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Tillandsia magnispica (Bromeliaceae: tillandsioideae), a new species from Oaxaca, Mexico.

As a result of our explorations in the field and the revision of herbarium material in the main Mexican and foreign institutional herbaria, in order to complete the Flora Bromeliologica Mexicana, we detected material from one undescribed species of the genus Tillandsia that we propose here as:

Tillandsia magnispica Espejo et L6pez-Ferrari, sp. nov. Figs. 1, 3B

Herba epiphytica, acaulis, rosulata, florens usque 80 cm alta. Folia numerosa, vaginae distinctae, ellipticae, 7-10 cm longae, 4-5 cm latae; laminae anguste triangulari-lanceolatae, 37-55 cm longae, 1.3-1.7 cm latae, involutae, distaliter arcuatae; scapus inflorescentiae erectus, teres, 29-50 cm longus; inflorescentia simplicissima; spica anguste elliptica, complanata, 18-25 cm longa, 3.5-4.5 cm lata; bracteae florales distichae, imbricatae, late ovatae, 5-5.5 cm longae, 4-4.5 cm latae, carinatae, supera virides, basalia incarnatae, nervatae; petala 7-8 cm longa, ca. 1 cm lata, violacea; stamina subaequalia, exserta, stylus exsertus.

Plants stemless, epiphytic, flowering up to 80 cm high; leaves numerous, forming a tank rosette ca. 40 cm in diameter; leaf sheaths elliptic, 7-10 cm long, 4-5 cm wide, glabrous and dark brown adaxially, glabrous and light brown abaxially; leaf blades narrowly triangular to lanceolate, 37-55 cm long, 1.3-1.7 cm wide at the widest part, coriaceous, lepidote, tapering to a long filiform and acuminate apex, margins involute; inflorescence erect, simple, to 75 cm long; scape 29-50 cm long, erect, stout, ca. 1 cm in diameter, scape bracts polystichous, imbricate, rose-coloured, the lower foliaceous, the blades similar to the leaves, the upper bladeless or with much reduced blades, linear-subulate, the sheaths ovate, to 5 cm long and 3 cm wide, concealing the scape; spike erect, narrowly elliptic to oblong, 18-25 cm long, 3.5-4.5 cm wide, complanate, up to 28 flowered, larger than the leaves, floral bracts distichous, imbricate, longer than the sepals, glabrous, the basal ones rose-coloured, the upper ones bright green, marginally wine-coloured, widely ovate, conduplicate, carinate, acuminate, with a pungent apex, conspicuously nerved when dried, 5-5.5 cm long, 4-4.5 cm wide; flowers, erect, sessile, successive; sepals elliptic to oblong, glabrous, acute, the posterior ones carinate and shortly connate at the base, pale green, 3.4-4 cm long, 1-1.2 cm wide; petals narrowly oblong to spatulate, glabrous, obtuse, free, violet at the upper half, white at the base, 7-8 cm long, ca. 1 cm wide, stamens subaequal, filaments linear, 8.7-9 cm long, violet and complanate at apical end, white at the base, anthers oblong, yellow, 4.5-5 mm long; ovary ovoid, green, ca. 7 mm long, 5 mm in diameter; style white, 8.7-9.5 cm long; stigma white, trilobulate, spiral conduplicate (Brown & Gilmartin, 1984),4.5-5 mm in diameter; fruit not seen.

Type: Mexico, Oaxaca, distrito de Pochutla, municipio de San Pedro Pochutla, alrededores de Toltepec, ca. 4.5 km despues de San Jose Chacalapa, carretera Pochutla-Miahuatlan, 15[grados]51'47" N; 96[grados]27'58" W, 285 m s.n.m., selva mediana, 10 VIII.2001, A. Espejo, A. R. Lopez-Ferrari, J. Ceja y A. Mendoza R. 6312 (Holotype (in three sheets): UAMIZ; Isotype IEB).

[FIGURA 1 OMITIR]

[FIGURA 2 OMITIR]

Paratypes: Mexico, Oaxaca, distrito de Pochutla, municipio de San Pedro Pochutla, N of Pochutla, 1981, C. S. Gardner 1445 (SEL, US, line drawing by Gardner, 1982); distrito de Pochutla, municipio de San Pedro el Alto, 18 km al S de San Miguel Suchistepec, sobre la carretera a Pochutla, 1700 m s.n.m. Bosque de Pinucs oocarpa sobre ladera metamorfica, 22.IX.1965, J. Rzedowski 20648 ENCB(x3), LL, MICH, TEX).

[FIGURA 3 OMITIR]

Tillandsia magnispica is endemic to Oaxaca (Espejo-Serna et al., 2007 p. 138), and known only from the Municipalities of San Pedro Pochutla and San Pedro el Alto, District of Pochutla (Fig. 4).

The material of the new species has been identified by some authors (Gardner, 1982, pp. 145-146; McVaugh, 1989, p. 58) as Tillandsia jaliscomonticola Matuda (Figs. 2, 3A), a taxon only known from Colima, Jalisco, and Michoacan (Espejo et al., 2004, p. 63) (Fig. 4 and Appendix), however the differences between the two taxa showed in the table 1 and figures 1, 2, and 3, are conspicuous.

[FIGURA 4 OMITIR]

APPENDIX

Tillandsia jaliscomonticola exsiccata

COLIMA, municipio de Ixtlahuacan: 26 de julio, a 12 km al E de Agua de la Virgen, 18[grados]57'2" N, 103[grados]32'30" W, 23.1X.1983, E. J. Lott, E. Martinez S. y J. A. S. Magallanes 1925A (MEXU, MICH, MO); municipio de Minatitlan: Cerro Grande, brecha de Juloapan a Lagunitas, despues del campo 4, 19[grados]22'40" N, 103[grados]51'30" W, bosque tropical caducifolio, 17.X.1990, M. Chazaro B., M. Huerta M., C. Ortiz A. y J. Gomez H. 6454 (IEB). Jalisco, municipio de Cabo Corrientes: near Puerto Vallarta, 1X.1994, W Berg s. n. (SEL); sierra El Tuiz (Tuito), 27.X.1974, C. R. Beutelspacher sub E. Matuda 38657 (MEXUx2); ca. 11 km despues de El Tuito, rumbo a Puerto Vallarta, 12.IV. 2003, J. Ceja, A. Espejo, A. R. Lopez-Ferrari y A. Mendoza R. 1438 (UAMIZx5); ca. 0.5 km despues de Pedro Moreno, rumbo a El Tuito, 20[grados]24'23" N, 105[grados]18'12" W, 637 m, bosque de pino-encino, 30.VII.2003, J. Ceja, A. Espejo, A. R. Lopez-Ferrari, A. Mendoza R. e I. Ramirez M. 1473 (UAMIZx5); along the highway in the gorge of the rio Horcones, south of Puerto Vallarta, about 22.5 km from Puerto Vallarta, 5.X1.1971, J. V. A. Dieterle 4067 (ENCB, MEXU, MICH); aproximadamente 1 km sobre la brecha a Coyonzalo, a partir del km 187 de la carretera Puerto Vallarta - El Tuito, 2.IV. 1993, A. R. Lopez-Ferrari y A. Espejo 1771(UAMIZx3); 6.1 km al W de El Tuito, sobre el camino a Ixtlahuahuey, 17.X.1985, P. Magana 353 (MEXUx2); 10 km al N de El Tuito, 115 km al N de la estacion de biologia Charnela, sobre la carretera Barra de Navidad - Puerto Vallarta, 1811985, P. Magana y E. J. Lott 42 (ENCB, MEXU, MO); 32 km al S de Puerto Vallarta sobre la carretera que va a Barra de Navidad, 1.1X.1985, P. Magana, R. Ayala y G. Ayala 279 (ENCB, MEXUx2), municipio de La Huerta, estacion de biologia Charnela, vereda Calandria, 100 m antes de la estacion meteorologica, 1911985, P. Magana y E. J. Lott 46 (ENCB), 9.4 km del camino Juan Gil Preciado - Los Ranchitos - Nacastillo, 15.X.1985, P. Magana, A. Solls, E. J. Lott y G. Ayala 322 (MEXU); 6.1 km del camino Juan Gil Preciado - Los Ranchitos - Nacastillo, 15.X.1985, P. Magana, A. Solls, E. J. Lott y G. Ayala 333 (ENCB, LL, MEXUx2); municipio de Tomatlan: 47 km al N de la estacion de biologia Charnela, sobre la carretera Barra de Navidad - Puerto Vallarta, 30.IV.1985, P. Magana y E. J. Lott 239 (MEXU); near the new road 4-22 km northwest of rio San Nicolas and 20-40 km southeast of Tomatlan, 11.XII.1970, R. McVaugh 25251 (MICH); municipio de Tuxcacuesco: Tuxcacuesco, 13.XI.1943, E. A. Anderson s. n. (MO); sin localidad, 11.1992, A. Lau Jr. sub H. E. Luther s. n. (SEL). MICHOACAN, municipio de Aguililla, 4 km al NO de Aguililla, 18'45'N, 102[grados]45'45" W, 950 m, selva baja caducifolia, 9.IV.1985, J. C. Soto N., A. Roman de Soto y F. Soto R. 8067 (MEXU).

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

We thank the following herbaria for providing specimens and data used in this work: ENCB, IEB, LL, MEXU, MICH, MO, SEL, TEX, UAMIZ and US; Jacqueline Ceja-Romero and Aniceto Mendoza-Ruiz for their invaluable help with field work; and Nancy Martinez-Correa for the elaboration of the map.

Recibido en mayo 2008.

Aceptado en agosto 2008.

LITERATURE CITED

Brown, G. K. & A. J. Gilmartin. 1984. Stigma structure and variation in Bromeliaceae neglected taxonomic characters. Brittonia 36: 364-374.

Espejo, A., A. R. Lopez-Ferrari, I. Ramirez-Morillo, B. K. Holst, H. E. Luther & W Till. 2004. Checklist of Mexican Bromeliaceae with notes on species distribution and levels of endemism. Selbyana 25: 33-86.

Espejo-Serna, A., A. R. Lopez-Ferrari, N. Martinez-Correa & V A. Pulido-Espaza. 2007. Bromeliad flora of Oaxaca, Mexico: richness and distribution. Acta Bot. Mex. 81: 71-147.

Gardner, C. S.1982. A systematic study of Tillandsia subgenus Tillandsia. Ph. D. Dissertation. Texas A & M University, College Station. Corpus Christi. 305 pp.

McVaugh, R. 1989. Bromeliaceae. In: Anderson, W R. (ed). Flora Novo-Galiciana. The University of Michigan Herbarium. Ann Arbor. vol. 15 pp. 4-79.

ADOLFO ESPEJO-SERNA Y ANA ROSA LOPEZ-FERRARI

Universidad Autonoma Metropolitana-lztapalapa, Division de Ciencias Biologicas y de la Salud, Departamento de Biologia, Herbario Metropolitano, 09340 Mexico, D.F. Mexico. aes@xanum.uam.mx
Table 1. Comparative characteristics of T. magnispica and
T. jaliscomonticola.

                   T. magnispica      T. jaliscomonticola

foliar sheats      7-10 cm long,      11.5-15 cm long,
  dimensions         4-5 cm wide        5.5-6 cm wide
spike number       1                  1-3
spike width        3.5-4.5 cm         6-8.2 cm
petals length      7-8 cm long        6-7 cm long
stamens            subaequal          unaequal
geographical       Oaxaca             Colima, Jalisco and Michoacan
  distribution
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Author:Espejo-Serna, Adolfo; Lopez-Ferrari, Ana Rosa
Publication:Acta Botanica Mexicana
Date:Jan 1, 2009
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