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Thyroid disorders in elderly patients.

Abstract: Thyroid disorders are common in the elderly and are associated with significant morbidity if left untreated. Typical symptoms may be absent and may be erroneously attributed to normal aging or coexisting disease. Physical examination of the thyroid gland may not be helpful, as the gland is often shrunken and difficult to palpate. Usually only myxedema coma requires levothyroxine parenterally; all other forms of hypothyroidism can be treated with oral levothyroxine. Low-dose levothyroxine should be initiated and increased gradually over several months. In unstable elderly patients with hyperthyroidism, antithyroid medication can quickly produce a euthyroid state. Radioactive iodine therapy is more definitive and is well tolerated, effective, and preferred. Surgical thyroid ablation may be necessary in patients who fail to respond to radioactive iodine therapy and in patients with multinodular goiter. If there is a suspicion of malignant disease, early biopsy or fine needle aspiration for cytology should be considered.

Key Words: elderly, hyperthyroidism, hypothyroidism, thyroid disease

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Thyroid gland dysfunction is common in the elderly and is associated with significant morbidity if left untreated. Hypothyroidism occurs in 10% of females and 2% of males in patients older than 60 years. (1) Hyperthyroidism, on the other hand, is more common in the younger population. The prevalence in the elderly is approximately 2%, (2) but from another perspective, 10 to 15% of patients with hyperthyroidism are older than 60 years. (3) In younger adults, the classic symptoms of thyroid dysfunction are usually present and make the diagnosis easier. In the elderly, the diagnosis is more often overlooked or misdiagnosed, as the symptoms are often subtle or absent and are easily confused with coexisting illnesses. Symptoms may often be attributed to normal aging, (4) and a high index of suspicion of thyroid dysfunction in the elderly is needed.

Diagnostic Considerations

Iodine deficiency is the most common cause of goiter world wide. (5) In the United States, poor dietary habits in the elderly could contribute to hypothyroidism, but iodine supplementation in salt and bread generally alleviates this problem. The normal gland handles excess iodine very well, but if thyroid regulation is altered, iodine excess, drugs that contain iodine, or drugs that mimic iodine action can all lead to further abnormalities (6) (Table 1). Polypharmacy is common in the elderly. Table 2 lists drugs that can interfere with normal thyroid function. Amiodarone, an antiarrhythmic commonly used in the elderly for atrial fibrillation, deserves special attention because of its propensity to inhibit thyroid hormone synthesis and subsequent hypothyroid states.

Physical examination of the thyroid gland in the elderly can be difficult. The gland shrinks with age and atrophy and fibrosis from distant thyroiditis makes palpation difficult. In addition, the gland may be substernal in the presence of kyphosis. (7-9)

Primary Hypothyroidism

The causes of primary hypothyroidism in the elderly include thyroid autoimmune disease, neck irradiation, and previous surgical or medical treatment of hyperthyroidism as well as drugs such as lithium or amiodarone. (4,10,11) The classic signs and symptoms of hypothyroidism in younger patients, for example, cold intolerance, weight gain, dry skin, constipation, and mental and physical slowing, can easily be mistaken for normal aging. (7,12) In many elderly patients, the co-existence of multiple chronic diseases as well as the side effects of medications can further mimic or mask the symptoms and signs of hypothyroidism. For example, in an elderly man taking metoprolol, amlodipine, and digoxin for hypertension, congestive heart failure and atrial fibrillation, complaints of weakness, fatigue, constipation, and weight gain can readily be attributed to medical illness or medication, whereas hypothyroidism could also be the cause of these symptoms. Musculoskeletal and mobility disorders are common in the elderly, with hypothyroidism caused by generalized weakness and delayed contraction and relaxation phases of the deep tendon reflexes. Carpal tunnel syndrome may be a manifestation of hypothyroidism. Serum cholesterol and triglyceride level elevation are also common in patients with hypothyroidism. (13) Depression and dementia in the elderly may be associated with thyroid disease. Both are reversible with proper treatment. Hypothyroidism may cause decreased memory and slowed speech and thinking. Both hypo- and hyperthyroidism can cause symptoms consistent with depression. (14,15) Cerebellar dysfunction, neuropathy, and macrocytic anemia with or without pernicious anemia may also be manifestations of thyroid abnormalities in the elderly. (16) Unexplained hyponatremia, elevated creatinine phosphokinase, and lactate dehydrogenase may be caused by a deficiency of thyroid hormones. (11) In patients who are receiving thyroid replacement therapy, other concomitant medications can alter the thyroid hormone level as the result of their effects on the iodine absorption or binding. For example, intestinal sequestrants used as lipid-lowering agents can interfere with the intestinal absorption of thyroid hormone.

Management

Low FTI with high thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) establishes the diagnosis of primary hypothyroidism (Table 3). Thyroid autoantibodies may help define the cause. If the thyroid is normal on examination and there is no substernal enlargement of the gland on the chest radiograph, no further testing is needed. If the gland is asymmetric or hard, further evaluation with thyroid scanning and tissue sampling is needed. Myxedema coma is the only indication for high doses of thyroid hormones (17); in all other circumstances, the starting dose of T4 (levothyroxine, eg, Synthroid, Knoll Pharmaceuticals, Mt. Olive, NJ) should be extremely low. Cardiac complications such as angina, infarction, and arrhythmias may occur with an iatrogenic excess of T4. It is important to note that the hypothyroid state develops over a prolonged period, and correction should be made slowly over a period of months. The starting oral dose of T4 in the elderly is 25 [micro]g, but if there is any uncertainty regarding the cardiac status, start with 12.5 [micro]g daily. (12,18) The dose should be increased by small increments of 12.5 to 25 [micro]g, every 2 to 4 weeks. Pulse rate should be monitored for tachycardia. (19,20) Physiologic dose in the elderly is approximately 75 [micro]g daily. (7,17) If thyroid replacement therapy causes cardiac instability, that is, heart failure, angina, or arrhythmia, then the dose should be held for several days to weeks. Cardiac evaluation before adjusting the dose any further should be undertaken. As the half-life of T4 in elderly patients is sufficiently long, interruption in therapy for several days does not cause any clinical problem. TSH can be used for monitoring. FTI may need to be checked, since there may be a delay in downregulation of TSH secretion. It is not unusual to find a patient who is euthyroid by FTI measurement, but the TSH is still slightly elevated. (21) A slight elevation of TSH in a euthyroid elderly patient early in the course of thyroid replacement may not indicate the need for further increase in thyroid hormone. The TSH may fall to normal over a period of months without further increase in thyroid hormone replacement. If after 1 year the TSH remains elevated, a small increase in T4 (12.5 [micro]g) may be warranted. Most patients require lifelong therapy. Once a steady state of FTI and TSH levels has been achieved, patients should be monitored every 6 to 12 months for clinical response to the treatment, adherence to medication, and observation of drug interactions. (19) Education of the patient and family is very important, since in many elderly individuals coexisting memory impairment may cause nonadherence to the therapy, and inadequately treated hypothyroidism can lead to further mental impairment.

Secondary hypothyroidism

Secondary hypothyroidism is rare. Patients with pituitary or hypothalamic problems may have a concomitant deficiency of glucocorticoid hormones. Thyroid hormone accelerates the metabolism of cortisol; if these patients are treated with thyroid hormone without correcting the cortisol deficiency, fatal adrenal crisis may result. If urgent therapy is necessary and it is uncertain whether the hypothyroidism is primary or secondary, the patient should be treated with stress doses of cortisone and thyroid hormone until the pituitary state is known.

Myxedema coma

This rare complication of hypothyroidism usually affects patients older than 75 years. Severe mental deterioration, confusion, and disorientation as well as lethargy and psychosis characterize it. Other features are dry, scaly, and yellowish skin, sparse hair, thin eyebrows, hoarse voice, bradycardia, cardiomegaly, pericardial effusion, hypothermia, hyponatremia, and pseudomyotonic reflexes. Usually a major physiologic stress, for example, sepsis or intoxication with alcohol or narcotic/sedative medication, can precipitate the event, and a state of profound lethargy or coma ensues. Medications such as lithium and amiodarone have been implicated in the development of myxedema coma. Exposure to cold temperature may also precipitate the event. Cold exposure risk is not limited to extreme temperatures; poorly heated homes can also bring on the complication. (22) Myxedema coma should be treated in an intensive care unit; with supportive care, such as ventilatory support, as well as administration of intravenous 250 to 500 [micro]g levothyroxine to replenish body stores. Treatment for possible hypocortisolemia must also be started until the pituitary-adrenal status is known.

Preclinical or subclinical hypothyroidism

An elevated TSH level occurs in almost 20% of patients older than 65 years; most of them are clinically euthyroid, with no symptoms and with normal FTI. Whether to treat or to follow this group of patients is unclear. Most physicians favor treatment with low doses of hormone (23,24) due to potential risks of progression to overt hypothyroidism or development of thyroid goiter. If the patient is clinically stable, it is probably reasonable to treat them with 50 to 75 [micro]g of levothyroxine.

Euthyroid sick syndrome

The hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid axis is affected by a nonthyroid illness. (25) The syndrome is acute, reversible, and occurs commonly after surgery, during fasting, in many acute febrile illnesses, and after acute myocardial infarction. Malnutrition, renal and cardiac failure, hepatic diseases, uncontrolled diabetes, cerebrovascular diseases, and malignancy can also produce abnormalities in the thyroid function tests. Almost any condition that can make a person ill can cause euthyroid sick syndrome (ESS, also called low T3 syndrome), and the elderly are most susceptible because of multiple comorbid conditions. Sick patients show a confusing array of thyroid abnormalities. Any abnormality in hormone level is possible, though usually T3, T4, and FT1 are low and TSH could be low or normal, mimicking central hypothyroidism, but these patients usually have high cortisol levels. Reverse T3 (rT3) is usually elevated and can be a useful test. Acute and chronic illness, starvation, and drugs inhibit the activity of 5' deiodinase. This enzyme generates T3 by removing iodine from the outer ring of T4. There is a second enzyme that removes iodine from the inner ring of T4, the activity of which is not affected by the process listed above. Removing the iodine from the inner ring of T4 yields physiologically inactive reverse T3 (rT3); its function is unknown but its level increases with decreased outer ring deiodination. As patients recover from their illness, TSH may normalize or become elevated. Ideally, the thyroid function tests should not be performed during any nonthyroid illness, but this may not be practically applicable, so any abnormal results should be interpreted with caution and with a realization that ESS is a more likely explanation for the finding than true thyroid disease. Thyroxine replacement has not been beneficial and should not be used in patients with ESS. If there is any confusion about the thyroid status, it is always best to check rT3 levels, as it is always elevated in ESS.

Hyperthyroidism

Hyperthyroidism in the elderly is a great masquerader, and even severe, life-threatening hyperthyroidism can easily be missed in patients older than 60 years. (9) A high index of suspicion is required. Graves disease and toxic multinodular goiter account for most cases in the elderly, (19,26,27) with the relative frequency of toxic nodular goiter being greater. (11,28-30) Transient hyperthyroidism of subacute thyroiditis is less common and is rarely clinically significant because it is self-limited and resolves in a few weeks. Iodine-induced hyperthyroidism (Jod-Basedow disease) may be caused by increased iodine uptake from sources such as mucolytics or contrast media. Solitary toxic adenomas are rare in elder patients. (31) Again, like hypothyroidism, the symptoms of hyperthyroidism are often atypical instead of classic and may mimic other common diseases in this age group. They may be absent, subtle, or may be obscured by coexisting diseases. Cardiac complications are the most common manifestations of hyperthyroidism in elderly. They are usually manifested as atrial arrhythmias (commonly atrial fibrillation with slow ventricular rates, as compared with high rates in young patients); congestive heart failure (usually high output heart failure) and angina pectoris. The underlying thyrotoxicosis may not be recognized, since older patients usually do not show the classic signs/symptoms of thyrotoxicosis. (32) Symptoms may be masked by treatment for coexisting diseases; for example, in a patient taking propranolol for hypertension or angina, hyperthyroid signs of tachycardia and tremulousness may be effectively masked. The classic tremors seen frequently in younger patients are rarely seen in the elderly and if present at all are often coarse, not fine, as noted earlier in life. (30) Rather than increased appetite, weight loss with anorexia may be present. Diarrhea is common in young hyperthyroid patients; elderly patients may note a correction of preexisting constipation but will rarely complain of loose stools. Elderly patients can present with only one symptom of hyperthyroidism, sometimes referred to as monosymptomatic hyperthyroidism. (33) Thyroid myopathy is an example; muscle weakness is the predominant symptom and sign, but careful history and physical examination can frequently uncover other findings of thyroid disease. (34) Neuromuscular symptoms such as decreased patient activity with fatigue, weakness, lethargy, agitation, confusion, and dementia are common. (35-38) In Graves disease, fewer of the typical clinical findings are present with each passing decade of life. (39) Elderly patients may not have goiter, exophthalmos, or other ophthalmopathy. The symptoms may not present together, may occur alone, or may be completely absent. Only a minority of patients present with the classic features of thyrotoxicosis--tremor, tachycardia, palpitations, nervousness, exophthalmos, heat intolerance, and weight loss despite increased appetite. Untreated hyperthyroidism can also cause osteoporosis. Elderly patients may present with an "apathetic" form of hyperthyroidism with placid apathetic facies, depression, lethargy, muscular weakness and wasting, excessive weight loss, cardiac arrhythmias, absent or small goiter, and an absence of ocular manifestations. (40,41) Agitation and confusion can also be presenting symptoms. Any clinical change in a previously stable elderly patient in the setting of vague or nonlocalizing symptoms should warrant thyroid evaluation.

Changes in thyroid hormone replacement therapy may result in toxic levels of thyroid hormone in the elderly as the metabolism of thyroid hormones gets slower and the half-life increases. It may take 6 to 8 weeks after dose increase to reach a steady state in those patients who are in their seventh or eighth decades of life. (42) Failure to wait an appropriate amount of time before a dose increase may result in hyperthyroidism. One important point to remember is that even with the same dose, different brands of the hormone may cause problems due to variation in hormone potency and bioavailability from various batches of hormone. The difference may be small, but in older patients with a slower metabolism, this could have significant effects. Any patient who is not taking a consistent brand of hormone should be considered at risk.

T3 toxicosis

The isolated finding of excessive amounts of circulating serum T3 is known as T3 toxicosis, an entity almost exclusively noted in the elderly, (30) and may be the cause in up to 10% of elderly hyperthyroid patients. This condition is usually caused by a nodule producing excessive T3, which in turn may cause suppressed serum TSH and T4 levels due to the suppression of the rest of the thyroid gland. (33,43) Just like the other thyroid diseases in the elderly, it can present with atypical symptoms and along with low T4 levels, erroneously may be diagnosed as hypothyroidism.

Diagnosis

Elevated levels of total or free thyroxine and low levels of TSH confirm the diagnosis of primary hyperthyroidism, though in a minority of patients even with low TSH level, thyroxine level may be normal. In these cases, the serum T3 should be measured to rule out T3 toxicosis. It is important to remember that TSH level may be low in some normal elderly individuals as well as patients receiving glucocorticoid therapy and patients with nonthyroidal illness (see Table 4). Thyroid autoantibodies suggest Graves disease. In elderly patients, physical examination of the thyroid gland is usually not helpful. Goiter is absent in more than half of these patients. If there is a palpable gland present, then a diffusely enlarged gland would be consistent with Graves disease, and a large or multiple large nodules would suggest hyperfunctioning multinodular thyroid disease. (33) A nuclear medicine thyroid scan with iodine is not useful in hyperthyroid patients with diffusely enlarged glands. Patients with multiple or single nodules as well as a normal size gland can benefit from these scans. One caveat to remember is that a normal iodine uptake of the gland does not eliminate hyperthyroidism. In transient hyperthyroidism caused by thyroiditis, the uptake will be low or absent (Table 5).

Management

Hyperthyroidism could be a life-threatening disease in the elderly and deserves prompt attention. There are three treatment strategies for hyperthyroidism: medication to suppress the gland, surgery to remove the hyperfunctioning tissue, and radioactive iodine (RAI) to destroy the gland.

RAI has been the preferred treatment in the elderly for many reasons. There might be higher age-related risks of surgery. Many elderly are taking multiple drugs, and addition of antithyroid medications would be cumbersome. An appropriate dose of RAI is calculated from the previous thyroid uptake scan. Administration of the agent results in concentration of the RAI in the gland, and local destruction occurs. There are pitfalls to RAI therapy. Hyperthyroidism is gradually reversed over weeks to months, and cardiac problems must be managed aggressively until the thyrotoxic state is reversed. An increase in FTI measurement in the weeks after RAI administration may develop in some patients due to destruction of thyroid cells with transient release of active thyroid hormone in circulation, which may, in rare cases, result in life-threatening thyroid storm. Antithyroid medications may be added for a few weeks before RAI treatment to control this excess hormone surge. If the hyperthyroid state persists for several months after the RAI treatment, a second course may be used. The final measure of success may be development of hypothyroidism, but timing is unpredictable. Some patients progress from hyperthyroidism to euthyroidism to hypothyroidism; others may become euthyroid for a period of time and then have development of hypothyroidism. A few patients may become euthyroid permanently. TSH is the test of choice to determine the development of hypothyroidism in patients who have undergone RAI treatment. Thyroid hormone should be started when the TSH starts increasing and FTI is still normal.

Drug therapy is very effective, but potential for side effects plus the high recurrence rate render them not as popular as a treatment of choice. The antithyroid drugs (propylthiouracil or methimazole) have a special role in those elderly patients whose unstable comorbid disease warrants a rapid suppression of hyperthyroid state, since these medicines act quickly. These medications should be used for a short period in the elderly; when the patient is euthyroid and stable, a decision should be made about the definitive treatment. Typical initial dose for propylthiouracil is 100 mg four times daily and for methimazole, 10 mg four times daily. Agranulocytosis is the major adverse reaction but occurs in less than 0.5% of those treated. It tends to occur early in the course of treatment and is more common with larger doses. It is usually abrupt in onset and occasionally fatal but reversible on discontinuation of therapy. Baseline leukocyte count with repeat testing with the onset of sore throat, fever, or other signs of infection is recommended. Rash, arthralgia, and myalgia are other potential side effects.

Surgery is a less attractive option in elderly patients with hyperthyroidism due to the presence of multiple chronic medical conditions including cardiac problems in this population. In some elderly patients, RAI may not work fully in the presence of multinodular toxic goiter or a large single hyperfunctioning nodule. In these patients, surgical intervention may be necessary. Surgery may also be necessary in those patients who have dysphagia or tracheal compression or if there is suspicion of malignant disease.

Beta-blockers can be used initially to control tachycardia and tremors but cannot alter the natural history of the disease. Calcium channel blockers (eg, diltiazem) can be chosen if beta-blockers are contraindicated. Anticoagulation may be indicated if patients present with atrial fibrillation, remembering that lower doses of warfarin are needed in hyperthyroid patients. (44)

Psychiatric features, including overt psychosis, disappear when patients become euthyroid, so psychiatric symptoms should be treated with psychologic support. If psychosis or other psychiatric symptoms persist after the patient is euthyroid, psychotropic drugs could be used for a short period of time. (9) Free T4 levels should be monitored frequently, even after they are within the normal range, as the TSH remains suppressed for a while.

Hyperthyroid storm

It can present with fever, delirium, tachycardia, hypotension, vomiting, diarrhea and jaundice, and abnormal liver function tests. It can be precipitated by surgery, anesthesia induction, and systemic infections. Hyperthyroid storm requires intensive care with close supervision. It is treated with antithyroid drugs, iodine (to inhibit thyroid hormone release), glucocorticoids, beta-blockers, and occasionally iopanoic acid (to inhibit T4 to T3 conversion).

Conclusion

Thyroid disease in the elderly can be easily overlooked. Not uncommonly,

it appears in an atypical manner, and the classic symptoms are often absent. Symptoms are too often explained as normal aging process or attributed to coexisting diseases. As thyroid disorders are readily amenable to effective treatment that can improve quality of life, the clinical suspicion of thyroid disease should be ever present. Development of unstable illness, especially cardiac disease, is a frequent mode of presentation. One symptom or one clinical feature of thyroid disease in the elderly may be overwhelming in its presentation, as in apathetic hyperthyroidism, thyroid myopathy, and so forth. Weight loss, generalized weakness, falling, agitated depression, or dementia suggests hyperthyroidism. Although mental and physical slowing is common in the euthyroid elderly population, their presence should raise suspicion for hypothyroidism. This is especially true if impaired mobility, apathy, or depression is also present. Physical examination of the thyroid gland may not be unhelpful, as in older patients the gland is often difficult to assess by palpation. The treatment of hypothyroidism is straightforward. Only myxedema coma requires large doses of levothyroxine parenterally; all other forms of hypothyroidism are treated with oral levothyroxine. Low doses should be initiated and increased gradually over months to achieve an euthyroid state gradually and safely. Hyperthyroidism can be treated with several modalities. In the unstable elderly patient, antithyroid medication can quickly produce a euthyroid state. As far as definitive therapy, radioactive iodine therapy is well tolerated, effective, and preferred. On occasion, a second course of therapy is needed to suppress hyperthyroidism. Close follow-up of all patients ever having received this therapy is needed to identify the development of hypothyroidism. Surgical thyroid ablation may be necessary in patients who fail to respond to radioactive iodine therapy and in patients with multinodular goiter. Abnormalities associated with unresolved thyromegaly, dysphagia, or tracheal compression may require surgical intervention. If there is a suspicion of malignant disease, surgical intervention should be considered.
We either make ourselves miserable, or we make ourselves strong. The
amount of work is the same.
--Carlos Castaneda

Table 1. Iodine excess in abnormal gland

1. Causing hypothyroidism
 1. Hashimoto thyroiditis (organification defect)
 2. Graves disease after radioactive iodine therapy
 3. Iodine excess also can lead to goitrous hypothyroidism through
 iodine-induced inhibition of thyroid hormone formation (Wolff-
 Chaikoff effect)
2. Causing hyperthyroidism
 1. Multinodular goiter (with autonomous areas in the thyroid gland)
 2. Hot nodule or toxic single nodule
 3. Iodine deficiency goiter

Table 2. Drugs affecting thyroid (a)

Drugs causing hypothyroidism
 A. Inhibition of thyroid hormone synthesis and/or release
 1. Lithium (acts like iodine)
 2. Amiodarone
 3. Iodine (expectorants, potassium iodine solutions--SSKI, (a)
 radiocontrast material. Betadine douches, topical antiseptics)
 4. Aminogluthimide
 5. Interferon-[alpha]
 6. Interleukin-2
 7. Thionamides
 8. Perchlorate
 B. Decreased absorption of T4 due to hormone binding in the intestine
 1. Cholestyramine
 2. Colistipol
 3. Aluminum hydroxide
 4. Calcium carbonate
 5. Sucralfate
 6. Iron sulfate
Drugs causing hyperthyroidism
 1. Amiodarone (due to its iodine contents)
 2. Iodine ingestion
 3. Radiographic contrast media
 4. Interferon-[alpha]

(a) SSKI, saturated solution of potassium iodide.

Table 3. Differential diagnosis of high thyroid-stimulating hormone

1. Hypothyroidism
2. Recovery from severe illness
3. Pituitary excess due to pituitary tumors causing secondary
 hyperthyroidism (very rare)

Table 4. Causes of low thyroid-stimulating hormone

1. Hyperthyroid state
 A. Both T3 and T4 elevated
 1. Graves disease
 2. Toxic multinodular goiter
 B. Only T3 elevated with normal T4
 1. T3 toxicosis (Graves disease)
 2. Exogenous T3 ingestion (Cytomel)
 C. Only T4 elevated with normal T3
 1. Hyperthyroidism patient with nausea, vomiting, and starvation
 causing decreased conversion of T4 to T3
2. Hypothyroid state
 1. Pituitary or hypothalamic disease (both T4 and T3 low)
3. Euthyroid state
 1. Sick euthyroid (both T3, T4 low, rT3 (a) elevated)
 2. Drugs such as glucocorticoids, octreatide, and dopamine

(a) rT3, Reverse T3 (Triiodothyronine).

Table 5. Twenty-four hour radioactive iodine uptake in the diagnosis of
hyperthyroidism

(Triiodothyronine)

1. Increased or normal radioactive iodine uptake
 1. Hot nodule/toxic adenoma
 2. Toxic multinodular goiter
 3. Graves disease
 4. Iodine deficiency (rare in the United States)
 5. Human chorionic gonadotropin-mediated hyperthyroidism, eg,
 hyperemesis gravidarium, trophoblastic disease
 6. Thyroid-stimulating hormone producing pituitary adenoma
2. Decreased or absent radioactive iodine uptake
 1. Silent lymphocytic thyroiditis (Hashimoto)
 2. Painful thyroiditis (subacute granulomatous De Quervain)
 3. Recent iodine excess or exposure
 4. Postpartum thyroiditis
 5. Factitious (exogenous) hyperthyroidism
 6. Struma ovarii (rare)
 7. Radiation thyroiditis


Accepted October 19, 2004.

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RELATED ARTICLE: Key Points

* Typical symptoms of thyroid diseases in elderly patients may be absent and may be erroneously attributed to normal aging or coexisting disease.

* In elderly patients with hypothyroidism, low-dose levothyroxine should be initiated and increased gradually over a period of several months.

* Radioactive iodine therapy is more definitive and is well tolerated, effective, and preferred in elderly patients with hyperthyroidism.

Shakaib U. Rehman, MD, Dennis W. Cope, MD, Anna D. Senseney, MD, and Walter Brzezinski, MD

From the Primary Care Service Line and Geriatrics Service Line, Ralph H. Johnson VA Medical Center, and the Department of Medicine, Medical University of South Carolina, Charleston, SC, and the Department of Medicine, UCLA Olive View Medical Center, Sylmar, CA.

Supported in part by the Department of Veterans Affairs Research Services.

The authors have no affiliation with any organization with a financial interest, direct or indirect, in the subject matter or materials discussed in the manuscript that may affect the conduct or reporting of the work submitted.

Reprint requests to Dr. Shakaib U. Rehman, 214 Historic Drive, Mount Pleasant, SC 29464. Email: Shakaib.rehman@med.va.gov, rehmans@musc.edu
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Title Annotation:Review Article
Author:Brzezinski, Walter
Publication:Southern Medical Journal
Date:May 1, 2005
Words:5266
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