Time to celebrate celery.
Celery (Apium graveolens) belongs to the Umbelliferae family and is derived from wild celery that contains more leaves and less stalks. Although celery is believed to have originated in the Mediterranean, it's also indigenous to India, Nepal, and China. It was first recognized for its medicinal properties as early as the 9th century before being utilized as a food source during the Middle Ages. Celery didn't become a common vegetable until the 1800s in Europe and later was introduced to the United States in the 1900s. (1)
A growing body of evidence indicates that flavonoids are an integral component of any cancer-preventive strategy. (3) Two of these flavonoids, apigenin and luteolin, found in celery are distinguished for their ability to protect against various types of cancer. (4) In one study reported in the International Journal of Cancer, scientists compared the intake of five flavonoids in women with and without ovarian cancer. (4) After adjusting for confounding factors of tubal ligation (tubes tied), physical activity and duration of oral contraceptive use, researchers found only apigenin to be associated with reduced ovarian cancer risk, with the highest intake of the flavonoid linked to a 21% reduction risk. (4) It is believed apigenin works by decreasing the expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), a protein that stimulates the formation of new blood vessels that are vital for tumor growth. (5)
Pancreatic cancer is frequently diagnosed at more advanced stages in patients, making it difficult to treat and causing poor survival rates. (6) Compelling data suggests that apigenin can combat pancreatic cancer through multiple mechanisms including impairing glucose uptake, (7) triggering apoptosis (programmed cell death), (8) and disrupting the cancer cell cycle. (9)
Other laboratory findings show that apigenin has inhibitory growth effects against thyroid, leukemia, lung, and prostate cancers. (10)
Luteolin, another celery flavonoid, has potent anti-cancer activity, particularly against colon cancer. Colon cancer cells secrete insulin-like growth factor II (IGF II), which plays a major role in signaling uncontrolled cell growth and replication. In a study published in the journal BMC Gastroenterology, researchers observed that luteolin suppresses the secretion of IGF II, thus halting the progression of colon cancer. (11)
Both apigenin and luteolin provide a powerful defense against breast cancer. Italian researchers discovered that the highest intake of both flavonoids reduced the risk of breast cancer by 19% compared to the lowest intakes. (12)
The heart promoting properties of celery are related to its ability to reduce the development of major risk factors that contribute to cardiovascular disease. In one study, researchers at the Ulleval University Hospital in Norway observed that increasing intakes of vitamin C rich foods, such as celery, led to less thickening of the carotid artery, thereby ensuring optimal blood flow and preventing atherosclerosis and subsequent heart disease. (13)
In a study published in the journal Pharmacology Magazine, scientists found that rats supplemented with celery seed extract daily for 60 days significantly reduced triglycerides levels by 22% and LDL cholesterol by 27%, along with a 28% increase in beneficial HDL cholesterol. (14) The lipid lowering effects of celery are due to the increased conversion of cholesterol into bile acids, which are eliminated in feces. (15)
In addition to its beneficial effects on lipid levels, celery also shows promise in lowering blood pressure. In the laboratory, celery seeds exhibited potent inhibition of angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE), a protein responsible for constricting blood vessels and elevating blood pressure. (16) This may partially explain the results reported in a study published in the Tehran University Medical Journal in which 37 hypertensive patients between the ages of 45 and 65 administered 6 grams of celery seed powder significantly lowered mean systolic and diastolic readings by 17.1 and 4.4 mmHg, respectively. (17)
By 2030, a projected 439 million adults worldwide will be living with diabetes. (18) Emerging research indicates that consuming greater amounts of vitamin K, present in celery, can decrease the risk of developing this concerning disease. In a recent study, researchers at the University Medical Center Utrecht in the Netherlands assessed the relationship between vitamin K intake and the risk of type II diabetes in more than 38,000 Dutch men and women aged 20-70 years over a 10-year period. (19) Taking into account confounding factors such as age, waist circumference, smoking, and physical activity, researchers concluded that those with the highest intake of vitamin K were nearly 20% less likely to develop type II diabetes compared with those who had the lowest intake of the vitamin. (19)
Although the mechanisms are not yet clear, the research team noted that vitamin K might exert its protective effect by reducing inflammation, which in turn increases insulin sensitivity and improves glucose metabolism.
The anti-diabetic benefits of celery can also be attributed to its unique ability to fight Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori), a bacterium that leads to a near three-fold increase in the risk of type II diabetes. (20) In a study reported in the Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology, researchers identified an anti-microbial compound in celery seeds that is highly effective in blocking the growth of gastric H. pylori. (21)
NUTRITIONAL CONTENT OF CELERY, ONE STANDARD NLEA* SERVING (25)
Nutrients Amount DV(%) Vitamin K 32.2 mcg 40% Folate 39.6 mcg 10% Vitamin A 494 IU 10% Potassium 286 mg 8% Dietary Fiber 1.8 g 7% Vitamin C 3.4 mg 6% Manganese 0.1 mg 6% Calcium 44 mg 4% * NLEA stands for the Nutritional Labeling and Education Act. This is a law that sets legal definitions for the terms that are used on food labels. NLEA requires that manufacturers use standard serving sizes on food labels that are based on FDA-established lists of "Reference Amounts Customarily Consumed per Eating Occasion." (26)
While research has focused primarily on finding safe treatments for rheumatoid arthritis and osteoarthritis, the incidence of gout has quietly risen in the past two decades.(22) Gout is a form of arthritis characterized by elevated levels of uric acid, which causes the formation of crystals in joints that produce inflammation and pain. (23) Celery might help treat gout by modulating uric acid levels. Egyptian researchers tested the effects of different plant extracts, including celery seed, on uric acid levels in rats induced with gout. At the end of the study, rats with gouty arthritis treated with celery seed extracts experienced a 56% reduction in uric acid levels, the highest of all the plant extracts. (23)
Additional research shows that celery seeds might have potential use in alleviating inflammation and pain associated with gout. A study reported in the journal Phytomedicine revealed that celery seeds can provide dramatic pain relief by suppressing cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), an enzyme involved in the synthesis of pro-inflammatory cells. (24)
While celery is regularly added to soups and dishes as a complimentary component, its vast amount of nutrients, from vitamin K, potassium, folate, and magnesium, to its potent flavonoids apigenin and luteolin, make it a central player in any health-boosting meal. Celery's stalks, along with its seeds and leaves, offer tremendous protection against heart disease, cancer, and diabetes, in addition to providing an effective treatment for gout. An easy way to incorporate celery into your diet is to eat the stalks with peanut butter or use it as a main vegetable in soups and salads.
If you have any questions on the scientific content of this article, please call a Life Extension[R] Health Advisor at 1-866-864-3027.
RELATED ARTICLE: SELECTING AND STORING CELERY (1)
1. Although it's grown all-year round, celery is freshest during the summer months.
2. Choose crisp, compact, and relatively light celery in which the stalks snap off easily.
3. The leaves of the celery should be pale to bright green and devoid of yellow and black patches.
4. Store in a container or plastic bag in the refrigerator to retain firmness and freshness.
(1.) Available at: http://www.whfoods.com/genpage.php?tname=foodspice&dbid=14. Accessed August 20, 2012.
(2.) Peng Y, Sun J, Hon S, et al. L-3-n-butylphthalide improves cognitive impairment and reduces amyloid-beta in a transgenic model of Alzheimer's disease. J Neurosci. 2010 Jun; 30(24):8180-9.
(3.) Yao H, Xu W, Shi X, Zhang Z. Dietary flavonoids as cancer prevention agents. J Environ Sci Health C Environ Carcinog Ecotoxicol Rev. 2011;29(1):1-31.
(4.) Gates MA, Vitonis AF, Tworoger SS, et al. Flavonoid intake and ovarian cancer risk in a population-based case-control study. Int J Cancer. 2009 Apr;124(8):1918-25.
(5.) Fang J, Xia C, Cao Z, Zheng JZ, Reed E, Jiang BH. Apigenin inhibits VEGF and HIF-1 expression via PI3K/AKT/p70S6K1 and HDM2/p53 pathways. The FASEB Journal. 2005 Mar;19(3):342-353.
(6.) Eckel F, Schneider G, Schmid RM. Pancreatic cancer: a review of recent advances. Expert Opin Investig Drugs. 2006 Nov;15 (11):1395-410.
(7.) Melstrom LG, Salabat MR, Ding XZ, et al. Apigenin inhibits the GLUT-1 glucose transporter and the phosphoinositide 3-kinase/Akt pathway in human pancreatic cancer cells. Pancreas. 2008 Nov;37(4):426-31.
(8.) King JC, Lu QY, Li G, et al. Evidence for activation of mutated p53 by apigenin in human pancreatic cancer. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2012 Feb;1823(2):593-604.
(9.) Ujiki MB, Ding XZ, Salabat MR, ET AL. Apigenin inhibits pancreatic cancer cell proliferation through G2/M cell cycle arrest. Molecular Cancer. 2006 Dec; 5:76.
(10.) Shukla S, Gupta S. Apigenin: A promising molecule for cancer prevention. Pharm Res. 2010 June;27(6):962-78.
(11.) Lim YD, Cho JH, Kim J, Nho CW, Lee KW, Park J. Luteolin decreases IGF-II production and downregulates insulin-like growth factor-I receptor signaling in HT-29 human colon cancer cells. BMC Gastroenterology. 2012 Jan;12:9.
(12.) Bosetti C, Spertini L, Parpinel M, et al. Flavonoids and breast cancer risk in Italy. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers. 2005 Apr;14(4):805-8.
(13.) Ellingsen I, Seljeflot I, Arnesen H, Tonstad S. Vitamin C consumption is associated with less progression in carotid intima media thickness in elderly men: a 3-year intervention study. Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis. 2009 Jan;19(1):8-14.
(14.) Mansi K, Abushoffa AM, Disi A, Aburjai T. Hypolipidemic effects of seed extract of celery (Apium graveolens) in rats. Pharmacognosy Magazine. 2009 Dec;5(20):301-5.
(15.) Tsi D, Tan BK. The mechanism underlying the hypocholesterolaemic activity of aqueous celery extract, its butanol and aqueous fractions in genetically hypercholesterolaemic RICO rats. Life Sci. 2000 Jan;66(8):755-67.
(16.) Umamaheswari M, Ajith MP, Asokkumar K, et al. In vitro angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitory and antioxidant activities of seed extract of Apium graveolens Linn. Annals of Biological Research. 2012;3(3):1274-82.
(17.) Gharooni M, Sarkarati AR. Application of Apium graveolens in treatment of hypertension. Tehran University Medical Journal. 2000;58(3):67-9.
(18.) Shaw JE, Sicree RA, Zimmet PZ. Global estimates of the prevalence of diabetes for 2010 and 2030. Diabetes Res Clin Pract. 2010 Jan;87(1):4-14.
(19.) Beulens JW, van der A DL, Grobbee DE, Sluijs I, Spijkerman AM, van der Schouw YT. Dietary phylloquinone and menaquinones intakes and risk of type 2 diabetes. Diabetes Care. 2010 Aug;33(8):1699-705.
(20.) Jeon CY, Haan MN, Cheng C. Helicobacter pylori infection is associated with an increase rate of diabetes. Diabetes Care. 2012 Mar;35(3):520-5.
(21.) Zhou Y, Taylor B, Smith TJ, et al. A novel compound from celery seed with a bactericidal effect against Helicobacter pylori. J Pharm Pharmacol. 2009 Aug;61(8):1067-77.
(22.) Zhu Y, Pandya BJ, Choi HK. Prevalence of gout and hyperuricemia in the US general population: the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2007-2008. Arthritis Rheum. 2011 Oct;63(10):3136-41.
(23.) Mohamed DA, Al-Okbi SY. Evaluation of anti-gout activity of some plant extracts. Pol J Food and Nutr Sci. 2008;58(3):389-95.
(24.) Momin RA, Nair MG. Antioxidant, cyclooxygenase and topoisomerase inhibitory compounds from Apium graveolens Linn. seeds. Phytomedicine. 2002 May;9(4):312-8.
(25.) Available at: http://nutritiondata.self.com/facts/vegetables-and-vegetable-products/2396/2. Accessed August 20, 2012.
(26.) Available at: http://nutritiondata.self.com/help/glossary. Accessed September 4, 2012.
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|Title Annotation:||SUPER FOODS|
|Date:||Nov 1, 2012|
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