to support Timothy as the author of the Robinson sketches is considered. It considers similarities in handwriting, content and style in turn.
One method of linking the five sketches gathered by GA Robinson and the one authored by Timothy held at Museum Victoria is to analyse the handwriting which they exhibit. But first it is necessary to consider if the five Robinson sketches can be attributed to the same artist. Four of the five Robinson sketches contain handwriting, and a comparison shows that the handwriting is similar, as seen, for example, in consistent spellings of 'hym' in Figures 6 and 7. Of course, such analysis needs to be mindful that writing on Aboriginal art work may not be in the hand of the artist the inscriptions may be annotations of the person who bought the drawings or acquired them. Nevertheless, despite this caveat, the inscriptions on these four figures, especially their misspellings and the repetition in Figure 7, are consistent with them being done by a child who is still learning to master handwriting and spelling.
Our only examples of handwriting that can be firmly attributed to Timothy is that on his marriage certificate (Figure 2) and his signature on the Coranderrk sketch (Figure 1). Independent verification of the Coranderrk signature (Figure 1) with the handwriting under the sketches (Figures 4-7) was sought from two experts in handwriting analysis from the School of Human Biosciences, La Trobe University. Doug Rogers' and Bryan Found's (1) preliminary analysis is as follows:
Regarding historical material in general, it is the case that the most difficult aspect of any investigation is the sourcing of comparable known writings. There are two characteristics of the material you have submitted that are problematic. The first is that the only known writing is a signature. Typically it is not ideal (and often not possible) to compare handwritten text with signature formations (as signatures often evolve away from normal text character styles). Ideally what needs to be secured for comparison is known handwritten cursive text. The second issue with your material is associated with the relative dates of the known and questioned writings. It appears that the known signature was executed some 20 years after the dates associated with the questioned text. The known signature appears to exhibit lower skill of execution (as best as we can tell from the non original) than does the questioned text. It could be the case that the dissimilarities noted are simply a reflection of changes to the writer's normal motor behaviour over the 20 year period. Given the limitations stated above, most of the comparable forms in the known signature are similar to those forms in the questioned writings. Without further known cursive text samples written around the time that the questioned entries were allegedly prepared it is not possible to form an opinion as to the significance of these similarities in terms of authorship (Doug Rogers, personal communication, 16 November 2009).
Given that it is not possible to be definitive on the basis of handwriting analysis, it will be necessary to find similarities based on content and style.
Figure 1 is a complex drawing of seven scenes, including a cosmological frieze, hunting, ranks of men and women, and a ceremonial meeting. The five sketches in the Robinson papers are concerned with hunting (Figures 6 and 7), some kind of kingship (Figure 4) and European buildings (Figures 5 and 8). If, as argued in this paper, the five sketches were made at the Merri Creek school, the fact that two sketches are of European structures is not surprising--one could arguably be the depiction of the mission house at the school, and the other that of a neighbouring mill. With the exception of the two depictions of buildings, there is a consonance between Timothy's Coranderrk sketch and the three sketches concerned with aspects of Aboriginal culture.
There are similarities of style found in the Coranderrk sketch (Figure 1) and the sketches in the Robinson papers, especially Figures 4, 6 and 7. They are examples of figurative naturalism, one of two major artistic styles that functioned in south-eastern Aboriginal Australia in the mid-nineteenth century (Cooper 1996:105). This similarity was noted by the forensic experts:
Although we do not normally perform forensic comparisons on drawings, we did note a remarkable degree of concordance between the questioned artist's human imagery in terms of gross body feature proportions, limb characteristics, facial features and clothing shape and form (Doug Rogers, personal communication, 16 November 2009).
One aspect to notice in Figures 4 and 6 are the incomplete sketches of emus and a human figure, which indicate that the sketcher is still developing a unique style of representation, which again is to be expected if these were drawn by a child artist. The Robinson sketches are typical of someone who is learning to draw human and animal figures, and compared with the Coranderrk drawing they are juvenile and could be considered 'work in progress'. The similarity in the representation of human images between the Robinson sketches and the Coranderrk sketch is one of the strongest lines of evidence that the artist is the same for all pieces.
Although it is not possible to be conclusive on the basis of handwriting, the concordance also found between the drawings in terms of style and content does suggest they are attributable to Timothy. If so, it is possible that the sketches were all made at the Merri Creek school where Timothy was a student from January 1846 until September 1847.
This study has extended our knowledge of the early history of Timothy, before he became a resident at Coranderrk. On the basis of the degree of concordance in terms of style and content between the sketches in Robinson's papers (Figures 4 to 8) and that housed in Museum Victoria (Figure 1), as well as some (non-conclusive) similarity in handwriting, a case has been made that they are the work of Timothy Korkanoon. This would extend his known art work from one piece to a total of six. We have learned that Timothy was a student at the Merri Creek Baptist Aboriginal School during 1846 and 1847, where--on the basis of date, possible subject matter, identification of one of the drawings as being on a school copy-book which is consistent with those known to have been used at Merri Creek and Robinson's frequent visitation to this establishment--it has been argued, these five sketches could have been made. We know that Robinson acquired the sketches in November 1851, six months before he left Melbourne and returned to England, where he retired, but unfortunately we do not know the circumstances by which he acquired them. When compared with the Coranderrk drawing, which dates from the 1860s or 1870s, the five sketches enable us to make a judgment about Timothy's development as an artist--the Merri Creek sketches are much simpler, and the subjects less complicated, and they often contain drafts of images, such as emus, as if he is practising how to draw them.
I wish to thank Sandra Smith from Museum Victoria for providing me with a copy of Timothy Korkanoon's 1865 marriage certificate and Erin Keleher, Acting Registrar, Victorian Registry of Births, Deaths and Marriages, for permission to reproduce the image of the signature from Timothy Korkanoon's marriage certificate; Mary Morris, Senior Collection Manager, Indigenous Cultures Department, Melbourne Museum, for assistance with reproduction of images and permissions; Kevin Leamon, Copyright and Permissions, State Library of New South Wales, for assistance with reproduction of images and permissions to reproduce; Peter Hoban, Education Officer, Sovereign Hill Museums Association, for assistance with copy-books used in Port Phillip in the 1840s; Ted Ryan, for the articles on Timothy from the Argus; and Doug Rogers and Bryan Found from the School of Human Biosciences, La Trobe University, for preliminary analysis of the handwriting and artwork.
Allen, Lindy 2004 'Wurundjeri pencil sketch' in B Cosgrove (ed.), Treasures of the Museum, Victoria, Australia, Museum Victoria, Melbourne, p.78.
Barwick, Diane 1998 Rebellion at Coranderrk, Aboriginal History Inc., Canberra (Aboriginal History Monograph 5).
Billis, Ralph V and Kenyon, Alfred S 1974 Pastoral Pioneers of Port Phillip, Stockland Press, Melbourne.
Blake, Barry J 1991 'Woiwurrung the Melbourne language' in Robert MW Dixon and Barry J Blake (eds), Handbook of Australian Languages: Vol. 4, The Aboriginal languages of Melbourne and other grammatical sketches, Oxford University Press, Oxford, pp.1-122.
Blake, Leslie James 1973 'Education in Port Phillip District' in Leslie James Blake (ed.), Vision and Realisation: A centenary history of state education in Victoria, vol. 1, Education Department of Victoria, Melbourne, pp.3-20.
Clark, Ian D 1990 Aboriginal Languages and Clans: An historical atlas of western and central Victoria, 1800-1900, Department of Geography and Environmental Science, Monash University, Melbourne (Monash Publications in Geography No. 37).
--(ed.) 2001 The Papers of George Augustus Robinson, Chief Protector, Port Phillip Aboriginal Protectorate, Volume 3, Miscellanea, Heritage Matters, Clarendon.
--and Heydon, Toby G 1998 The confluence of the Merri Creek and Yarra River: A history of the Wester Port Aboriginal Protectorate and the Merri Creek Aboriginal School, unpublished report to the Heritage Services Branch, Aboriginal Affairs Victoria.
--and Heydon, Toby 2004 A Bend in the Yarra: A history of the Merri Creek Protectorate Station and Merri Creek Aboriginal School 1841-1851, Aboriginal Studies Press, Canberra.
Cooper, Carol 1996 'Traditional visual culture in southeast Australia' in Andrew Sayers, Aboriginal Artists of the Nineteenth Century, Oxford University Press, Melbourne, pp.91-109.
De Castella, Hubert 1987, Australian Squatters, translation, with introduction and notes by CB Thornton-Smith, Melbourne University Press, Melbourne [first published 1861].
Edgar, Lucy A 1865 Among the Black Boys: Being the history of an attempt at civilising some young Aborigines of Australia, Emily Faithfull, London.
Green, John 1863 Coranderrk census in Australian Archives (Victorian Branch) CRS B312 IT5.
Lydon, Jane 2002 'The experimental 1860s: Charles Waiter's images of Coranderrk Aboriginal Station, Victoria', Aboriginal History 26:78-132.
--2005 Eye Contact Photographing Indigenous Australians, Duke University Press, Durham.
Robinson, George Augustus, Papers, Vol. 63, pp.163-7, Ms. A7084, Mitchell Library, State Library of New South Wales, Sydney.
Sayers, Andrew 1996 Aboriginal Artists of the Nineteenth Century, Oxford University Press, Melbourne.
Thomas, William, Papers, uncatalogued mss, set 214, items 1-24. in Clark, Ian D and Heydon, Toby G (eds) 1998 'The confluence of the Merri Creek and Yarra River: A history of the Wester Port Aboriginal Protectorate and the Merri Creek Aboriginal School', unpublished report to the Heritage Services Branch, Aboriginal Affairs Victoria (Appendix 5.1).
Victoria 1869 6th Report of the Central Board for the Protection of Aborigines, Government Printer, Melbourne.
Victoria 1877 Royal Commission on the Aborigines, John Ferres, Government Printer, Melbourne.
Walter, Charles n.d. 'List of the Aborigines settled at Coranderrk' in Von Hugel Collection, University Museum of Archaeology and Anthropology, Cambridge University, Cambridge, Great Britain, no accession number.
--1866a 'Natives of Victoria', list dated November 1866, Museum Victoria, Melbourne, no accession number.
--1866b 'Portraits of the aborigines of the colony Victoria', list dated December 1866, Museum Victoria, Melbourne, no accession number.
Ian D Clark
School of Business, University of Ballarat
(1.) Associate Professor Doug Rogers is Head of the School of Human Biosciences and Director Handwriting Analysis and Research Laboratory, La Trobe University; Dr Bryan Found is a Senior Research Fellow and Head, Forensic Expertise Profiling Laboratory, School of Human Biosciences, La Trobe University.
Dr Ian D Clark is an Associate Professor in Tourism in the School of Business at the University of Ballarat. He has a doctorate in Aboriginal Historical Geography from Monash University. His areas of interest include Aboriginal history, cultural heritage management, the history of tourism and Victorian toponyms.
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|Author:||Clark, Ian D.|
|Publication:||Australian Aboriginal Studies|
|Date:||Mar 22, 2010|
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