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Tidying up mineral names: an IMA-CNMNC scheme for suffixes, hyphens and diacritical marks; Mineral names which do not conform to the current nomenclature guidelines of the Commission on New Minerals, Nomenclature and Classification have to be corrected, and in the future a suffix-based nomenclature is to be used for new mineral names.

INTRODUCTION

In 2004, Peter Bayliss successfully proposed (IMA 04-C) to change the two-word mineral name cesium kupletskite to kupletskite-(Cs). In October 2005, Bayliss submitted a proposal to the Commission on New Minerals and Mineral Names (CNMMN) to eliminate the space in all similar two-word cases. This proposal was forwarded to the members for comments, but was not voted on because the CNMMN chairman and vice-chairman were of the opinion that a more generalized correction exercise was needed. Bayliss then revised his proposal into a wider discussion paper (March 2006) on suffix and prefix nomenclature, which was made available to the members on the occasion of the IMA meeting in Kobe, July 2006. It was decided in Kobe that the Chairman of the newly merged Commission on New Minerals, Nomenclature and Classification (CNMNC) would take up the issue for further discussion.

The efforts of Bayliss coincided indeed with the experiences of the Chairman during the operation to clean up the GQN* minerals (Burke, 2006): on going through the list of mineral names it was evident that mineralogical nomenclature has not always been applied in a consistent way. Many names have been given to minerals before the CNMMN started to draft any rules for nomenclature, and later such rules have regularly been ignored, even by the CNMMN itself.

The present paper aims to give a view on suffix nomenclature versus prefix nomenclature, to list mineral names with correct diacritical marks, and to correct mineral names consisting of two words or having superfluous hyphens and diacritical marks. The names and the name changes given in this paper have been approved by the CNMNC (proposal IMA 07-C, September 2007). Names written in bold in this paper were approved by the CNMNC to be correctly spelled names.

SUFFIX NOMENCLATURE VERSUS PREFIX NOMENCLATURE

Bayliss has summed up in his 2006 discussion paper the pros and the cons of the suffix nomenclature versus the prefix nomenclature, and his conclusion was that the CNMNC should require that the author(s) of a new-mineral proposal should use a suffix nomenclature rather than a prefix nomenclature.

The suffix nomenclature has been introduced by Levinson (1966) for rare-earth mineral species. This nomenclature has been extended to other chemical elements with minerals such as ardennite, jahnsite, julgoldite, meurigite, pumpellyite, struvite, wallkilldellite, and whiteite. Bayliss and Levinson (1988) made a revision and extension to the suffix nomenclature, where multiple chemical elements in parentheses indicate different structural positions such as jahnsite-(CaMnFe).

The suffix nomenclature (single and multiple) has subsequently been used in revised nomenclature schemes for several mineral groups: zeolites (Coombs et al., 1997), labuntsovites (Chukanov et al., 2002), arrojadites (Chopin et al., 2006) and epidotes (Armbruster et al, 2006). Chemical-element suffixes without parentheses indicate extra-framework cations (e.g., zeolites and labuntsovites).

The CNMNC should perhaps impose that a suffix nomenclature be used in new-mineral proposals, but making a general rule of this principle would encounter several problems. The authors of the eudialyte report (Johnsen et al, 2003) have given strong arguments for using unique names in this group. Bayliss himself stated that the vast majority of the about 500 existing mineral names with prefixes that indicate a structural analogue or polymorph should remain unchanged. It is not the intention of the CNMNC to propose to change these traditional names, as the advantage of changing these names would not be greater that the chaos created by changing these names. The CNMNC should thus adhere to its traditional principle that each nomenclature proposal should be considered on its own merits.

In the past years, there have been repeated complaints from the mineralogical community, especially from mineral collectors, that several well-known traditional names are no longer mineral names because of the prefix nomenclature used in these cases, and thus do not appear in an alphabetical index of mineral names. Bayliss proposed to change a number of mineral groups to suffix-nomenclature names; the proposal was taken over and approved by the CNMNC:

chlorapatite = apatite-(CaCl)

fluorapatite = apatite-(CaF)

hydroxylapatite = apatite-(CaOH)

strontium apatite = apatite-(SrOH)

clinohydroxylapatite = apatite-(CaOH)-M

This system would allow "apatite-(SrF)," etc., if found, and it follows the criteria of Bayliss and Levinson (1988).

Carbonate-fluorapatite and carbonate-hydroxylapatite are not valid mineral names.

chlorellestadite = ellestadite-(Cl)

fluorellestadite = ellestadite-(F)

hydroxylellestadite = ellestadite-(OH)

fluorapophyllite = apophyllite-(KF)

hydroxyapophyllite = apophyllite-(KOH)

natroapophyllite = apophyllite-(NaF)

This system would allow "apophyllite-(NaOH)" if found, and it follows the criteria of Bayliss and Levinson (1988).

ferro-axinite = axinite-(Fe)

magnesio-axinite = axinite-(Mg)

manganaxinite = axinite-(Mn)

ferrocolumbite = columbite-(Fe)

magnesiocolumbite = columbite-(Mg)

manganocolumbite = columbite-(Mn)

ferrotantalite = tantalite-(Fe)

magnesiotantalite = tantalite-(Mg)

manganotantalite = tantalite-(Mn)

ferrotapiolite = tapiolite-(Fe)

manganotapiolite = tapiolite-(Mn)

ferropyrosmalite = pyrosmalite-(Fe)

manganpyrosmalite = pyrosmalite-(Mn)

TWO-WORD NAMES

According to the current CNMNC procedures and guidelines on mineral nomenclature (Nickel and Grice, 1998), names should consist of one word only. As mentioned above, proposal 04-C by Bayliss to change cesium kupletskite into kupletskite-(Cs) was approved by the CNMNC. There are 12 more two-word mineral names that also have to be changed into one word only. Several renaming systems are applied here, according to which is the best compared with other existing mineral names.

calcium catapleiite = calciocatapleiite: there are many minerals with calcio- as prefix

cobalt pentlandite = cobaltpentlandite: there is an argentopentlandite and several minerals with cobalt- as prefix

hydronium jarosite = hydroniumjarosite: there are plenty of minerals with hydro-, hydroxy- or hydroxyl- as prefixes

magnesium astrophyllite = magnesioastrophyllite: there are many minerals with magnesio- as prefix

potassium alum and sodium alum = alum-(K) and alum-(Na)

sal ammoniac = salammoniac

strontium apatite (also written as strontium-apatite) = apatite-(SrOH): see above.

sodium betpakdalite, sodium boltwoodite, sodium pharmacosiderite (also written as sodium-pharmacosiderite) and sodium uranospinite (also written as sodium-uranospinite) = respectively natrobetpakdalite, natroboltwoodite, natropharmacosiderite and natrouranospinite: to bring these names in accordance with other names with natro- as prefix

SUPERFLUOUS HYPHENS

According to the current CNMNC procedures and guidelines on mineral nomenclature (Nickel and Grice, 1998), hyphens are used in mineral names to connect suffixed symbols, such as poly-type suffixes and Levinson modifiers, and the use of a hyphen to distinguish a prefix from the root name is to be discouraged, but where an unhyphenated name is awkward and a hyphen assists in deciphering the name, it may be used, e.g., bario-orthojoaquinite. In spite of this, there are several dozen mineral names with such superfluous hyphens. It has been decided to delete such hyphens from the names. Amphibole-group mineral names, however, have deviating rules for the use of hyphens (Leake et al., 2003, Burke & Leake, 2004), and are not considered here.

alumino-magnesiohulsite = aluminomagnesiohulsite

barium-pharmacosiderite = bariopharmacosiderite

calcio-andyrobertsite = calcioandyrobertsite

calcio-ancylite = calcioancylite

carbonate-cyanotrichite = carbonatecyanotrichite

cobalt-zippeite = cobaltzippeite

ferro-alluaudite = ferroalluaudite

ferro-aluminoceladonite = ferroaluminoceladonite

ferro-axinite (see above) = renamed to axinite-(Fe)

hydroxyl-bastnasite = hydroxylbastnasite

hydroxyl-herderite = hydroxylherderite

hydroxyl-pyromorphite = hydroxylpyromorphite

magnesio-axinite (see above) = renamed to axinite-(Mg)

magnesium-chlorophoenicite = magnesiochlorophoenicite

magnesium-zippeite = magnesiozippeite

manganese-hornesite = manganohornesite

manganese-shadlunite = manganoshadlunite

mangan-neptunite = manganoneptunite

meta-lodevite = metalodevite

meta-natro-autunite = metanatroautunite

meta-uramphite = metauramphite

meta-uranocircite = metauranocircite

meta-uranopilite = metauranopilite

meta-uranospinite = metauranospinite

Na-komarovite = natrokomarovite

natro-autunite = natroautunite

nickel-boussingaultite = nickelboussaingaultite

nickel-skutterudite = nickelskutterudite

nickel-zippeite = nickelzippeite

niobo-aeschynite = nioboaeschynite

potassic-carpholite = potassiccarpholite

sodium-pharmacosiderite = natropharmacosiderite

sodium-uranospinite = natrouranospinite

sodium-zippeite = natrozippeite

tantal-aeschynite = tantalaeschynite

tetra-ferri-annite = tetraferriannite

tetra-ferriphlogopite = tetraferriphlogopite

zinc-melanterite = zincmelanterite

zinc-zippeite = zinczippeite

Because of possible problems in deciphering the name, hyphens are preserved in bario-orthojoaquinite, calcio-olivine, meta-aluminite, meta-alunogen, meta-ankoleite, meta-autunite, para-alumohydrocalcite and tetra-auricupride.

There is, however, georgeericksenite, which for the sake of conformity is to be changed to george-ericksenite.

DIACRITICAL MARKS

A diacritical mark (also called accent mark) is a small sign added to a letter to alter pronunciation or to distinguish between similar words. Its main usage is to change the phonetic value of the letter to which it is added. Diacritical marks in mineral names include the acute accent (e.g., in andremeyerite), the grave accent (e.g., in cesarolite), the circumflex accent (e.g., in laforetite), the double acute accent (unique to Hungarian) (e.g., in felsobanyaite), the cedilla (e.g., in francoisite), the ring (e.g., in haleniusite), the caron (e.g., in cechite), the trema (or umlaut or diaeresis) (e.g., in moeloite), the tilde (e.g., in ordonezite), the bar (or slash) (e.g., in j0rgensenite), and the apostrophe (e.g., in d'ansite).

The use of diacritical marks in mineral names has been the subject of several proposals to the CNMMN, lastly in 1999 by the former member for New Zealand, Douglas Coombs. The aim of these repeated proposals was to avoid insertion of diacritical marks into mineral names in which they had not been in standard use in the past, and to eliminate diacritical marks from existing mineral names as published in English. These repeated proposals have not been approved by the CNMMN. These decisions were correct, as they follow the current CNMNC procedures and guidelines on mineral nomenclature (Nickel and Grice, 1998):
  "If the mineral is to be named after a geographical occurrence, care
  must be taken to ensure that the spelling conforms to that in use at
  the locality; the spelling should not be taken from translations."

  "If the mineral is to be named after a person (...). Otherwise, the
  original spelling of the person's name should be retained."


Such mineral names after persons or geographical occurrences have these diacritical marks as an integral part of these names, e.g., the mineral jaskolskiite was named for the Polish person S. Jaskolski, and the mineral orebroite was named for the Swedish town Orebro. In both cases these names were approved by the CNMMN with their diacritical marks, and they should consequently be used as such. A decision to eliminate these diacritical marks would definitely amount to a kind of amputation of these names.

Sometimes mineral names have been approved (and published) without diacritical marks although the name of the person or locality for which they were named had such marks; these names are corrected here.

Special cases are the names nyboite, ferronyboite and fluoronyboite, originally published as nyboite, etc., supposedly after the Norwegian island "Nybo," but the letter o is not part of the Norwegian alphabet; the correct name of the island is Nybo. The tourmaline-group mineral schorl is often written as "schorl"; Ertl (2006, and pers. comm.) is of the opinion that the name of the mineral is derived from the village Schorl (later Schorlau, today Zschorlau) and thus should be written without diacritical mark, in spite of the widespread use of "schorl" in the German-speaking areas, starting in the 18th century and continuing until today (see title of Ertl, 2006).

Mandarino (2007) published on his own initiative, disregarding the then ongoing discussion within the CNMNC, a list of mineral names which in his opinion needed diacritical marks. The following CNMNC-approved list gives mineral names having correct diacritical marks; some recently approved names have not yet been published by their authors.

akermanite

alacranite

andremeyerite

baricite

bastnasite-(Ce)

bastnasite-(La)

bastnasite-(Y)

bilinite

blodite

boggildite

bogvadite

bohmite

bruggenite

bukovskyite

butschliite

bystromite

calderonite

cechite

cejkaite

cernyite

cesarolite

chabourneite

chameanite

cobaltneustadtelite

d'ansite

daubreeite

daubreelite

dufrenite

dufrenoysite

felsobanyaite

ferrohogbomite-2N2S

ferrokesterite

ferronyboite

fizelyite

fluoronyboite

fluorthalenite-(Y)

fougerite

francoisite-(Ce)

francoisite-(Nd)

fuloppite

gaspeite

gorgeyite

gotzenite

guerinite

guimaraesite

haggite

haleniusite-(La)

hauyne

heyrovskyite

hiarneite

hodrusite

hogtuvaite

hornesite

horvathite-(Y)

hubnerite

hugelite

hydroromeite

hydroxylbastnasite-(Ce)

hydroxylbastnasite-(La)

hydroxylbastnasite-(Nd)

hyttsjoite

ilimaussite-(Ce)

jachymovite

jagueite

jankovicite

jaskolskiite

jokokuite

jorgensenite

joseite-A

joseite-B

joseite-C

kankite

karupmollerite-Ca

kesterite

kochsandorite

kottigite

kozulite

kratochvilite

krohnkite

krut'aite

kupcikite

laforetite

langbanite

lavenite

levyclaudite

levyne-Ca

levyne-Na

lindstromite

lollingite

lopezite

lorandite

loweite

luneburgite

lun'okite

magnesiohogbomite-2N2S

magnesiohogbomite-2N3S

magnesiohogbomite-6N6S

makinenite

manganohornesite

marecottite

maricite

melonjosephite

metakottigite

metalodevite

metanovacekite

metasaleeite

moeloite

moganite

mrazekite

muckeite

nagyagite

natrodufrenite

nepouite

neustadtelite

nezilovite

nickelblodite

nordenskioldine

nordstromite

novacekite I

novacekite II

novakite

nyboite

o'danielite

ordonezite

orebroite

ottrelite

paakkonenite

paderaite

partheite

patronite

phosphorrosslerite

pisekite-(Y)

plombierite

potosiite

protojoseite

rancieite

rhonite

rokuhnite

romanechite

romeite

romerite

rontgenite-(Ce)

rosickyite

rosieresite

rosslerite

saleeite

sanromanite

schaferite

schneiderhohnite

schollhornite

schrockingerite

seinajokite

senarmontite

serandite

sillenite

sjogrenite

slavlkite

sohngeite

sorensenite

soucekite

sreinite

stanekite

stratlingite

stutzite

svenekite

szaibelyite

sztrokayite

szymanskiite

takeuchiite

tarapacaite

thalenite-(Y)

theresemagnanite

thorbastnasite

tornebohmite-(Ce)

tornebohmite-(La)

trogerite

trustedtite

tschortnerite

tucekite

ulvospinel

vastmanlandite-(Ce)

vavrinite

vayrynenite

veselovskyite

vesignieite

villamaninite

wohlerite

wolsendorfite

wulfingite

wustite

ye'elimite

zairite

zalesiite

zdenekite

zenzenite

zincohogbomite-2N2S

zincohogbomite-2N6S

zincohogbomite

zykaite

SUPERFLUOUS DIACRITICAL MARKS

In some languages (e.g., French, Portuguese) diacritical marks have been added to mineral names as a pronunciation guide because the words would otherwise become incomprehensible in that language. French examples are, e.g., curienite and roquesite, but the persons which they honoured had no such marks in their names: Hubert Curien and Maurice Roques. In English such diacritical marks should be left out of these mineral names. The following list gives mineral names which have been used with superfluous diacritical marks in English-language literature and handbooks.

aerinite, not aerinite

akaganeite, not akaganeite

behierite, not behierite

benavidesite, not benavidesite

boleite, not boleite

ceruleite, not ceruleite or ceruleite

cobaltomenite, not cobaltomenite

cumengeite, not cumengeite

curienite, not curienite

diaboleite, not diaboleite

francevillite, not francevillite

henritermierite, not henritermierite

hureaulite, not hureaulite

imiterite, not imiterite

julienite, not julienite or julienite

kamitugaite, not kamitugaite

kamotoite, not kamotoite

kolwezite, not kolwezite

kutinaite, not kutinaite

magnesiocarpholite, not magnesiocarpholite

mantienneite, not mantienneite

metavanmeersscheite, not metavanmeersscheite

minguetite, not minguetite

molybdomenite, not molybdomenite

neltnerite, not neltnerite

noelbensonite, not noelbensonite

offretite, not offretite

ojuelaite, not ojuelaite

plancheite, not plancheite

pseudoboleite, not pseudoboleite

renierite, not renierite

roquesite, not roquesite

routhierite, not routhierite

schorl, not schorl

schubnelite, not schubnelite

sengierite, not sengierite

tremolite, not tremolite

uchucchacuaite, not uchucchacuaite

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

I thank to Frederic Hatert, CNMNC vice-chairman, for handling the proposal, and all members of the CNMNC who contributed to this proposal.

BIBLIOGRAPHY

ARMBRUSTER, T., BONAZZI, P., AKASAKA, M., BERMANEC, V., CHOPIN, C., GIERE, R., HEUSS-ASSBICHLER, S., LIEB-SCHER, A., MENCHETTI, S., PAN, Y., and PASERO, M. (2006) Recommended nomenclature of epidote-group minerals. European Journal of Mineralogy, 18, 551-567.

BAYLISS, P., and LEVINSON, A. A. (1988) A system of nomenclature for rare-earth mineral species: revision and extension. American Mineralogist, 73, 422-423.

BURKE, E. A. J. (2006) A mass discreditation of GQN minerals. Canadian Mineralogist, 44, 1557-1560.

BURKE, E. A. J., and LEAKE, B. E. (2004) "Named amphiboles": a new category of amphiboles recognized by the International Mineralogical Association (IMA), and the proper order of prefixes to be used in amphibole names. Canadian Mineralogist, 42, 1881-1883.

CHOPIN, C., OBERTI, R., and CAMARA, F. (2006) The arrojadite enigma: II. Compositional space, new members, and nomenclature of the group. American Mineralogist, 91, 1260-1270.

CHUKANOV, N. V., PEKOV, I. V., and KHOMYAKOV, A. P. (2002) Recommended nomenclature for labuntsovite-group minerals. European Journal of Mineralogy, 14, 165-173.

COOMBS, D. S., ALBERTI, A., ARMBRUSTER, T., ARTIOLI, G., COLELLA, C., GALLI, E., GRIE, J. D., LIEBAU, F., MANDA-RINO, J. A., MINATO, H., NICKEL, E. H., PASSAGLIA, E., PEACOR, D. R., QUARTIERI, S., RINALDI, R., ROSS, M., SHEPPARD, R. A., TILLMANNS, E., and VEZZALINI, G. (1997) Recommended nomenclature for zeolite minerals: report of the subcommittee on zeolites of the International Mineralogical Association, Commission on New Minerals and Mineral Names. Canadian Mineralogist, 35, 1571-1606.

ERTL, A. (2006) Uber die Etymologie und die Typelokalitaten des Minerals Schorl. Mitteilungen der Osterreichischen Mineralogi-schen Gesellschaft, 152, 7-16.

JOHNSEN, O., FERRARIS, G., GAULT, R. A., GRICE, J. D., KAMPF, A. R., and PEKOV, I. V. (2003) The nomenclature of eudialyte-group minerals. Canadian Mineralogist, 41, 785-794.

LEAKE, B. E., WOOLLEY, A. R., BIRCH, W. D., BURKE, E. A. J., FERRARIS, G., GRICE, J. D., HAWTHORNE, F. C., KISCH, H. J., KRIVOVICHEV, V. G., SCHUMACHER, J. C., STEPHENSON, N. C. N., and WHITTAKER, E. J. W. (2003) Nomenclature of amphiboles: additions and revisions to the International Mineralogical Association's 1997 recommendations. Canadian Mineralogist, 41, 1355-1362.

LEVINSON, A. A. (1966) A system of nomenclature for rare-earth minerals. American Mineralogist, 51, 152-158.

MANDARINO, J. A. (2007) Diacritical marks in mineral names. Mineralogical Record, 38, 193-194.

NICKEL, E. H., and GRICE, J. D. (1998) The IMA Commission on New Minerals and Mineral Names: procedures and guidelines on mineral nomenclature, 1998. Canadian Mineralogist, 36, 913-926.

Ernst A.J. Burke

Chairman, Commission on New Minerals, Nomenclature and Classification (CNMNC) of the International Mineralogical Association (IMA)

Department of Petrology, Faculty of Earth and Life Sciences, Vrije Universiteit

De Boelelaan 1085, NL-1081 HV Amsterdam, Netherlands

*G (Grandfathered) = names considered to represent valid species described before 1959; Q (Questionable) = names published before 1959 and considered not to represent valid species; N (Non-approved) = names published after 1959 without CNMMN approval.
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Title Annotation:International Mineralogical Association - Commission on New Minerals and Mineral Names
Author:Burke, Ernst A.J.
Publication:The Mineralogical Record
Article Type:Report
Geographic Code:1USA
Date:Mar 1, 2008
Words:2683
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