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Three new species of the gobiid fish genus Tryssogobius from the western and South Pacific.

Abstract

The small fishes of the gobiid genus Tryssogobius Larson & Hoese, 2001 are represented by the following five species: T. colini Larson & Hoese, 2001 from Indonesia, Malaysia, and Papua New Guinea in 27-41 m; T. flavolineatus n. sp. from New Guinea and Indonesia in 28-82 m; T. longipes Larson & Hoese, 2001 from Indonesia and Papua New Guinea in 19.5-27 m; T. nigrolineatus n. sp. from Fiji from 73-110 m; and T. quinquespinus n. sp. from Papua New Guinea in 27 m. They are distinguished primarily by fin-ray counts and in colour.

Zusammenfassung

Zu den kleinen Vertretern der Gobiiden-Gattung Tryssogobius Larson & Hoese, 2001, zahlen nach derzeitiger Kenntnis die folgenden funf Arten: T. colini Larson & Hoese, 2001, von Indonesien, Malaysien, und Papua-Neuguinea in 27-41 m Tiefe; T. flavolineatus n. sp. von Neuguinea and Indonesien in 28-82 m Tiefe; T. longipes Larson & Hoese, 2001 von Indonesien and Papua-Neuguinea in 19,5-27 m Tiefe; T. nigrolineatus n. sp. von den Fidschi-Inseln aus 73-110 m Tiefe; und T. quinquespinus n. sp. von Papua Neu-Guinea aus einer Tiefe von 27 m. Sie unterscheiden sich hauptsachlich durch kleine Abweichungen der Flossenstrahlenzahl und Farbmerkmale.

Resume

Le petits poisson du genre de Gobiides Tryssogobius Larson et Hoese, 2001 sont representes par les cinq especes suivantes: T. colini Larson et Hoese, 2001 d'Indonesie, de Malaisie et de Papouasie-Nouvelle-Guinee, a 27-41 m; T. flavolineatus n. sp. de Nouvelle-Guinee et d'Indonesie, a 28-82 m; T. longipes Larson et Hoese, 2001 d'Indonesie et de Papouasie-Nouvelle-Gunee, a 19,5-27 m; T. nigrolineatus n. sp. des Fidji, a 73-110 m; et T. quinquespinus n. sp. de Papouasie-Nouvelle-Guinee, a 27 m. Elles se distinguent en premier lieu par le nombre de rayons des nageoires et par la couleur.

Sommario

I minuscoli gobidi del genere Tryssogobius Larson & Hoese, 2001 sono rappresentati dalle seguenti cinque specie: T. colini Larson & Hoese, 2001 dall'Indonesia, Malaysia e Papua Nuova Guinea a 27-41 m di profondita; T. flavolineatus n. sp. dalla Nuova Guinea e Indonesia a 28-82 m; T. longipes Larson & Hoese, 2001 dall'Indonesia e Papua Nuova Guinea a 19.5-27 m; T. nigrolineatus n. sp. da Fiji a 73-110 m; e T. quinquespinus n. sp. da Papua Nuova Guinea a 27 m. Si distinguono uno dall'altra principalmente per il numero di raggi delle pinne e per la colorazione.

Introduction

Larson & Hoese (2001) provided a detailed description of the Indo-Pacific gobiid fish genus Tryssogobius. Its distinctive features include enlarged scales in the posterior interorbital space; scales on the opercle, preopercle, and branchiostegal membranes; transverse sensory papillae on the cheek; and no preopercular pores. They named two new species in the genus, T. colini from Papua New Guinea, Palau, Indonesia, Sabah, and the Ryukyu Islands, and T. longipes from Indonesia and Papua New Guinea. As they noted, some authors have regarded the fishes of this genus as dartfishes (Ptereleotridae). Burgess et al. (1988: 561, pl. 476) identified one in an underwater photograph as Ptereleotris sp., and Myers (1999: 264, pl. 165 I) labeled one as "Tiny Dartfish". This is understandable because these fishes hover above the substratum not far from a burrow into which they can quickly seek shelter, much like dartfishes. Also, they are tiny; the largest specimen of T. colini measures 32.5 mm in standard length, and the largest specimen of T. longipes, 21.0 mm.

Larson & Hoese (2001) wrote (and the author concurs): "Other than stating that it is a gobiine, it is not possible to place Tryssogobius in a phylogenetic position, given the confused state of gobiid relationships at present."

The author supplied specimens and colour photographs for the study of Tryssogobius by Larson and Hoese. Two undescribed species were among the paratypes of T. colini that were returned to the Bishop Museum. Four lots of one of these species from Papua New Guinea and Palau (one specimen shown in Fig. 1 before it was collected) have been sent to Koichi Shibukawa of the National Science Museum, Tokyo to be included in an additional study of Tryssogobius with Helen K. Larson and Toshiyuki Suzuki. Shibukawa believes it is the same as Tryssogobius sp. 1 of Senou et al. (2004). The other specimens returned as paratypes of T. colini include one collected by the author from 55 m at Halmahera, Indonesia and two collected by Richard L. Pyle and John L. Earle from 82 m in the D'Entrecasteaux Islands, Papua New Guinea. These are described here as a new species, along with seven specimens recently collected and photographed by Mark V. Erdmann and Gerald R. Allen at the Indonesian New Guinea province of Papua.

The author requested a loan of USNM 316195 from Cebu, Phillippines, the 23 mm specimen that Larson & Hoese (2001) listed as a nontype of Tryssogobius colini. It is a species of Trimma (confirmed by Yuji Ikeda).

Larson & Hoese published the author's colour photograph of a nontype specimen of Tryssogobius longipes, one of three from Milne Bay, Papua New Guinea. They reported that all three have five spines in the first dorsal fin, in contrast to six in the type specimens of T. longipes. Noting that the specimens are not in good condition, they concluded, "Additional specimens are required to confirm their status." Other differences have been found from T. longipes, such as having 9 instead of 11 dorsal soft rays, 11 instead of 13 anal soft rays, and a caudal fin of unusual shape. Because no additional specimens have been obtained, and there seems to be no opportunity to collect additional material, this species is described here.

[FIGURE 1 OMITTED]

A third new species of Tryssogobius collected off Viti Levu, Fiji by Richard L. Pyle, John L. Earle, David F. Pence, and Joseph Dituri at depths of 73-110 m is also described.

Materials and Methods

The type specimens of the new species are variously deposited in the Australian Museum, Sydney (AMS); the Natural History Museum, London (BMNH); Bernice P. Bishop Museum, Honolulu (BPBM); California Academy of Sciences, San Francisco (CAS); Pusat Penelitian dan Pengembangan Oseanologi, Jakarta (NCIP); National Science Museum, Tokyo (NSMT); U. S. National Museum of Natural History, Washington, D.C. (USNM); and the Western Australian Museum, Perth (WAM).

Lengths of specimens are given as standard length (SL), measured from the median anterior point of the upper lip to the base of the caudal fin (posterior end of the hypural plate); body depth is measured at the origin of pelvic fins, and body width at the origin of the pectoral fins; head length is taken from the upper lip to the posterior end of the opercular membrane, and head width over the posterior margin of the preopercle; orbit diameter is the greatest fleshy diameter, and interorbital width the least fleshy width; snout length is measured from the median anterior point of the upper lip to the nearest fleshy edge of the orbit; upper-jaw length from the same anterior point to the posterior end of the maxilla; caudal-peduncle depth is the least depth, and caudal-peduncle length the horizontal distance between verticals at the rear base of the anal fin and the caudal-fin base; lengths of spines and rays are measured to their extreme bases; caudal- and pectoral-fin lengths are the length of the longest ray; pelvic-fin length is measured from the base of the pelvic spine to the tip of the longest pelvic soft ray. Morphometric data presented in Tables III to V are given as percentages of the standard length. Proportional measurements in the text are rounded to the nearest 0.05.

The count of scales in longitudinal series is made from just behind the upper end of the gill opening (not including two or three small anterior scales) to the base of the caudal fin (not including a smaller scale that overlaps the fin base); scales in transverse series are counted from the origin of the anal fin obliquely upward to the base of the first dorsal fin; gill-raker counts were made on the first gill arch, the rakers on the upper limb listed first (only one or two counts of paratypes per species).

The terminology for sensory pores of the head follows Lachner & Karnella (1980).

The dorsal pterygiophore formula given for the genus Tryssogobius by Larson & Hoese (2001) is 3-22110, which is shared with 54 other genera of the Priolepis group of Birdsong et al. (1988).

Meristic and morphometric data shown in parentheses refer to paratypes.

Key to the species of Tryssogobius
1a. Dorsal rays V + I, 9; caudal fin with three quinquespinus n. sp.
 filamentous lobes (Papua New Guinea, 27 m)
1b. Dorsal rays VI + I, 10 or 11; caudal fin 2
 rhomboid
2a. Dorsal soft rays 11; anal soft rays 13; longipes Larson &
 pectoral rays 16-18 (modally 17); Hoese, 2001
 midlateral yellow stripe from opercle to
 caudal-fin base (Indonesia and Papua New
 Guinea, 19.5-27 m)
2b. Dorsal soft rays 10; anal soft rays 11; 3
 pectoral rays 17-20 (modally 18 or 19); no
 midlateral yellow stripe to caudal-fin base
3a. Interorbital space narrow, 6.7-8.15 in head nigrolineatus n. sp.
 length; pectoral rays 18-20 (modally 19); a
 midlateral blackish line from behind eye to
 posterior caudal peduncle (Fiji, 73-110 m)
3b. Interorbital space not narrow, 4.6-6.1 in 4
 head length; pectoral rays 17-19 (modally
 18), no blackish stripe on body
4a. Cheek scales in two rows; a slightly flavolineatus n. sp.
 oblique, dark-edged, yellow line from
 behind eye to below first dorsal fin; no
 blackish blotch ventrally at posterior end
 of caudal peduncle (New Guinea and
 Indonesia, 28-82 m)
4b. Cheek scales in one row; no yellow line colini Larson & Hoese,
 from behind eye to below first dorsal fin; 2001
 a blackish blotch ventrally at posterior
 end of caudal peduncle (Indonesia, Sabah,
 and Papua New Guinea, 27-41 m)


Tryssogobius flavolineatus n. sp.

(Figs. 2-3; Tables I-III)

Tryssogobius colini (in part) Larson & Hoese, 2001: 29 (Halmahera, Indonesia; D'Entrecasteaux Islands, Papua New Guinea).

Holotype: BPBM 34220, female, 24.5 mm, Indonesia, Molucca Islands, Halmahera, Elmoos Reef, 0[degrees]10'N 128[degrees]0'E, silty sand and rubble, 55 m, quinaldine, J. E. Randall, 13 October 1989.

Paratypes: BPBM 36936, 2: 18.6-21.9 mm, Papua New Guinea, D'Entrecasteaux Islands, Normanby Island, 9[degrees]52'42"S 150[degrees]46'14"E, rubble slope, 82 m, rotenone, R.L. Pyle and J.L. Earle, 8 December 1995; BPBM 40450, 14.4 mm, CAS 224074, 17.2 mm, NCIV 6314, 21.4 mm, USNM 387257, 21.8 mm, New Guinea, Indonesia, Papua Province, South Yapen Island, Papuma Bay, 1[degrees]45.692'S 135[degrees]52.174'E, 30 m, clove oil, M.V. Erdmann and G. R. Allen, 14 February 2006; BMNH 2006.6.28.1, 21.3 mm, NSMT-P 73206, 19.3 mm; WAM P.32798-004, 24.2 mm, Papua Province, Pulau Ambasinsi, Triton Bay, 3[degrees]52'S 134[degrees]8'E, 28 m, clove oil, M.V. Erdmann and G.R. Allen, 23 April 2006.

Diagnosis

Dorsal rays VI + I,10; anal rays I,11; pectoral rays 17-19; 2 rows of scales on cheek; eye diameter 2.45-2.7 in head length; interorbital width 4.6-5.65 in head length; first dorsal spine of adults longest, 3.65-4.65 in SL, but second and third spines nearly as long; caudal fin rhomboid, 2.6-3.5 in SL; pectoral fins 3.4-3.6 in SL; grey with a dark-edged yellow line from behind eye, parallel to dorsal profile of postorbital head and nape, and ending below first dorsal fin; a narrow yellow band at base of dorsal fins; caudal fin with three blue-edged yellow stripes; pelvic fins whitish; largest specimen, 24.5 mm SL.

[FIGURE 2 OMITTED]

[FIGURE 3 OMITTED]

Description

Dorsal rays VI + I,10; anal rays I,11; all dorsal and anal rays branched, the last to base; pectoral rays 18-19 (17-19, rarely 17); upper and lower pectoral rays unbranched; pelvic rays I, 5, all soft rays double-branched; pelvic rays united as a disk, with a well-developed frenum; segmented caudal rays 17, 14 (13-14) branched, the middle 11 or 12 double-branched; upper and lower procurrent caudal rays 6 (6-7); scales in longitudinal series about 26 (some scales missing on all specimens); transverse scale rows 6; median predorsal scales 6, progressively larger anteriorly, the most posterior notched, the most anterior ending at posterior interorbital pore; 2 rows of scales on cheek, the outer row of 4 or 5 scales along edge of preopercle, the inner row of 2 or 3 smaller suborbital scales; opercle with 3 large scales, and subopercle with one smaller scale; no scales on fins except basally on caudal fin; scales on body ctenoid to below posterior part of first dorsal fin, cycloid anteriorly, including those of pectoral-fin base and prepelvic area; gill rakers 3 + 13-14 (two paratypes); pseudobranch lamellae 8 (11.9-mm paratype); branchiostegal rays 5; vertebrae 26.

Body depth 4.15 (4.3-4.5) in SL; body width 1.55 (1.3-1.55) in body depth; head length 3.5 (3.2-3.45) in SL; head width 1.55 (1.6-1.75) in head length; snout length 3.95 (4.15-4.5) in head length; orbit diameter 2.7 (2.45-2.7) in head length; upper edge of eye extending very slightly above dorsal profile of head; interorbital space flat, the least width 4.7 (4.6-5.65) in head length; caudal-peduncle depth 2.15 (2.25-2.8) in head length; caudal-peduncle length 4.65 (4.5-4.95) in SL.

Mouth oblique, forming an angle of about 40[degrees] to horizontal axis of head and body, with lower jaw projecting; maxilla reaching to or slightly posterior to a vertical at anterior edge of pupil, the upper-jaw length 2.35 (2.35-2.65) in head length; upper jaw with an outer row of about 19 slender canine teeth on each side, and an inner row of teeth of less than half this size; front of lower jaw with 5 slender canines on each side, larger than those at front of upper jaw, and slightly incurved; an inner row of smaller teeth that continue along side of lower jaw, with about 13 teeth on each side posterior to larger teeth of outer row at front of jaw; no teeth on vomer; tongue rounded, the upper surface with small well-spaced papillae.

[FIGURE 4 OMITTED]

[FIGURE 5 OMITTED]

Anterior end of gill opening nearly reaching a vertical at posterior edge of preopercle; gill rakers moderate, the longest slightly longer than longest gill filaments.

Anterior nostril a short tube in front of centre of eye at edge of groove above upper lip; posterior nostril a large aperture with a slight rim adjacent to cutaneous edge of orbit at level of upper edge of pupil; sensory pores large, the nasal pore as large as posterior nostril, separated from it medially by a thin septum; anterior interorbital pore middorsal above centre of eye, the posterior interorbital pore directly behind, followed at posterior edge of orbit by supraotic and anterior otic pores, and the intertemporal pore above posterior end of preopercle; preopercular pores. Sensory papillae essentially as well illustrated and described for Tryssogobius colini by Larson & Hoese (2004): figs. 2-4).

Origin of first dorsal fin slightly posterior to pelvic-fin base, the predorsal length 3.0 (2.75-3.0) in SL; first dorsal spine longest (except 14.4-mm paratype), 3.8 (3.65-4.65) in SL; second to fourth dorsal spines nearly as long, the second 4.15 (4.4-4.95) in SL; spine of second dorsal fin 2.5 (2.2-2.8) in head length; longest dorsal soft ray 5.45 (5.3-6.6) in SL; origin of anal fin below origin of second dorsal fin, the preanal length 1.8 (1.75-1.8) in SL; anal spine 3.5 (3.45-4.0) in head length; longest anal soft ray 4.95 (5.1-6.15) in SL; caudal fin rhomboid, a little longer than head, 3.4 (2.7-3.25) in SL; pectoral rays pointed, the tenth or eleventh ray longest, 3.45 (3.35-3.6) in SL; prepelvic length 3.6 (3.45-3.6) in SL; fifth pelvic soft ray longest, 2.8 (3.0-3.6) in SL; pelvic frenum extending nearly to tip of pelvic spines.

Colour of holotype in alcohol pale brownish yellow, with a faint, dusky-edged, pale stripe, narrower than pupil, beginning above opercle and extending parallel to dorsal profile of postorbital head and nape to below rear half of first dorsal fin; dorsal fins with pale yellowish rays and faintly dusky membranes; remaining fins pale yellowish. Paratypes in alcohol collected in 2006 show the narrow dark-edged pale stripe more clearly, extending forward to the posterior edge of the eye at level of upper half of pupil.

Colour of holotype in life is shown in the underwater photograph of Fig. 2. The underwater photograph of Fig. 3 was taken at Yapen Island, Indonesian Province of Papua, New Guinea. It is not certain if this is one of the paratypes collected at this locality.

Etymology

The species name is from the Latin flavus for yellow and lineatus, in reference to a line, for the most conspicuous colour marking, the yellow line passing from behind the eye to below the first dorsal fin.

Remarks

The 10 specimens of this species were collected from silty sand and rubble substrata at depths of 28-82 m.

As mentioned, the holotype of Tryssogobius flavolineatus was first identified as a paratype of T. colini, as were the two specimens from the D'Entrecasteaux Islands of Papua New Guinea. The two species have the same fin-ray and body scale counts. As preserved specimens, they could easily be confused as one species. T. colini differs in having a single row of scales on the cheek, compared to two for T. flavolineatus, a smaller eye (about 8-9% SL, compared to 10.6-12.8% for T. flavolineatus), slightly shorter paired fins, and in colour. T. colini lacks the bright yellow line on the postorbital head and anterior body, but is distinct in having a ventral blackish spot posteriorly on the caudal peduncle. Figures 4 and 5 are underwater and specimen photographs, respectively, of T. colini from 30 m at Flores, Indonesia.

Tryssogobius nigrolineatus, n. sp.

(Fig. 6; Tables I, II, IV)

Holotype: BPBM 39986, male, 27.1 mm, Fiji, Viti Levu, off Suva Harbour, patch reef, southern wall, 18[degrees]9'32.7"S 178[degrees]23'58.44"E, sloping sand and rubble bottom with rock outcroppings, 87-93 m, rotenone, R. L Pyle and D. F. Pence, 3 February 2002.

Paratypes: AMS I.43900-001, 2: 20.5-25.8 mm, Fiji, Viti Levu, off Suva Harbour, patch reef, off bow of shipwreck on top of reef, 18[degrees]9'51.18"S 178[degrees]24'1.2"E, vertical reef drop-off, with diagonal shelf, small holes, and horizontal cracks, 73-79 m, rotenone, J. Dituri and D. F. Pence, 2 February 2002; NSMT-P 73207, 7: 16.8-26.7 mm, USNM 287258, 5: 13.3-24.0 mm, same data as holotype; BPBM 40084, 12: 13.2-29.0 mm, Fiji, Viti Levu, off Suva Harbour, patch reef, below cave, 18[degrees]9'36.6"S 178[degrees]23'57.6"E, sand and rubble slope at base of vertical drop-off, 104-110 m, rotenone, R. L. Pyle, J. L. Earle, and J. Dituri, 4 February 2002; BMNH 2006.6.28.2, 4: 16.5-22.9 mm, CAS 224075, 4: 16.0-24.4 mm, Fiji, Viti Levu, off Suva Harbour, south end of patch reef, 18[degrees]9'36.6"S 178[degrees]23'57.6"E, sandy slope with rubble and small rock outcroppings, 93-99 m, rotenone, R. L. Pyle and D. F. Pence, 5 February 2002.

Diagnosis

Dorsal rays VI + I,10; anal rays I,11; pectoral rays 18-20; eye diameter 2.4-2.7 in head length; interorbital width narrow, 6.7-8.15 in head length; first three dorsal spines subequal, the longest 2.4-3.65 in SL, caudal fin rhomboid, 2.6-3.5 in SL; pectoral fins 3.4-3.6 in SL; colour light grey with a midlateral blackish line from behind eye to posterior caudal peduncle; first dorsal spine blackish, a yellow line at base of fin; two rows of yellow spots in second dorsal and caudal fins, and one row in anal fin; a yellow line in middle of caudal fin.

Description

Dorsal rays VI + I,10; anal rays I,11; all dorsal and anal rays branched, the last to base; pectoral rays 19-18 (18-20, rarely 20); upper and lower two pectoral rays unbranched; pelvic rays I,5, double-branched in adults; pelvic rays united as a disk, with a well-developed frenum; segmented caudal rays 17, 14 (13-14) branched, the middle 12 double-branched; upper and lower procurrent caudal rays 7 (6-7); scales in longitudinal series 26 or 27 (many scales missing on all specimens); transverse scale rows 6; median predorsal scales 6, progressively larger anteriorly, the most posterior notched, the most anterior ending at second interorbital pore; apparently one row of scales on cheek (judging from scale pockets; all cheek scales missing except for a single scale on two specimens); no scales on fins except basally on caudal fin; scales on body ctenoid to below third dorsal fin, cycloid anteriorly, including those of pectoral-fin base and prepelvic area; gill rakers 3-4 + 12-13 (two paratypes); pseudobranch lamellae 8 (29-mm paratype); branchiostegal rays 5; vertebrae 26.

Body depth 4.9 (4.75-4.85) in SL; body width 1.4 (1.35-1.6) in body depth; head length 3.4 (3.3-3.55) in SL; head width 1.7 (1.65-1.7) in head length; snout length 4.0 (4.1-4.4) in head length; orbit diameter 2.7 (2.4-2.65) in head length; upper edge of eye extending very slightly above dorsal profile of head; interorbital space flat, the least width 7.25 (6.7-8.15) in head length; caudal-peduncle depth 2.6 (2.5-2.65) in head length; caudal-peduncle length 4.35 (4.15-4.35) in SL.

[FIGURE 6 OMITTED]

Mouth oblique, forming an angle of about 60[degrees] to horizontal axis of head and body, with the lower jaw projecting; maxilla reaching to between verticals at anterior edge of eye and anterior edge of pupil, the upper-jaw length 2.6 (2.35-2.55) in head length; upper jaw with an outer row of 12-13 slender, slightly incurved, canine teeth on each side, and much smaller teeth in two irregular inner rows at front of jaw, narrowing to one row posteriorly; front of lower jaw with two rows of slender, slightly incurved, canine teeth, the inner row about two-thirds length of outer row, the outer row consisting of five pairs of teeth; inner row of teeth continuing as a series of 13 teeth on side of jaw; an irregular row of very small teeth medial to canines in lower jaw; no teeth on vomer; tongue slightly rounded, the upper surface with scattered small papillae.

Anterior end of gill opening nearly reaching a vertical at posterior edge of preopercle.

Gill rakers of moderate size, the longest about equal in length to longest gill filament.

Anterior nostril a short membranous tube in front of centre of eye at edge of groove above upper lip; posterior nostril an aperture with a slight rim adjacent to cutaneous edge of orbit at level of upper edge of pupil; sensory pores large, the nasal pore much larger than posterior nostril and separated from it medially by a thin septum; anterior interorbital pore middorsal above centre of eye, the posterior interorbital pore directly behind, followed at posterior edge of orbit by supraotic and anterior otic pores, and the intertemporal pore above posterior end of preopercle; preopercular pores absent. Sensory papillae of head too damaged to determine the pattern.

Origin of first dorsal fin slightly posterior to pelvic-fin base, the predorsal length 2.8 (2.8-2.9) in SL; first three dorsal spines subequal, the longest, 2.4 (2.45-3.65) in SL; spine of second dorsal fin 2.4 (2.45-2.85) in head length; longest dorsal soft ray 3.6 (4.5-5.6) in SL; origin of anal fin below first soft ray of second dorsal fin, the preanal length 1.75 (1.7-1.75) in SL; anal spine of holotype broken, the length of paratypes 2.6-3.2 in head length; longest anal soft ray 3.65 (3.85-5.4) in SL; caudal fin rhomboid, 3.2 (2.6-3.5) in SL; pectoral rays pointed, the tenth ray longest, 3.5 (3.4-3.6) in SL; prepelvic length 3.25 (3.25-3.4) in SL; fifth pelvic soft ray longest, 4.15 (4.05-4.4) in SL; pelvic frenum extending nearly to tip of pelvic spines.

Colour of holoype in alcohol pale yellowish with a midlateral blackish line from behind eye to posterior caudal peduncle; fins translucent yellowish grey. Colour of holotype when fresh shown in Fig. 6.

Etymology

This species is named nigrolineatus from the Latin nigro for black and lineatus, referring to a line, for the longitudinal black line on the postorbital head and the side of the body.

Remarks

All of the type specimens were collected from February 2-5, 2002 at depths of 73-110 m off Viti Levu, Fiji while diving with mixed-gas rebreather gear. The specimens of many species of fishes of variable size were collected together in hand nets, resulting in considerable abrasion of the small delicate specimens.

Tryssogobius quinquespinus n. sp.

(Fig. 7; Tables I, II, V)

Tryssogobius longipes (in part) Larson & Hoese, 2001: 32, fig. 9 (Papua New Guinea).

Holotype: BPBM 37016, female, 19.8 mm, Papua New Guinea, Milne Bay, Waga Waga, near wreck of "Muscoota", mud, 27 m, rotenone, J. L. Earle, 16 December 1995.

Paratypes: BPBM 40448, 21.0 mm, USNM 387330, 20.3 mm, same data as holotype.

Diagnosis

Dorsal rays V + I,9; anal rays I,11; pectoral rays 17-18; eye diameter 2.75-2.95 in head length; interorbital width 5.15-5.55 in head length; first three dorsal spines subequal, the longest 4.2-4.9 in SL: caudal fin with three filamentous lobes, the longest 2.3-2.5 in SL; pectoral fins short, 3.9-4.15 in SL; colour when fresh lavender-grey with a midlateral yellow stripe from behind eye to middle of caudal fin; an iridescent blue rectangular mark at ventroposterior edge of eye, bordered below by a dusky-edged, yellow semicircular mark; submarginal yellow and blue bands in second dorsal and anal fins and upper and lower lobes of caudal fin; largest specimen, 21.0 mm SL.

Description

Dorsal rays V + I,9; anal rays I,11; all dorsal and anal rays branched, the last to base; pectoral rays 17-19 (17); upper and lower two pectoral rays unbranched; pelvic rays I,5, all double-branched and united as a disk, with a well-developed frenum; segmented caudal rays 17, the middle 13 double-branched; upper and lower procurrent caudal rays 6 (6-7); scales in longitudinal series approximately 26 or 27 (most scales missing on all specimens); transverse scale rows about 6; median predorsal scales 6, progressively larger anteriorly, the most anterior ending at second interorbital pore; 2 rows of scales on cheek; no scales on fins except basally on caudal fin; scales on body probably ctenoid except anteriorly; gill rakers 3 + 12 (one paratype); pseudobranch filaments 8; branchiostegal rays 5; vertebrae 26.

[FIGURE 7 OMITTED]

Body depth 4.7 (4.4-4.9) in SL; body width 1.5 (1.45-1.5) in body depth; head length 3.35 in SL; head width 1.9 (1.75-1.8) in head length; snout length 5.35 (4.8-5.15) in head length; orbit diameter 2.95 (2.75-2.9) in head length; upper edge of eye extending very slightly above dorsal profile of head; interorbital space flat, the least width 5.55 (5.15-5.25) in head length; caudal-peduncle depth 2.6 (2.4-2.5) in head length; caudal-peduncle length 4.15 (4.2-4.25) in SL.

Mouth oblique, forming an angle of about 50-60[degrees] to horizontal axis of head and body, with the lower jaw projecting; maxilla reaching to between verticals at anterior edge of eye and front of pupil, the upper-jaw length 2.7 (2.45) in head length; upper jaw with an outer row of about 15 slender, incurved, canine teeth on each side and an inner row of somewhat smaller teeth; front of jaw with a few very small medial teeth; front of lower jaw with 5 slender, incurved canines on each side, and an inner row of 15 smaller teeth on each side that continue to end of jaw; a few very small inner teeth at front of jaw; no teeth on vomer; tongue rounded, the upper surface with small well-spaced papillae.

[FIGURE 8 OMITTED]

Anterior end of gill opening just reaching a vertical at posterior end of preopercle; gill rakers slender, about as long as longest gill filaments.

Anterior nostril a short tube in front of centre of eye at edge of groove above upper lip; posterior nostril an aperture with a slight rim adjacent to cutaneous edge of orbit at level of upper edge of pupil; sensory pores large, the nasal pore as large as posterior nostril, separated from it medially by a thin septum; anterior interorbital pore middorsal above centre of eye, the posterior interorbital pore directly behind, followed at posterior edge of orbit by supraotic and anterior otic pores, and the intertemporal pore above posterior end of preopercle; preopercular pores absent. Sensory papillae approximately as illustrated for Tryssogobius colini by Larson & Hoese (2004: figs. 2-4).

Origin of first dorsal fin slightly posterior to pelvic-fin base, the predorsal length 2.8 (2.8-2.9) in SL; first three dorsal spines subequal, the longest 4.2 (4.7-4.9) in SL; spine of second dorsal fin 2.3 (1.95) in head length; longest dorsal soft ray 3.2 (3.9) in SL; origin of anal fin below origin of second dorsal fin, the preanal length 1.8 (1.75-1.8) in SL; anal spine 2.95 (3.0-3.15) in head length; longest anal soft ray 3.8 (4.05-4.15) in SL; caudal fin with three filamentous lobes, the third to fifth branched rays, seventh branched ray, and the ninth and tenth branched rays, the longest ray 2.5 (2.3-2.35) in SL; pectoral rays pointed, the tenth or eleventh ray longest, 3.95 (3.9-4.15) in SL; prepelvic length 3.6 (3.45-3.6) in SL; fifth pelvic soft ray longest, 2.15 (3.3-3.5) in SL; pelvic frenum extending nearly to tip of pelvic spines.

Colour of holotype in alcohol pale yellowish, the scale edges dusky dorsally on body; an oblique rectangular blackish mark nearly as long as eye diameter at ventroposterior edge of orbit; dorsal part of snout and interorbital before the first predorsal scale dusky; a narrow dusky band on lips; first dorsal and paired fins translucent grey, the remaining fins faintly purplish.

Colour of holotype when fresh shown in Fig. 7.

Etymology

This species is named quinquespinus from the Latin quinque for five, and spina for spine, in reference to its having V spines in the first dorsal fin, a rare count for gobiid fishes. The great majority of gobies have VI dorsal spines in the first dorsal fin.

Remarks

The holotype of Tryssogobius longipes, BPBM 36682, 16.5 mm, is one of five specimens, 16-21 mm SL, collected by the author at Flores, Indonesia. The three smallest specimens were sent on loan to Helen K. Larson. The two largest, including the 21-mm specimen that was photographed in colour shortly after it was collected (Fig. 8), were not curated at the Bishop Museum and are presumed lost. Larson and Hoese requested a new Bishop Museum number for two specimens, 16-18 mm, which were returned as paratypes, and BPBM 37828 was provided (this number was used for the listing of type material by Larson & Hoese, but not in their Table II). Also included as paratypes by Larson & Hoese (2001) are four specimens collected by John L. Earle at Milne Bay, Papua New Guinea. Two were returned to the Bishop Museum, and one each deposited as a paratype to the Northern Territory Museum and the Australian Museum. Three other specimens collected at the same station were regarded as nontypes of T. longipes. As mentioned, these three specimens are described here as T. quinquespinus.

The most obvious differences of Tryssogobius quinquespinus from T. longipes are the counts of the dorsal and anal rays, especially the first dorsal-fin count of V spines, and having a trilobed instead of a rhomboid caudal fin.

All three type specimens are females. An apparent and unexpected difference among the specimens is the much longer pelvic fins of the holotype than the two paratypes. The fin is filamentous in this species, and the elongate rays are so slender that the distal end could be broken without seeming so.

The 21.0-mm paratype is either deformed or has sustained an injury from which it has healed. There is a depressed area dorsoposteriorly on the body; only the initial spine and the first five rays of the second dorsal fin are present.

Acknowledgements

I am most grateful to Gerald R. Allen, John L. Earle, Mark V. Erdmann, and Richard L. Pyle for collecting and photographing specimens of Tryssogobius. Thanks are also due Loreen R. O'Hara and Arnold Y. Suzumoto of the Bishop Museum for curatorial assistance and x-rays, and especially to Koichi Shibukawa, who shared his knowledge of the genus Tryssogobius and critically reviewed the manuscript.

References

BIRDSONG, R. S., MURDY, E. O. & PEZOLD, F. L. 1988. A study of the vertebral column and median fin osteology in gobioid fishes with comments on gobioid relationships. Bulletin of Marine Science 42: 174-214.

BURGESS, W. E., AXELROD, H. R. & HUNZIKER, R. E. 1988. Dr. Burgess's Atlas of Marine Aquarium Fishes. 768 pp. TFH Publications, Neptune City, NJ.

LACHNER, E. A. & KARNELLA, S. J. 1980. Fishes of the Indo-Pacific genus Eviota with descriptions of eight new species (Teleostei: Gobiidae). Smithsonian Contributions to Zoology no. 315: iii + 127 pp.

LARSON, H. K. & HOESE, D. F. 2001. A new genus of small gobiid fish (Teleostei, Gobiidae) from the Indowest Pacific, with description of two new species. The Beagle, Records of the Museums and Art Galleries of the Northern Territory 27: 27-36.

MYERS, R. F. 1999. Micronesian Reef Fishes, ed. 3. vi + 330 pp. Coral Graphics, Guam.

SENOU, H., SUZUKI, T., SHIBUKAWA, K. & YANO K. 2004. A Photographic Guide to the Gobioid Fishes of Japan. 534 pp. Heibonsha, Ltd., Tokyo (in Japanese).

John E. Randall

Bishop Museum, 1525 Bernice St., Honolulu, HI 96817-2704, USA.

E-mail: jackr@hawaii.rr.com

Received: 12 July 06--Accepted: 26 July 06
Table I. Soft dorsal and anal rays of species of Tryssogobius.

 Dorsal rays Anal rays
 9 10 11 10 11 12 13

T. colini 3 3
T. flavolineatus 10 10
T. longipes 5 5
T. nigrolineatus 14 14
T. quinquespinus 2 3

Dorsal fin of one paratype of T. quinquespinus aberrant

Table II. Pectoral rays of species of Tryssogobius.

 16 17 18 19 10

T. colini 5 1
T. flavolineatus 1 13 6
T. longipes 2 6 1
T. nigrolineatus 8 18 2
T. quinquespinus 5 1

Pectoral rays of both sides counted; fin of one side of T. longipes
aberrant.

Table III. Proportional measurements of type specimens of Tryssogobius
flavolineatus as percentages of the standard length.

 Holotype Paratypes
 BPBM BPBM NSMT BMNH
 34220 40450 P 73206 6.2.28.1

Standard length (mm) 24.5 14.4 19.3 21.3
Sex female ? female female
Body depth 24.1 22.1 21.4 23.4
Body width 15.4 15.3 15.8 15.0
Head length 28.6 31.3 31.0 30.5
Head width 18.3 19.8 17.9 17.7
Snout length 7.2 7.2 6.9 7.0
Orbit diameter 10.6 12.8 12.0 11.7
Interorbital width 6.1 6.8 5.7 5.5
Upper-jaw length 12.2 13.2 11.6 12.2
Caudal-peduncle depth 13.3 11.1 12.8 11.5
Caudal-peduncle length 21.6 21.8 21.3 21.2
Predorsal length 33.4 34.7 36.5 36.4
Preanal length 55.0 56.6 56.9 57.1
Prepelvic length 27.8 29.2 28.0 29.1
Base of dorsal fins 41.7 40.3 42.3 42.0
First dorsal spine 26.3 20.9 21.6 23.5
Second dorsal spine 24.1 21.5 20.2 broken
Spine of second dorsal fin 11.4 11.8 11.6 11.7
Longest dorsal ray 18.3 15.2 18.0 18.5
Base of anal fin 20.4 21.0 20.8 20.7
Anal spine 8.2 7.8 8.0 8.4
Longest anal ray 20.2 16.3 18.7 broken
Caudal-fin length 29.4 33.9 33.5 30.9
Pectoral-fin length 29.1 28.0 29.9 28.4
Pelvic-spine length 9.9 10.3 10.1 9.8
Pelvic-fin length 35.5 27.8 31.1 28.1

 Paratypes
 NCIP USNM WAMP
 6314 387257 32798

Standard length (mm) 21.4 21.8 24.2
Sex female male male
Body depth 21.4 22.8 21.1
Body width 16.2 14.4 13.4
Head length 30.4 29.0 29.1
Head width 17.9 18.1 16.4
Snout length 7.3 7.0 7.0
Orbit diameter 11.5 11.1 10.7
Interorbital width 5.2 5.2 5.4
Upper-jaw length 11.7 11.3 11.4
Caudal-peduncle depth 12.6 12.9 12.4
Caudal-peduncle length 21.9 20.3 22.3
Predorsal length 36.4 33.5 34.0
Preanal length 55.8 56.2 56.7
Prepelvic length 28.6 28.5 28.9
Base of dorsal fins 40.0 42.2 41.7
First dorsal spine 23.4 23.6 27.3
Second dorsal spine 22.9 20.6 broken
Spine of second dorsal fin 10.8 13.2 11.9
Longest dorsal ray 17.8 18.8 18.4
Base of anal fin 21.3 19.6 21.4
Anal spine 8.9 8.2 aberrant
Longest anal ray 19.6 18.9 19.5
Caudal-fin length 36.9 36.9 33.2
Pectoral-fin length 29.7 29.8 28.8
Pelvic-spine length 10.4 10.9 10.3
Pelvic-fin length 28.0 30.6 33.0

Table IV. Proportional measurements of type specimens of Tryssogobius
nigrolineatus as percentages of the standard length.

 Holotype Paratypes
 BPBM BPBM BPBM BPBM BPBM BPBM BPBM
 39986 40084 40084 40084 40084 40084 40084

Standard 27.1 17.4 18.2 21.8 23.5 28.7 29.0
 length (mm)
Sex male male female female female male male
Body depth 20.5 20.7 20.6 21.0 21.1 21.1 21.0
Body width 14.8 14.5 15.1 15.0 13.2 14.6 13.0
Head length 29.7 30.2 29.6 28.7 29.0 28.5 28.3
Head width 17.5 18.1 17.9 17.6 17.3 16.7 16.5
Snout length 7.4 6.9 7.2 6.7 7.7 6.8 6.9
Orbit 11.1 12.4 12.1 11.4 11.9 11.2 10.7
 diameter
Interorbital 4.1 4.3 4.4 4.3 4.0 3.5 3.8
 width
Upper-jaw 11.4 11.9 12.3 11.7 12.3 11.8 12.2
 length
Caudal- 11.4 11.5 11.2 11.5 12.3 11.0 11.1
 peduncle
 depth
Caudal- 22.9 24.1 23.0 23.0 24.2 24.2 24.1
 peduncle
 length
Predorsal 35.5 35.4 35.3 35.0 34.9 34.5 35.2
 length
Preanal 57.6 57.5 57.5 58.2 56.7 57.6 57.8
 length
Prepelvic 30.8 30.7 30.2 29.5 30.9 30.7 29.7
 length
Base of 41.8 41.4 40.8 41.2 41.7 42.7 41.6
 dorsal fins
First dorsal 41.8 28.6 27.4 34.6 35.1 38.4 41.0
 spine
Second dorsal 41.8 27.2 27.7 34.9 33.6 31.3 35.3
 spine
Spine of 12.3 12.4 11.8 11.8 10.2 10.8 11.0
 second
 dorsal fin
Longest 27.8 18.7 17.8 20.6 22.3 21.0 21.4
 dorsal ray
Base of anal 21.1 20.1 20.4 20.0 20.8 19.6 20.6
 fin
Anal spine broken 11.5 11.3 10.3 9.0 12.7 10.3
Longest anal 27.3 20.6 18.4 23.0 25.9 22.8 22.8
 ray
Caudal-fin 31.3 32.2 28.6 31.6 31.0 38.2 32.1
 length
Pectoral-fin 28.6 28.4 29.4 28.3 29.5 28.6 27.6
 length
Pelvic-spine 10.9 10.1 10.2 9.6 9.4 8.9 9.5
 length
Pelvic-fin 24.1 22.7 23.0 22.9 24.2 24.8 24.6
 length

Table V. Proportional measurements of type specimens Tryssogobius
quinquespinus as percentages of the standard length.

 Holotype Paratypes
 BPBM USNM BPBM
 37016 387330 40448

Standard length (mm) 19.8 20.3 21.0
Sex female female female
Body depth 21.4 22.9 20.3
Body width 14.3 14.8 13.8
Head length 30.0 29.9 29.8
Head width 15.7 16.8 16.4
Snout length 5.6 5.9 6.2
Orbit diameter 10.2 10.8 10.3
Interorbital width 5.4 5.8 5.7
Upper-jaw length 11.2 12.3 12.2
Caudal-peduncle depth 11.6 12.4 11.8
Caudal-peduncle length 24.0 23.9 23.4
Predorsal length 35.4 35.6 34.8
Preanal length 55.4 56.0 56.5
Prepelvic length 30.4 29.7 30.2
Base of dorsal fins 43.5 41.9 -
First dorsal spine 22.7 21.4 20.4
Second dorsal spine 23.8 20.8 19.9
Spine of second dorsal fin 13.1 15.3 -
Longest dorsal ray 31.2 25.7 -
Base of anal fin 23.2 20.8 22.2
Anal spine 10.2 9.9 9.5
Longest anal ray 26.2 24.8 24.0
Caudal-fin length 40.3 42.5 43.3
Pectoral-fin length 25.3 24.2 25.7
Pelvic-spine length 10.1 10.4 10.5
Pelvic-fin length 46.3 30.2 28.6

The 21-mm paratype has a deformed second dorsal fin
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Author:Randall, John E.
Publication:Aqua: journal of ichthyology & aquatic biology
Geographic Code:0PACR
Date:Jul 1, 2006
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