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Tillandsia santieusebii Morillo & Oliva-Esteve, a new species from the Venezuelan Andes.

Tillandsia santieusebii Morillo & Oliva-Esteva, sp. Nov.

Type: Venezuela; Edo. Merida: San Eusebio (La Carbonera)18-22 km W-NW of Jaji, in low mountain cloud forest, alt. 2200-2400 msnm, April 30, 2006, Gilberto Morillo 13576 (Holotype MER, Isotype VEN).
 Herba epiphytica, erecta, 2.2-3.2 m alta, acaulis. Folia
 lingulato-triangularia, 42-75 cm longa, 7.0-9.5 cm lata, supra
 leviter longitudinaliterque sulcata, apice acuminata, leviter
 aculeata, aculeo pungente; scapo 115-125 cm longo, bracteato,
 bracteis erectis, acuminatis; inflorescencia pinnata, 65-115 cm
 longa, spicis pedunculo ut videtur glabro, 15-24 cm longis, 4-5.5
 cm latis, 14-17-floris; bracteis florigeris viridibus, 4.3-5 cm
 longis, 1-1.2 cm latis, apice incurvatis, sepalis viridibus,
 suboblongis, 3.4-3.5 cm longis, 0.3-0.4 cm latis, apice apiculatis,
 incurvis; petalis 4-4.7cm longis, lilacinis vel leviter purpureis;
 ovarium triloculare, trilobatum, 10 mm longum, stylo 21-22 mm
 longo, stigmatibus 3-3.2 mm longis, papillosis, staminibus petala
 non superantibus, inclusis, antheris linearibus, 11-12 mm longis,
 0.7-0.8 mm latis; capsulis viridibus, immaturis, 4.5-5 cm longis,
 1.4-1.5 cm latis, seminibus 0.45-0.5 cm longis, pappo 1.5-1.7 cm
 longo.


Plant epiphytic, flowering 2.2-3.2 m tall, acaulescent. Leaves forming a broad tank rosette, the rosette about 0.4-0.8 m high and 1.2 to 1.6 m in diameter; sheaths large, light brown below, 13-16 cm long; blades firm, triangular-ligulate, light green to yellowish green, 42-75 cm long, 7.0 a 9.5 cm wide in the lower half, the surface longitudinally sulcate, with conspicuous parallel veins, the apex often reddish, shortly acuminate or attenuate, slightly pungent. Scape with inflorescence 1.8 to 2.4 m long (between 4/5 and 3/4 the length of the whole plant), subterete, red and light orange, 115-125 cm long, 2-3.5 cm wide, covered by imbricate bracts; scape bracts erect, acute to acuminate, pungent, the lower half light yellow and pink, apical half green, the lower scape bracts 18 to 21 cm long, gradually reduced in size upwards the inflorescence. Inflorescence terminal, polystic, once-branched, with 22 to 47 spikes; lower primary bract 5-7,5 cm long, red or greenish yellow with reddish edges, long acuminate, shorter than half of the spike; spikes distichous-flowered, oblong-elliptic, frequently spreading or somewhat erect, usually 22-24 cm long (the lower one 15-16 x 4 cm), 4.2 to 5.5 cm wide, or wider when in fruit, 1.8-2 cm thick, with 14 to 17 flowers, one in anthesis at a time, bearing 3-4 basal sterile bracts; floral bracts 4.3-5 x 1-1.2 cm, red to light green, elliptic-navicular, 3.9-4.8 cm long and slightly to moderately carinate when dry, apex curved; flowers subsessile; sepals shortly connate at base, light green, 3.4-3.5 x 0.3-0.4 cm, unequally oblong-lanceolate, externally convex, apex apiculate, curved, suffused with pink, the posterior ones carinate; petals slightly twisted, 4-4.7 cm long, white below the claw, claw 1-1.2 cm long, curved outward, obtuse and slightly retuse at apex, light purple to lilac; ovary light green, 3-chambered, broadly 3-lobed, 10 mm long, 3.4-3.6 mm wide at base; style 21-22 mm long; stigmas 3-3,2 mm long, papillose; stamens somewhat shorter than the petals; filaments translucent, 1,5-1,8 mm wide, flat lenghtwise except somewhat twisted close to the anthers; anthers linear, 11-12 mm long, 0,7-0,8 mm wide. Capsules immature, green, 4,5-5 cm long, 1,4-1,5 cm wide; seeds oblong, 0,45-0,5 cm long, tuff of hairs (pappus-like process) 1,5-1,7 cm long, whitish.

[FIGURE 1 OMITTED]

Paratype: Venezuela: Edo. Merida: San Eusebio, selva montano baja, a unos 20 kms de Jaji, alt. 2300 msnm, 30 April 2006, G. Morillo & F. Oliva-Esteve 13573 (MER, COL); same locality, 27 Dec. 1994, F. Oliva-Esteve, G.Morillo & B. Manara 246 (VEN?).

This beautifull plant is a large epiphyte, relatively rare in the misty humid highly diverse cloud forest of the Venezuelan Andes in the state of Merida (San Eusebio) and Tachira (headwaters of Quinimari River), at altitudes ranging from 2100 to 2400 m above sea level.

The cloud forest Selva Nublada Montano baja, where our species was first found (San Eusebio), has been partly cut, and many of the plant species originally frequent there are now in critical danger. This forest is characterized by having at least three stories, with an irregular canopy which varies between 20 and 35m high. Mean annual temperatures vary between 14[degrees] and 18[degrees]C, annual rainfall varies between 1500 and 2500 mm, and the cloud rate is high during the whole year (Ataroff 2003). There are more than 100 species of trees in San Eusebio. Dominant plant families in the area include: Lauraceae, Rubiaceae, Melastomataceae, Araliaceae, Arecaceae, Euphorbiaceae, Myrtaceae, Piperaceae and Solanaceae, and within the vascular epiphytes Orchidaceae has more than 120 species.

[FIGURE 2 OMITTED]

There are at least eight species of Bromeliads frequently found in the locality where the new species was collected. Pitcairnia meridensis K1. ex Mez is terrestrial, the rest are usually epiphytes: Guzmania mitis L.B. Smith, Racinaea tetrantha (Ruiz et Pav.) M. Spencer & L.B. Sm., Tillandsia biflora Ruiz et Pav., T. complanata Benth., T. longifolia Baker, T. tovarensis Mez and Vriesea tequendamae (Andre) L.B. Smith.

A different grouping of bromeliads live some miles away from the type locality, within a drier vegetation, and as part of semideciduous and secondary forests, which occur in the state of Merida at lower altitudes. There you can see Catopsis nutans (Sw.) Griseb., Guzmania monostachya (L.) Rusby ex Mez, Racinaea tenuispica (Andre) M. Spencer & L.B. Sm., Tillandsia fendleri Griseb., T. myriantha Baker, T. juncea (Ruiz et Pav.) Poiret and T. variabilis Schltr. are common. Sometimes it is also possible to find Puya floccosa (Linden) E. Morr. Ex Mez, as terrestrial, and Tillandsia biflora Ruiz et Pav., T. complanata Benth. and the very interesting T. francisci W. Till & J.R. Grant, growing as epiphytes.

The new species was collected by the authors for the first time in 1994, but was not properly identified until now. New collections, a more detailed study of the living plants, more complete literature, and information obtained from Julio Betancur (Colombia) and Francisco Morales (Costa Rica), have led us to conclude that it is a plant not described previously. Main references used in our investigation include keys to the subgenera and description of species of tillandsia published by Smith (1957) for Colombia, Gilmartin (1972) for Ecuador, and Smith & Downs (1977). Other important references used in our study include, the treatment of Bromeliaceae for Flora Mesoamericana by Utley and Burt-Utley (1994), and books with photographs published by Oliva-Esteve (2000); Oliva-Esteve (2002), Shimizu & Takizawa (1998) and Oliva-Esteve & Steyermark (1987).Additional information was obtained from Garcia & Betancur (2002) and Till and Grant (2003), and from internet sources at the Missouri Botanical Garden's VAST database http://mobot.mobot.org/W3T/Search/ vast.html and the International Plant Names Index http://www.ipni.org/ipni/plantnamesearchpage. do

Initially we thought that the new taxon could be placed within Allardtia Baker, a large subgenus comprised by more than 150 species, as treated by Smith & Downs (1977). However, partial results published by Barfuss, Samuel et al. (2005), and Till and Barfuss (2006) strongly indicate that Allardtia is not a natural group (not monophyletic), and therefore includes species from diverse origins. Due to the large number of taxa involved, and the lack of a complete taxonomic and phylogenetic work within the genus, it is not possible to propose close affinities to our species.

[FIGURE 3 OMITTED]

Based on sources consulted and cited above, we find that Tillandsia santieusebii presents significant morphological similarities with T. pallescens Betancur & N Garcia, (from Colombia), T. pastensis Andre (from Colombia to Peru), T. superba Mez et Sodiro, and T. stenoura (from Ecuador), T. wurdackii L.B. Sm., (from Peru), and with T. oerstediana L.B. Sm. (from Costa Rica and Panama). A comparison between the six species cited above, and the proposed T. santieusebii is presented in table 1.

Literature cited

Ataroff, M. (2003). Selvas y Bosques de Montana. Biodiversidad en Venezuela, Vol. 2. A. Aguilera and J. Gonzalez: 762-810.

Barfuss, M. H. J., R. Samuel, et al. (2005). "Phylogenetic relationships in subfamily Tillandsioideae (Bromeliaceae) based on DNA sequence data from seven plastid regions." Am. J. Bot. 92: 337-351.

Garcia, N. and J. Betancur (2002). "Dos especies nuevas de Tillandsia (Bromeliaceae) de la Cordillera oriental de Colombia." Caldasia 24(1): 1-7.

Gilmartin, A. J. (1972). The Bromeliaceae of Ecuador, Phnerogamarum Monographie Tomus IV. Stuttgart, Germany, Verlag von Cramer.

Oliva-Esteve, F. (2000). Bromelias. Caracas, Armitano Editores.

Oliva-Esteve, F. (2002). Bromeliaceae III. Caracas, Producciones Oliva-Esteva.

Oliva-Esteve, F. and J. A. Steyermark (1987). Bromeliaceaes of Venezuela: Native and Cultived [original spelling] Caracas, Graficas Armitano, C.A.

Shimizu, H. and H. Takizawa (1998). New Tillandsia Handbook. Tokyo, Japan Cactus Planning Co. Press.

Smith, L. B. (1957). "The Bromeliaceae of Colombia." Contr. U.S. Natl. Herb. 33: 1-311.

Smith, L. B. and R. J. Downs (1977). Flora Neotropica Monograph No. 14, Part 2: Tillandsioideae (Bromeliaceae). New York, Hafner Press.

Till, W. H. and M. H. J. Barfuss (2006). "Progress towards a new classification of Tillandsioideae." J. Bromeliad Soc. 56(6): 253-259.

Till, W. H. and J. Grant (2003). "Tillandsia francisci, a large new species from the Andes of Venezuela and Colombia." J. Bromeliad Soc. 53(5): 195-199.

Utley, J. and K. Burt-Utley (1994). Bromeliaceae. Flora Mesoamericana 6. G. Davidse and M. Sousa: 92-94.

Gilberto Morillo (1) & Francisco Oliva-Esteve (2)

(1) gmorillo@ula.ve

(2) olivaf@supercable.net.ve
Table 1. Comparrison of Tillandsia santieusbii Morillo & Oliva-Esteve
to T. oerstediana, T. pallescens, T. pastensis, T. stenoura and T.
superba.

Tillandsia santieusbii Morillo & Oliva-Esteve

Character/ Plant Leaf sheath (cm)
species height
 when in
 flower
 (m)

T. santieusebii 2.2-3.2 13-16 x 12-15,
(Venezuela) light brown
 beneath, dark
 brown above

T. oerstediana 0.6- 1-2 Width 7-11, light
(Costa Rica brown, paler
Panama) beneath

T. pallescens 1.1-1.7 18-23.5 x 8.3-
(Colombia) 11.4, purple

T. pastensis 1-1.5 same color as
(Colombia & blade
Ecuador)

T. stenoura 1-1.5 10-18 x 5.5-10,
(Ecuador) purple, very dark
 when dry

T. superba Up to 2 26 x 15, purple
(Ecuador)

Character/ Leaves (size, shape, Scape, scape bracts
species color)

T. santieusebii 55-91 cm long. Erect,
(Venezuela) Blade 42-75 x 7-9.5, 1.15 -1.25 m long,
 triangular-ligulate, 2-3.5
 acuminate to cm diam. Lower
 attenuate, bracts
 pungent, green 18-20 cm long, upper
 with reddish apex bracts 5-7.5 cm
 long,
 yellow-pink and green

T. oerstediana 40-80 cm long, Erect, 0.30-0.50 m
(Costa Rica & Blade narrowly long, shorter than
Panama) triangular-ligulate, leaves, Bracts
 attenuate, 3-6.5 cm subfoliaceous, green
 wide, medium green
 above, light
 grayish-green
 beaneath

T. pallescens 47-71 cm long. Erect, 0.59-0.73 m
(Colombia) Blade narrowly- long, 1.1-1.4 cm
 triangular, in diameter.
 acuminate Bracts
 27.5-47 x 5-8, green foliaceus, 8-24 cm
 long,
 tiangular,
 attenuate,
 green

T. pastensis 50-60 cm long. Erect, exceeding
(Colombia & Blade ligulate, leaf-rosette,
Ecuador) acute 1 cm in
 to acuminate, 4.5-8 diameter. Bracts
 cm wide, 18 cm
 green with lilac long or longer,
 spots acute or
 acuminate.

T. stenoura 25-70 cm long. Erect, 0.50-0.75 m
(Ecuador) Blade triangular to long, 1-1.5 cm in
 ligulate, 3-5.5 cm diameter. Bracts
 wide 12-30 cm
 long, acuminate,
 red.

T. superba 50-70 cm long. With inflorescence
(Ecuador) Blade ligulate, 2 m
 acute, long, 1.1 cm
 9-11 cm wide, green diameter.
 densely purple- Bracts red and light
 spotted. green.

Character/ Inflorescence Spikes
species

T. santieusebii Bipinnate, lax Frequently
(Venezuela) raquis 0.65- spreading or
 1.15 m long, erect, 22-24 x
 with 22 to 47 4.2-5.5 cm, with
 spikes 14-17 flowers, 3-4
 sterile bracts at
 base

T. oerstediana Bipinnate, lax Spreading,
(Costa Rica & raquis 0.5-1.10 oblong-
Panama) m long, lanceolate,
 light green, 10-20 x 3 cm,
 with 32 to 35 with 9 to 17
 spikes flowers

T. pallescens Bipinnate, lax Spreading to
(Colombia) or subdense, slightly reflexed,
 45-58 cm long, ovate, 4-7 x 2-4.5
 with 44 to 80 cm, with 3 to 5
 spikes flowers, no sterile
 bracts at base

T. pastensis Bipinnate Erect, 4.5-7.5 x
(Colombia & dense- 2 cm, with 6-8
Ecuador) cylindric, 30.50 cm flowers
 long,
 With ca.25
 spikes

T. stenoura Bipinnate Erect to spreading,
(Ecuador) or tripinnate, 5-20 x 2-5.5
 0.25-0.5 m cm,
 long, purple, with 6 to 30
 with 12 to 15 flowers
 spikes

T. superba Bipinnate, Spreading to
(Ecuador) subdense, 40-100 reflexed, subovate,
 cm long, with 11 x 4.5 cm, with
 33-40 spikes 11-18 flowers

Character/ Primary bracts Flower bracts (cm)
species

T. santieusebii Erect, ovate- 4.3-5 (3.9-4.8 when
(Venezuela) lanceolate, dry)
 5-7.5 cm long, elliptic-navicular,
 acuminate apex curved,
 to caudate, shorter carinate,
 than half of the red to light
 spike, green
 red or greenish-
 yellow
 with red.

T. oerstediana Broadly ovate, 10-20 3-5.5, carinate,
(Costa Rica cm long, acuminate light green o
Panama) to yellowish-green
 attenuate, shorter
 or as
 long as the spike,
 light
 green

T. pallescens Spreading to 3.2-3.8, elliptic
(Colombia) somewhat oblong, acute
 reflexed, ovate- apiculate,
 orbicular carinate, yellow
 at base, upper with reddish edge
 bracts
 ovate-lanceolate,
 apiculate, 3.5-4.5
 cm long,
 green with red apex,
 as long as the
 spikes,

T. pastensis Erect, 4-10 cm long, 1.9-2.4, ovate
(Colombia & triangular, elliptic,
Ecuador) acuminate acute, carinate,
 to caudate, red, at base
 least yellowish-green,
 the lower upper half
 exceeding the red
 spikes

T. stenoura Erect to 2.5-3.5, ovate,
(Ecuador) spreading, acuminate,
 ovate, 4-7 cm bicarinate,
 long, red unicarinate
 sometimes with toward
 dark apex, red to
 edges, much purple
 shorter
 than spikes

T. superba Sharply reflexed, 3.5-4, acute to
(Ecuador) elliptic, obtusem bicarinate,
 acute, red, 4.5-7 cm red.
 long, less than 1/2
 length
 of spikes.

Character/ Sepals (cm) Petals
species

T. santieusebii 3.4-3.5, oblong- 4.0-4.7 cm
(Venezuela) lanceolate, long,
 apiculate, shortly blades lilac
 connate, to purple
 posterior carinate,
 green
 suffused with pink

T. oerstediana 2.5-3.2, lanceolate, Much
(Costa Rica posterior longer than
Panama) shortly connate, floral bracts,
 strongly carinate blades lilac

T. pallescens 2.8-3.3, oblong, Not known
(Colombia) posterior
 shortly connate,
 carinate

T. pastensis 1.7-1.8, 2.5 cm
(Colombia & elliptic, posterior long,
Ecuador) shortly blades
 connate, posterior white with
 carinate purple
 apices

T. stenoura 2.1-2.5, narrowly 3 cm long,
(Ecuador) elliptic to blades
 narrowly lanceolate, violet or
 acute, lavender
 posterior carinate

T. superba 3.6, 3.6-4 cm
(Ecuador) linear-ovate, acute, long,
 the blue
 posterior carinate,
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Title Annotation:Scientific
Author:Morillo, Gilberto; Oliva-Esteve, Francisco
Publication:Journal of the Bromeliad Society
Date:Jul 1, 2007
Words:2433
Previous Article:Aechmea roberto-seidelii: the correct name for Aechmea guarapariensis.
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