Time perspective and vocational identity statuses of emerging adults.
Keywords: vocational identity, time perspective, mindfulness, emerging adults, career development
For individuals between the ages of 18 and 25 years, the developmental period known as emerging adulthood, achieving a vocational identity is of great importance (Arnett, 2000). The achievement of a vocational identity is associated with career maturity (Graef, Wells, Hyland, & Muchinsky, 1985) and career decidedness (Chartrand, Robbins, Morrill, & Boggs, 1990; Vondracek, Schulenberg, Skorikov, Gillespie, & Wahlheim, 1995; Wanberg & Muchinsky, 1992) and is viewed as integral to self-directed career development (Hall, 2002) and employability (Fugate, Kinicki, & Ashforth, 2004). Because vocational identity is important in career decision making and career management, examining factors that differentiate among various identity statuses warrant investigation. Thus, the current study examines how time perspective--the nonconscious process whereby personal experiences are assigned to temporal frames that give order, coherence, and meaning to those experiences (Zimbardo & Boyd, 1999)--may account for variances among the vocational identity statuses of achievement, foreclosure, moratorium, and diffusion in emerging adults.
Time Perspective and Identity
Conceptually, the psychological aspects of time are integral to the formation of identity. Erikson (1968) viewed the synthesis and continuity of past, present, and future as important in identity formation. Similarly, based on his work with identity status interviews, Marcia (1993) indicated that one's outlook on the future can account for the variation in identity statuses. For example, people with a diffuse identity status, characterized by the absence of exploration and commitments and lacking a sense of identity, are likely to have little sense of the future and are primarily focused on the present. People with a foreclosed status, characterized by an absence of exploration and a conferred commitment by parents or other authority figures, see the future as a plan for life created by others that they seek to fulfill. In contrast, people with an identity achievement status, characterized by both exploration and commitment and having a self-constructed sense of identity, also tend to be focused on the future; however, it is a future that they have designed for themselves. People with a moratorium identity status, characterized by exploration without commitment, vacillate between the past and the future while they are simultaneously consumed with the present in the struggle for an identity.
Research has shown that time perspective is linked with identity statuses. For example, Rappaport, Enrich, and Wilson (1985) found that identity achievers and people in the moratorium status have a higher degree of futurity than do those who are in diffuse and foreclosed statuses. Pulkkinen and Ronka (1994) also reported a positive relationship between identity achievement with clarity of future plans and evaluation of the future. Recent research has also affirmed that different identity statuses relate to varying views on the past, present, and future. Laghi, Baiocco, Liga, Guarino, and Baumgartner (2013) conducted a study with a sample of adolescents and reported that achieved identity was associated with an orientation toward the future, making connections between present behavior and future outcomes, and a tendency to view the past in positive terms. Moratorium and foreclosed identity statuses were associated positively with future time perspective and positive views of the past, with the exception that moratorium also tended to be inversely related to negative views of the past. Diffuse identity status was associated with less orientation toward the future, a tendency not to make a connection between current behavior and future outcomes, and a tendency to view the past negatively.
Although time perspective has been investigated in relation to achievement of global identity, it has not been studied in relation to the more domain-specific vocational identity. This is particularly relevant because domain-specific identities (e.g., vocational, religious, political, lifestyle) should not be considered a unitary construct subsumed by global identity and, therefore, should be investigated separately when applicable (Goossens, 2001). In fact, research suggests that vocational identity may serve as a precursor to and facilitator of global identity development (Skorikov & Vondracek, 1998).
Time Perspective and Career Development
Research in career development regarding the psychological aspects of time has focused largely on future time perspective. Future time perspective has been found to be integral to career maturity (Lennings, 1994; Savickas, Silling, & Schwartz, 1984), career decidedness (Ferrari, Nota, & Soresi, 2010), and career planning (Janeiro, 2010; Marko & Savickas, 1998). This research suggests that future time perspective is associated with career-related variables that are also associated with an achieved vocational identity (e. g., Chartrand et al., 1990; Graef et al., 1985; Wanberg & Muchinsky, 1992). However, these studies have generally focused on the degree to which participants were able to orient themselves toward the future and did not examine how other psychological aspects of time may relate to the outcomes in question.
Although not extensively studied, some research suggests that time perspectives other than the future alone may influence career development. Taber (2013) reported significant multivariate relations among past, present, and future time perspectives and career decision-making difficulties in a sample of adults seeking career counseling. The results of the study indicated that viewing one's past as negative while viewing the present in hedonistic terms and feeling that the future is outside one's control was related to difficulties associated with decision-making readiness, lack of information regarding the self, and conflicts regarding inconsistent occupational information. Furthermore, being oriented toward the future and feeling in control of it was related to motivation to engage in the career decision-making process and less indecision. Finally, viewing the past as negative and not being able to experience pleasure in the present was related to less motivation to engage in career decision making, more difficulties with occupational information, and being internally conflicted about occupational choice. Similarly, Zhang and Rottinghaus (2011) reported that mindfulness--the awareness of what is taking place in the present moment in a nonjudgmental way--was inversely related to problems in career decision making, with regard to anxiety and pessimism, and positively related to vocational self-concept and identity. Results from studies such as these suggest that views on the past, present, and future may account for psychological facilitators of and barriers to career development.
Purpose of the Study
Considering that vocational identity represents a unique domain of emerging adult development (Skorikov & Vondracek, 1998), it would seem useful to examine the relations between vocational identity statuses and time perspective. Understanding the nature of the relationship between vocational identity and time perspective could assist theorists and researchers in making more informed inferences regarding vocational identity and could provide practitioners with a possible means of intervention to facilitate vocational identity achievement. Time perspectives represent cognitive temporal frames that shape expectations, goals, judgments, decisions, and actions (Zimbardo & Boyd, 1999). Thus, the motivational and judgment components of time perspective may play a significant role in vocational identity statuses.
Because of the linkages between the psychological aspects of time and identity (Marcia, 1993), we expected that there would be shared variance between the subscales of time perspective (Past-Positive, Past-Negative, Present-Fatalistic, Present-Hedonistic, Mindfulness, and Future) and vocational identity statuses (Achievement, Moratorium, Foreclosure, and Diffusion). Although the nature of this study was exploratory, we anticipated some associations among the time and vocational identity status variables based on aforementioned research and observations on global identity. Vocational identity achievement and moratorium share self- and occupational exploration as integral components in both of these statuses. Therefore, we expected overlap with regard to time perspectives. Specifically, we anticipated that vocational identity achievement and moratorium would be positively associated with future time perspective (Marcia, 1993), positive views of the past (Laghi et al., 2013), and mindfulness (Zhang & Rottinghaus, 2011). Conversely, because vocational identity diffusion and foreclosure are associated with a lack of internal volition, we anticipated that these statuses would be inversely associated with future time perspective and mindfulness, while being positively associated with present-fatalistic time perspective (Marcia, 1993) and viewing the past in negative terms (Laghi et al., 2013).
Participants and Procedure
We recruited a convenience sample of participants from two sections of an undergraduate family studies course at a large midwestern university. The internal review board of the university approved this study. Individuals who elected to participate in the study signed an informed consent agreement and were offered extra credit in the course for their participation. We offered students two options to receive extra credit if they did not want to participate in the study. Research participants were administered paper-and-pencil versions of the measures used in the study. All measures were completed and collected in a single class period. In all, 177 students elected to participate in the study. Of these, 12 of the research protocols could not be used because of incomplete data. The final sample consisted of 165 participants (148 women and 15 men; two did not report), ranging in age from 18 to 23 years (M = 20.28, SD = 1.34). The sample consisted of 81% European Americans, 12% African Americans, 2% Hispanics, 2% Asians, and 3% multiethnic.
Vocational identity. The Occupational Identity Scale (OIS; Melgosa, 1987) is a 28-item measure that assesses vocational identity statuses with four subscales reflecting achievement (seven items), foreclosure (seven items), moratorium (eight items), and diffusion (six items). The OIS uses a 5-point Likert scale ranging from 1 (strongly disagree) to 5 (strongly agree) in response to statements pertaining to career exploration and commitment that are reflective of each identity status. Each of the subscales measures the degree of resemblance to the vocational identity statuses based on the varying degrees of occupational exploration and commitment. The vocational identity Achievement subscale reflects the occupational commitment with exploration. The Foreclosure subscale reflects occupational commitment without exploration. The Moratorium subscale reflects exploration without commitment. The Diffusion subscale reflects no exploration and no occupational commitment. Items reflect the identity statuses in relation to work. For example, the statement "After analyzing many possible occupational options, I have it clearly in my mind what my occupation will be" reflects vocational identity achievement. In contrast, the item "Although I don't have a clear idea of what my occupation will be, I don't care at this point" reflects vocational identity diffusion. The internal consistency reliabilities (Cronbach's alphas) for the current study were .83 for Achievement, .76 for Foreclosure, .84 for Moratorium, and .74 for Diffusion. Previously reported internal consistency reliabilities ranged from .70 for Diffusion to .87 for Achievement (Melgosa, 1987). The OIS has demonstrated both construct and concurrent validity evidence (Melgosa, 1987).
Time perspective. The Zimbardo Time Perspective Inventory (ZTPI; Zimbardo & Boyd, 1999) measures participants' time perspectives. The ZTPI is a 56-item inventory with five subscales reflecting the temporal zones of past-positive (nine items), past-negative (10 items), present-hedonistic (15 items), present-fatalistic (nine items), and future (13 items). The ZTPI uses a 5-point Likert scale response format ranging from 1 (strongly disagree) to 5 (strongly agree). Each of the subscales represents the five temporal frames. Past-positive reflects a warm and sentimental view of the past. Past-negative reflects a pessimistic and aversive view of the past, which may be based on actual negative life experiences or a negative reconstruction of past events. Present-hedonistic encompasses living in the moment, immediate gratification, and pleasure seeking. Present-fatalistic reflects a sense of hopelessness toward the future and an inability to connect current behavior to future consequences. Future time orientation denotes concern with achieving goals, delaying gratification, and avoidance of wasting time. Sample items of the past time orientations include statements such as "I get nostalgic about my childhood," which reflects past-positive, and "I often think about what I should have done differently in my life," which reflects past-negative. Sample items of the present time perspective include "I make decisions on the spur of the moment," which reflects present-hedonistic, and "You can't really plan for the future because things change so much," which reflects present-fatalistic. "Before making a decision, I weigh the costs against the benefits" is an example of a future time perspective item. Estimates of internal consistency reliability for the current study ranged from [alpha] = .71 for the Present-Fatalistic subscale to [alpha] = .86 for the Present-Hedonistic subscale. Previously reported internal consistency reliabilities ranged from .74 for Present-Fatalistic to .82 for Past-Negative (Zimbardo & Boyd, 1999). The ZTPI has demonstrated evidence of construct and predictive validity (Zimbardo & Boyd, 1999).
Mindfulness. In addition to the five time perspectives represented in the ZTPI, we also included a measure of mindfulness because it represents a specific type of present-time perspective. To assess mindfulness, then, we used the Mindfulness Attention Awareness Scale (MAAS; Brown & Ryan, 2003). The MAAS is a 15-item measure that assesses respondents' mindfulness or their degree of attention and awareness of what is taking place in the present. The MAAS uses a 6-point rating scale ranging from 1 (almost always) to 6 (almost never). Some sample items include "I rush through activities without being really attentive to them" and "I find myself doing things without paying attention." Estimate of the internal consistency reliability for the current study was .85. The previously reported internal consistency reliability was .87 (Brown & Ryan, 2003). The MAAS has demonstrated both construct and criterion validity evidence (Brown & Ryan, 2003).
Preliminary screening of the data found that the Diffusion subscale of the OIS had a substantial positive skew in its distribution (z = 5.29, p < .001). Thus, to improve normality of the distribution and linearity among the variables, we applied a logarithmic transformation, as recommended by Tabachnick and Fidell (2007), to the vocational identity Diffusion subscale for the statistical analyses. Assumptions of normality regarding the other variables in the study were met. Means, standards deviations, and correlations of the variables in the study are presented in Table 1. It should be noted that we conducted the back transformation of vocational identity Diffusion to identify the mean and variance in the original raw score units. The bivariate associations among the vocational identity statuses and the time perspective variables tended to be low, with correlations ranging from -.18 (p < .05) between Moratorium and Mindfulness to .27 (p < .01) between Moratorium and Past-Negative.
Because the focus of the current study was to examine the multivariate relations among the variables in the study, we conducted a canonical correlation analysis between the vocational identity statuses and time perspective sets. This analysis allows for the assessment of the extent and degree of relations among the variable sets. To explore the nature of the interrelationships among specific variables, we also examined the canonical loadings. Results indicated that the association between the two variable sets was significant, Wilks's [LAMBDA] = .65, f(24, 541) = 2.91, p < .001. Because Wilks's [LAMBDA] represents the variance unexplained, 1 - [LAMBDA] provides an effect size for the model. Therefore, 35% of the variance was shared between the two variable sets.
The dimension reduction analysis indicated that three out of four canonical variates were significant. However, because the third variate accounted for less than 10% of the variance, it was not interpreted. Table 2 shows the standardized canonical coefficients and canonical loadings for each of the interpretable variates. The first canonical correlation was .40 for the first variate and accounted for 16% of the overlapping variance. Only variable loadings greater than .30 were interpreted (Tabachnick & Fidell 2007). The first canonical variate was characterized by a strong negative loading on (log of) Diffusion (-.85) in the vocational identity status set, and positive loadings on Past-Positive (.71) and Future (.67) and a negative loading on Past-Negative (-.48) in the time perspective set. It should be noted that loadings of the same sign indicate a positive relationship. This pattern of relations suggests that a diffuse vocational identity is associated with a generally adverse reconstruction of the past and a lack of concern for the future.
The second canonical correlation was .36 and accounted for 13% of the shared variance. This variate was characterized by a positive loading on Achievement (.60) and negative loadings on Moratorium (-.74), Foreclosure (-.52), and (log of) Diffusion (-.44) vocational identity statuses, and by positive loadings on Present-Hedonistic (.44) and Mindfulness (.58) and negative loadings on Present-Fatalistic (-.37) and Past-Negative (-.65) time perspectives. This pattern of relations suggests that achievement of vocational identity is associated with a present time perspective focus and a tendency not to have an aversive view of one's past.
The present study examined multivariate relations among vocational identity statuses and time perspectives. Results indicated two distinct patterns of relations between the two variable sets. The first pattern of relations suggests that a diffuse vocational identity is directly associated with a negative view of the past and inversely related to the capacity to look toward the future. The second pattern indicated that achieved vocational identity is inversely related to other vocational identity statuses. Furthermore, this second pattern of relations indicates that achieved vocational identity is associated with the capacity to be mindfully aware of and to experience pleasure in the present, while making connections between current behavior and future outcomes and not viewing the past in negative terms. These results only partially support what was expected based on previous research on time perspective and global identity statuses (Laghi et al., 2013; Marcia, 1993; Rappaport et al., 1985). Accordingly, these results underscore the distinctiveness of vocational identity from global identity (Goossens, 2001).
The first variate, characterized by diffuse identity status, an adverse view of the past, and a tendency to not look toward the future, only partially matched our expectations. Consistent with Laghi et al. (2013) and Marcia (1993), we anticipated that diffuse vocational identity would be inversely related to future time perspective, while being positively associated with present-fatalism and viewing the past negatively. However, although the lack of future time perspective is evident, the views on the past proved to be a significant contributor to the variance in diffusion, whereas the present time perspectives had no bearing. It is possible that people with a diffused vocational identity may be preoccupied with negative past experiences or at least construct the past in such aversive terms that it may be difficult for them to engage in career exploration or contemplate a vocational future worth pursuing or committing to it. Indeed, this domination of the past in the absence of thinking about the future may lead to a lack of motivation to engage in career exploration. Furthermore, this pattern of time perspectives may indicate that vocational identity diffusion is associated with a degree of psychological distress. Research has examined the relationships between time perspective and psychopathology (van Beek, Berghuis, Kerkhof, & Beekman, 2011). Results indicated that a past-negative time perspective was positively associated with self-reported symptoms of depression and suicidality, whereas past-positive and future time perspective were inversely related to such symptoms. It is possible that vocational identity diffusion is associated with a degree of hopelessness and helplessness that may contribute to the indifference toward work and career that typifies this vocational identity status.
The second variate was characterized by vocational identity achievement being inversely related to the other vocational identity statuses and past-negative and present-fatalistic time perspectives while being positively associated with present-hedonism and mindfulness. This result only partially conformed to our expectations. Here it appears that achievement of vocational identity is associated largely with the present time perspective. Specifically, from the standpoint of the time perspective, the vocational identity achievement is associated with mindful awareness of the present; that is, being able to enjoy the here and now while acknowledging a connection between current behavior and future consequences. Furthermore, there is tendency to not view the past in negative terms. This differed from diffuse vocational identity, which showed no association with present oriented time perspectives and a general tendency to view the past negatively. This overall pattern suggests that attuning to the present in terms of what is pleasurable is important to achieving a vocational identity in emerging adults. We find it interesting that future time perspective played no role in vocational identity achievement. The overall hedonic tone, found in the second variate, could be construed to mean that vocational identity achievement in this population is related to exploring and committing to whatever emerging adults find enjoyable in relation to work. However, it should be noted that beyond hedonism itself, there is a connection between current behavior and future consequences and a mindful awareness of the present. This is significant because these views on time are linked to coping and emotion regulation (Boyd & Zimbardo, 2005; Hill & Updegraff, 2012). Therefore, it is likely that being able to enjoy the here and now while being able to self-regulate may be key in exploring and identifying what emerging adults are interested in with regard to work. Indeed, career guidance theories (e.g., Holland, 1997) have long emphasized that a good fit between people and their work is at least in part a function of the degree to which they find the nature of the job interesting and enjoyable. Within this context, it would make sense that commitment to an occupation would involve having the capacity to be aware of, and attentive to, what one enjoys without a preoccupation about past negative events.
Results of the current study have implications for counseling. Time perspective, like vocational identity, develops over time (Seginer, 2009). Furthermore, time perspective is malleable and has been demonstrated to be responsive to intervention (Marko & Savickas, 1998). Thus, because significant relations were found between the two variable sets, interventions that focus specifically on time perspective may be useful in facilitating vocational identity achievement. Baskin (1989) pointed out that those with a diffuse identity generally do not voluntarily seek out career counseling services unless they are referred by someone or face some external pressure to do so, because they are indifferent to making career choices. Diffusion may at least in part be associated with aversive views of the past and an absence of thinking about the future. Therefore, counselors may need to attend to these aspects in clients' views on time to begin the process of having clients engage in career exploration. Considering that an aversive view of the past coupled with a lack of concern for the future may be part of the reason for the indifference toward career exploration, specific time perspective interventions focusing on the past may be warranted (Zimbardo & Boyd, 2008; Zimbardo, Sword, & Sword, 2012), in addition to the enhancement of future time perspective (Marko & Savickas, 1998). Orienting individuals experiencing vocational identity diffusion toward the future may promote career awareness and the subsequent desire to engage in career exploration and planning (Savickas, 2002). Vocational identity achievement appears to be largely related to a hedonic tone in which one has the capacity to be mindful and experience both joy and a sense of control in the present. Thus, career exploration could be enhanced through specific interventions. In particular, mindfulness-based interventions (Germer, 2005; Jacobs & Blustein, 2008) can facilitate awareness of the here and now with an emphasis on focusing attention to activities that the client finds enjoyable. Enhancing mindfulness could facilitate the career exploration and commitment process for those already motivated to engage in these processes.
Results of the current study have implications for future research on identity. The patterns of relations identified in the present study suggest that time perspective in relation to vocational identity differ somewhat from what has been reported in relation to global identity. One of the interesting findings from the current study was that achieved vocational identity does not appear to be related to future time perspective. Previous work has indicated that future time perspective is evident in achieved global identity (Laghi et al., 2013; Marcia, 1993; Pulkkinen & Ronka 1994; Rappaport et al., 1985). One possible explanation for this finding could be that global identity encompasses other ideological domains (e.g., politics, religion) and lifestyle and interpersonal domains. It could be that these domains work synergistically to orient individuals toward the future. Alternatively, achieving identity in all domains may require the capacity for future time perspective. Future research in this area may do well to compare and contrast time perspectives in relation to identity statuses in differing identity domains. Considering that vocational identity achievement seems to be associated largely with a present-focused hedonic, albeit self-regulated, tone, it does call into question whether vocational commitments are in fact wise for emerging adults. Recent research suggests that people tend to view themselves in the present as being at a pinnacle of their development and underestimate how much they will change in the future (Quoidbach, Gilbert, & Wilson, 2013). Furthermore, people tend to view their present life as the best possible one, with respect to the past and future (Gomez, Grob, & Orth, 2013). Thus, emerging adults may be exploring and committing to an occupational trajectory wherein they believe that they are on the right track based on current self-views. This may, in part, explain voluntary midcareer transitions, considering that early career choices are based on how one felt about the present during emerging adulthood. Thus, research examining time perspective and vocational identity with people in the maintenance stage (Savickas, 2002) of their career could potentially help us understand why some chose to continue in their current occupation and why some may decide to transition into a different occupation.
Future research in the area of time perspective and vocational identity should further examine the nature of the relationship between time perspective and vocational identity statuses. Longitudinal research could examine if there are reciprocal effects between time perspective and vocational identity. For example, Luyckx, Lens, Smits, and Goossens (2010) reported that the present and future time perspectives and identity styles (similar to identity statuses) were mutually reinforcing over a 4-month period in a sample of college students. A similar study could examine whether such reciprocity is evident with time perspective and vocational identity. Another area of future research could examine whether the efficacy of time perspective interventions that we recommended are in fact useful in developing and facilitating an achieved vocational identity. Such a study would be especially relevant if additional research found that the relationship between vocational identity status and time perspective is in fact reciprocal over time.
The current study has some limitations. First, the nature of the study is correlational, and no cause-and-effect statements can be made. However, the patterns of relations suggest that differences in vocational identity statuses appear in part to be because of differing time perspectives. Second, participants in the study consisted mostly of European American women enrolled in college, so the selected sample limits generalizability of the findings. Previous research has indicated sex and cross-cultural differences in time perspectives (Andretta, Worrell, Mello, Dixson, & Baik, 2013; Ely & Mercurio, 2011; Mello & Worrell, 2006; Sircova et al., 2007; Zimbardo & Boyd, 1999). However, research examining sex differences in vocational identity status have not been found, and research examining cross-cultural differences and similarities in vocational identity is lacking (Skorikov & Vondracek, 2007). Thus, future research relating to time perspective and vocational identity should incorporate more diverse and noncollege participants to see if the same pattern of results emerge. Such research could be especially informative regarding any cross-cultural similarities or differences in vocational identity.
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Brian J. Taber, Department of Counseling, Oakland University; Maureen S. Blankemeyer, Department of Human Development and Family Studies, Kent State University. Correspondence concerning this article should be addressed to Brian J. Taber, Department of Counseling, Oakland University, School of Education and Human Services, 440F Pawley Hall, Rochester, MI 48309-4401 (e-mail: email@example.com).
TABLE 1 Means, Standard Deviations, and Correlations of Vocational Identity Status and Time Perspective Variables Variable M SD 1 2 3 4 1. AC 23.40 5.62 .83 2. MO 24.30 6.78 -.53 ** .84 3. FO 14.93 4.71 .17 * -.10 .76 4. DI 10.96 (a) -- (b) -.25 ** .30 ** .26 ** .74 5. PP 3.80 0.57 .14 -.09 .06 -.26 ** 6. PN 3.00 0.70 -.14 .27 ** .04 .26 ** 7. PH 3.60 0.57 .22 ** -.10 -.03 .04 8. PF 2.70 0.59 .00 .02 .19 * .20 ** 9. MI 54.20 12.41 .05 -.18 * -.13 -.13 10. FU 3.60 0.58 .03 -.06 .07 -.23 ** Variable 5 6 7 8 9 10 1. AC 2. MO 3. FO 4. DI 5. PP .75 6. PN -.40 ** .82 7. PH .24 ** .05 .86 8. PF .09 .30 ** .41 ** .71 9. MI .18 * -.42 ** -.20 * -.34 ** .85 10. FU .12 -.20 * -.34 ** -.34 ** .29 ** .81 Note. N = 165. Internal consistency reliabilities (alphas) are in boldface. AC = Achievement; MO = Moratorium; FO = Foreclosure; DI = (log of) Diffusion; PP = Past-Positive; PN = Past-Negative; PH = Present-Hedonistic; PF = Present-Fatalistic; MI = Mindfulness; FU = Future. * p<.05. ** p<.01. (a) The mean of the back-transformed data. (b) A 95% confidence interval was calculated for the back-transformed data, with a lower limit of 10.96 and an upper limit of 12.02. TABLE 2 Canonical Correlation Analysis for Vocational Identity Status Variables With Time Perspective Variables Variate 1 Variate 2 Variable Coefficient [r.sub.s] Coefficient [r.sub.s] Vocational identity status set Achievement -0.07 .18 0.38 .60* Moratorium 0.19 -.15 -0.60 -.74* Foreclosure 0.55 .25 -0.64 -.52* (Log of) Diffusion -1.07 -.85* 0.00 -.44* % variance 0.21 0.34 Redundancy 0.03 0.05 Time perspective set Past-Positive 0.70 .71* -0.21 .20 Past-Negative -0.20 -.48* -0.49 -.65* Present-Hedonistic -0.23 -.22 0.73 .44* Present-Fatalistic -0.12 -.26 -0.38 -.37* Mindfulness -0.37 .08 0.45 .58* Future 0.54 .67* -0.08 .00 % variance 0.22 0.19 Redundancy 0.04 0.03 [R.sub.c] 0.40 0.36 Note. N = 165. Canonical loadings greater than .30 are in boldface. Note: N = 165. Canonical loadings greater than .30 indicated with *.
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|Author:||Taber, Brian J.; Blankemeyer, Maureen S.|
|Publication:||Career Development Quarterly|
|Date:||Jun 1, 2015|
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