Tidying up mineral names: an IMA-CNMNC scheme for suffixes, hyphens and diacritical marks; Mineral names which do not conform to the current nomenclature guidelines of the Commission on New Minerals, Nomenclature and Classification have to be corrected, and in the future a suffix-based nomenclature is to be used for new mineral names.
In 2004, Peter Bayliss successfully proposed (IMA 04-C) to change the two-word mineral name cesium kupletskite to kupletskite-(Cs). In October 2005, Bayliss submitted a proposal to the Commission on New Minerals and Mineral Names (CNMMN) to eliminate the space in all similar two-word cases. This proposal was forwarded to the members for comments, but was not voted on because the CNMMN chairman and vice-chairman were of the opinion that a more generalized correction exercise was needed. Bayliss then revised his proposal into a wider discussion paper (March 2006) on suffix and prefix nomenclature, which was made available to the members on the occasion of the IMA meeting in Kobe, July 2006. It was decided in Kobe that the Chairman of the newly merged Commission on New Minerals, Nomenclature and Classification (CNMNC) would take up the issue for further discussion.
The efforts of Bayliss coincided indeed with the experiences of the Chairman during the operation to clean up the GQN* minerals (Burke, 2006): on going through the list of mineral names it was evident that mineralogical nomenclature has not always been applied in a consistent way. Many names have been given to minerals before the CNMMN started to draft any rules for nomenclature, and later such rules have regularly been ignored, even by the CNMMN itself.
The present paper aims to give a view on suffix nomenclature versus prefix nomenclature, to list mineral names with correct diacritical marks, and to correct mineral names consisting of two words or having superfluous hyphens and diacritical marks. The names and the name changes given in this paper have been approved by the CNMNC (proposal IMA 07-C, September 2007). Names written in bold in this paper were approved by the CNMNC to be correctly spelled names.
SUFFIX NOMENCLATURE VERSUS PREFIX NOMENCLATURE
Bayliss has summed up in his 2006 discussion paper the pros and the cons of the suffix nomenclature versus the prefix nomenclature, and his conclusion was that the CNMNC should require that the author(s) of a new-mineral proposal should use a suffix nomenclature rather than a prefix nomenclature.
The suffix nomenclature has been introduced by Levinson (1966) for rare-earth mineral species. This nomenclature has been extended to other chemical elements with minerals such as ardennite, jahnsite, julgoldite, meurigite, pumpellyite, struvite, wallkilldellite, and whiteite. Bayliss and Levinson (1988) made a revision and extension to the suffix nomenclature, where multiple chemical elements in parentheses indicate different structural positions such as jahnsite-(CaMnFe).
The suffix nomenclature (single and multiple) has subsequently been used in revised nomenclature schemes for several mineral groups: zeolites (Coombs et al., 1997), labuntsovites (Chukanov et al., 2002), arrojadites (Chopin et al., 2006) and epidotes (Armbruster et al, 2006). Chemical-element suffixes without parentheses indicate extra-framework cations (e.g., zeolites and labuntsovites).
The CNMNC should perhaps impose that a suffix nomenclature be used in new-mineral proposals, but making a general rule of this principle would encounter several problems. The authors of the eudialyte report (Johnsen et al, 2003) have given strong arguments for using unique names in this group. Bayliss himself stated that the vast majority of the about 500 existing mineral names with prefixes that indicate a structural analogue or polymorph should remain unchanged. It is not the intention of the CNMNC to propose to change these traditional names, as the advantage of changing these names would not be greater that the chaos created by changing these names. The CNMNC should thus adhere to its traditional principle that each nomenclature proposal should be considered on its own merits.
In the past years, there have been repeated complaints from the mineralogical community, especially from mineral collectors, that several well-known traditional names are no longer mineral names because of the prefix nomenclature used in these cases, and thus do not appear in an alphabetical index of mineral names. Bayliss proposed to change a number of mineral groups to suffix-nomenclature names; the proposal was taken over and approved by the CNMNC:
chlorapatite = apatite-(CaCl)
fluorapatite = apatite-(CaF)
hydroxylapatite = apatite-(CaOH)
strontium apatite = apatite-(SrOH)
clinohydroxylapatite = apatite-(CaOH)-M
This system would allow "apatite-(SrF)," etc., if found, and it follows the criteria of Bayliss and Levinson (1988).
Carbonate-fluorapatite and carbonate-hydroxylapatite are not valid mineral names.
chlorellestadite = ellestadite-(Cl)
fluorellestadite = ellestadite-(F)
hydroxylellestadite = ellestadite-(OH)
fluorapophyllite = apophyllite-(KF)
hydroxyapophyllite = apophyllite-(KOH)
natroapophyllite = apophyllite-(NaF)
This system would allow "apophyllite-(NaOH)" if found, and it follows the criteria of Bayliss and Levinson (1988).
ferro-axinite = axinite-(Fe)
magnesio-axinite = axinite-(Mg)
manganaxinite = axinite-(Mn)
ferrocolumbite = columbite-(Fe)
magnesiocolumbite = columbite-(Mg)
manganocolumbite = columbite-(Mn)
ferrotantalite = tantalite-(Fe)
magnesiotantalite = tantalite-(Mg)
manganotantalite = tantalite-(Mn)
ferrotapiolite = tapiolite-(Fe)
manganotapiolite = tapiolite-(Mn)
ferropyrosmalite = pyrosmalite-(Fe)
manganpyrosmalite = pyrosmalite-(Mn)
According to the current CNMNC procedures and guidelines on mineral nomenclature (Nickel and Grice, 1998), names should consist of one word only. As mentioned above, proposal 04-C by Bayliss to change cesium kupletskite into kupletskite-(Cs) was approved by the CNMNC. There are 12 more two-word mineral names that also have to be changed into one word only. Several renaming systems are applied here, according to which is the best compared with other existing mineral names.
calcium catapleiite = calciocatapleiite: there are many minerals with calcio- as prefix
cobalt pentlandite = cobaltpentlandite: there is an argentopentlandite and several minerals with cobalt- as prefix
hydronium jarosite = hydroniumjarosite: there are plenty of minerals with hydro-, hydroxy- or hydroxyl- as prefixes
magnesium astrophyllite = magnesioastrophyllite: there are many minerals with magnesio- as prefix
potassium alum and sodium alum = alum-(K) and alum-(Na)
sal ammoniac = salammoniac
strontium apatite (also written as strontium-apatite) = apatite-(SrOH): see above.
sodium betpakdalite, sodium boltwoodite, sodium pharmacosiderite (also written as sodium-pharmacosiderite) and sodium uranospinite (also written as sodium-uranospinite) = respectively natrobetpakdalite, natroboltwoodite, natropharmacosiderite and natrouranospinite: to bring these names in accordance with other names with natro- as prefix
According to the current CNMNC procedures and guidelines on mineral nomenclature (Nickel and Grice, 1998), hyphens are used in mineral names to connect suffixed symbols, such as poly-type suffixes and Levinson modifiers, and the use of a hyphen to distinguish a prefix from the root name is to be discouraged, but where an unhyphenated name is awkward and a hyphen assists in deciphering the name, it may be used, e.g., bario-orthojoaquinite. In spite of this, there are several dozen mineral names with such superfluous hyphens. It has been decided to delete such hyphens from the names. Amphibole-group mineral names, however, have deviating rules for the use of hyphens (Leake et al., 2003, Burke & Leake, 2004), and are not considered here.
alumino-magnesiohulsite = aluminomagnesiohulsite
barium-pharmacosiderite = bariopharmacosiderite
calcio-andyrobertsite = calcioandyrobertsite
calcio-ancylite = calcioancylite
carbonate-cyanotrichite = carbonatecyanotrichite
cobalt-zippeite = cobaltzippeite
ferro-alluaudite = ferroalluaudite
ferro-aluminoceladonite = ferroaluminoceladonite
ferro-axinite (see above) = renamed to axinite-(Fe)
hydroxyl-bastnasite = hydroxylbastnasite
hydroxyl-herderite = hydroxylherderite
hydroxyl-pyromorphite = hydroxylpyromorphite
magnesio-axinite (see above) = renamed to axinite-(Mg)
magnesium-chlorophoenicite = magnesiochlorophoenicite
magnesium-zippeite = magnesiozippeite
manganese-hornesite = manganohornesite
manganese-shadlunite = manganoshadlunite
mangan-neptunite = manganoneptunite
meta-lodevite = metalodevite
meta-natro-autunite = metanatroautunite
meta-uramphite = metauramphite
meta-uranocircite = metauranocircite
meta-uranopilite = metauranopilite
meta-uranospinite = metauranospinite
Na-komarovite = natrokomarovite
natro-autunite = natroautunite
nickel-boussingaultite = nickelboussaingaultite
nickel-skutterudite = nickelskutterudite
nickel-zippeite = nickelzippeite
niobo-aeschynite = nioboaeschynite
potassic-carpholite = potassiccarpholite
sodium-pharmacosiderite = natropharmacosiderite
sodium-uranospinite = natrouranospinite
sodium-zippeite = natrozippeite
tantal-aeschynite = tantalaeschynite
tetra-ferri-annite = tetraferriannite
tetra-ferriphlogopite = tetraferriphlogopite
zinc-melanterite = zincmelanterite
zinc-zippeite = zinczippeite
Because of possible problems in deciphering the name, hyphens are preserved in bario-orthojoaquinite, calcio-olivine, meta-aluminite, meta-alunogen, meta-ankoleite, meta-autunite, para-alumohydrocalcite and tetra-auricupride.
There is, however, georgeericksenite, which for the sake of conformity is to be changed to george-ericksenite.
A diacritical mark (also called accent mark) is a small sign added to a letter to alter pronunciation or to distinguish between similar words. Its main usage is to change the phonetic value of the letter to which it is added. Diacritical marks in mineral names include the acute accent (e.g., in andremeyerite), the grave accent (e.g., in cesarolite), the circumflex accent (e.g., in laforetite), the double acute accent (unique to Hungarian) (e.g., in felsobanyaite), the cedilla (e.g., in francoisite), the ring (e.g., in haleniusite), the caron (e.g., in cechite), the trema (or umlaut or diaeresis) (e.g., in moeloite), the tilde (e.g., in ordonezite), the bar (or slash) (e.g., in j0rgensenite), and the apostrophe (e.g., in d'ansite).
The use of diacritical marks in mineral names has been the subject of several proposals to the CNMMN, lastly in 1999 by the former member for New Zealand, Douglas Coombs. The aim of these repeated proposals was to avoid insertion of diacritical marks into mineral names in which they had not been in standard use in the past, and to eliminate diacritical marks from existing mineral names as published in English. These repeated proposals have not been approved by the CNMMN. These decisions were correct, as they follow the current CNMNC procedures and guidelines on mineral nomenclature (Nickel and Grice, 1998):
"If the mineral is to be named after a geographical occurrence, care must be taken to ensure that the spelling conforms to that in use at the locality; the spelling should not be taken from translations." "If the mineral is to be named after a person (...). Otherwise, the original spelling of the person's name should be retained."
Such mineral names after persons or geographical occurrences have these diacritical marks as an integral part of these names, e.g., the mineral jaskolskiite was named for the Polish person S. Jaskolski, and the mineral orebroite was named for the Swedish town Orebro. In both cases these names were approved by the CNMMN with their diacritical marks, and they should consequently be used as such. A decision to eliminate these diacritical marks would definitely amount to a kind of amputation of these names.
Sometimes mineral names have been approved (and published) without diacritical marks although the name of the person or locality for which they were named had such marks; these names are corrected here.
Special cases are the names nyboite, ferronyboite and fluoronyboite, originally published as nyboite, etc., supposedly after the Norwegian island "Nybo," but the letter o is not part of the Norwegian alphabet; the correct name of the island is Nybo. The tourmaline-group mineral schorl is often written as "schorl"; Ertl (2006, and pers. comm.) is of the opinion that the name of the mineral is derived from the village Schorl (later Schorlau, today Zschorlau) and thus should be written without diacritical mark, in spite of the widespread use of "schorl" in the German-speaking areas, starting in the 18th century and continuing until today (see title of Ertl, 2006).
Mandarino (2007) published on his own initiative, disregarding the then ongoing discussion within the CNMNC, a list of mineral names which in his opinion needed diacritical marks. The following CNMNC-approved list gives mineral names having correct diacritical marks; some recently approved names have not yet been published by their authors.
SUPERFLUOUS DIACRITICAL MARKS
In some languages (e.g., French, Portuguese) diacritical marks have been added to mineral names as a pronunciation guide because the words would otherwise become incomprehensible in that language. French examples are, e.g., curienite and roquesite, but the persons which they honoured had no such marks in their names: Hubert Curien and Maurice Roques. In English such diacritical marks should be left out of these mineral names. The following list gives mineral names which have been used with superfluous diacritical marks in English-language literature and handbooks.
aerinite, not aerinite
akaganeite, not akaganeite
behierite, not behierite
benavidesite, not benavidesite
boleite, not boleite
ceruleite, not ceruleite or ceruleite
cobaltomenite, not cobaltomenite
cumengeite, not cumengeite
curienite, not curienite
diaboleite, not diaboleite
francevillite, not francevillite
henritermierite, not henritermierite
hureaulite, not hureaulite
imiterite, not imiterite
julienite, not julienite or julienite
kamitugaite, not kamitugaite
kamotoite, not kamotoite
kolwezite, not kolwezite
kutinaite, not kutinaite
magnesiocarpholite, not magnesiocarpholite
mantienneite, not mantienneite
metavanmeersscheite, not metavanmeersscheite
minguetite, not minguetite
molybdomenite, not molybdomenite
neltnerite, not neltnerite
noelbensonite, not noelbensonite
offretite, not offretite
ojuelaite, not ojuelaite
plancheite, not plancheite
pseudoboleite, not pseudoboleite
renierite, not renierite
roquesite, not roquesite
routhierite, not routhierite
schorl, not schorl
schubnelite, not schubnelite
sengierite, not sengierite
tremolite, not tremolite
uchucchacuaite, not uchucchacuaite
I thank to Frederic Hatert, CNMNC vice-chairman, for handling the proposal, and all members of the CNMNC who contributed to this proposal.
ARMBRUSTER, T., BONAZZI, P., AKASAKA, M., BERMANEC, V., CHOPIN, C., GIERE, R., HEUSS-ASSBICHLER, S., LIEB-SCHER, A., MENCHETTI, S., PAN, Y., and PASERO, M. (2006) Recommended nomenclature of epidote-group minerals. European Journal of Mineralogy, 18, 551-567.
BAYLISS, P., and LEVINSON, A. A. (1988) A system of nomenclature for rare-earth mineral species: revision and extension. American Mineralogist, 73, 422-423.
BURKE, E. A. J. (2006) A mass discreditation of GQN minerals. Canadian Mineralogist, 44, 1557-1560.
BURKE, E. A. J., and LEAKE, B. E. (2004) "Named amphiboles": a new category of amphiboles recognized by the International Mineralogical Association (IMA), and the proper order of prefixes to be used in amphibole names. Canadian Mineralogist, 42, 1881-1883.
CHOPIN, C., OBERTI, R., and CAMARA, F. (2006) The arrojadite enigma: II. Compositional space, new members, and nomenclature of the group. American Mineralogist, 91, 1260-1270.
CHUKANOV, N. V., PEKOV, I. V., and KHOMYAKOV, A. P. (2002) Recommended nomenclature for labuntsovite-group minerals. European Journal of Mineralogy, 14, 165-173.
COOMBS, D. S., ALBERTI, A., ARMBRUSTER, T., ARTIOLI, G., COLELLA, C., GALLI, E., GRIE, J. D., LIEBAU, F., MANDA-RINO, J. A., MINATO, H., NICKEL, E. H., PASSAGLIA, E., PEACOR, D. R., QUARTIERI, S., RINALDI, R., ROSS, M., SHEPPARD, R. A., TILLMANNS, E., and VEZZALINI, G. (1997) Recommended nomenclature for zeolite minerals: report of the subcommittee on zeolites of the International Mineralogical Association, Commission on New Minerals and Mineral Names. Canadian Mineralogist, 35, 1571-1606.
ERTL, A. (2006) Uber die Etymologie und die Typelokalitaten des Minerals Schorl. Mitteilungen der Osterreichischen Mineralogi-schen Gesellschaft, 152, 7-16.
JOHNSEN, O., FERRARIS, G., GAULT, R. A., GRICE, J. D., KAMPF, A. R., and PEKOV, I. V. (2003) The nomenclature of eudialyte-group minerals. Canadian Mineralogist, 41, 785-794.
LEAKE, B. E., WOOLLEY, A. R., BIRCH, W. D., BURKE, E. A. J., FERRARIS, G., GRICE, J. D., HAWTHORNE, F. C., KISCH, H. J., KRIVOVICHEV, V. G., SCHUMACHER, J. C., STEPHENSON, N. C. N., and WHITTAKER, E. J. W. (2003) Nomenclature of amphiboles: additions and revisions to the International Mineralogical Association's 1997 recommendations. Canadian Mineralogist, 41, 1355-1362.
LEVINSON, A. A. (1966) A system of nomenclature for rare-earth minerals. American Mineralogist, 51, 152-158.
MANDARINO, J. A. (2007) Diacritical marks in mineral names. Mineralogical Record, 38, 193-194.
NICKEL, E. H., and GRICE, J. D. (1998) The IMA Commission on New Minerals and Mineral Names: procedures and guidelines on mineral nomenclature, 1998. Canadian Mineralogist, 36, 913-926.
Ernst A.J. Burke
Chairman, Commission on New Minerals, Nomenclature and Classification (CNMNC) of the International Mineralogical Association (IMA)
Department of Petrology, Faculty of Earth and Life Sciences, Vrije Universiteit
De Boelelaan 1085, NL-1081 HV Amsterdam, Netherlands
*G (Grandfathered) = names considered to represent valid species described before 1959; Q (Questionable) = names published before 1959 and considered not to represent valid species; N (Non-approved) = names published after 1959 without CNMMN approval.
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|Title Annotation:||International Mineralogical Association - Commission on New Minerals and Mineral Names|
|Author:||Burke, Ernst A.J.|
|Publication:||The Mineralogical Record|
|Date:||Mar 1, 2008|
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