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Three new species of Racinaea (Tillandsioideae: Bromeliaceae) from Ecuador.

Introduction to Racinaea gentryana.

During the study of specimens of Racinaea at the Missouri Botanical Garden (MO) in June 2002, one specimen of Racinaea collected by Alwyn Gentry (deceased) in the Cordillera del Condor, an area now covered with mines, caught my (JMM) attention. The specimen had been studied by Harry Luther in June 1995, who came to the conclusion that it is a new species related to R. homostachya (Andre) M. A. Spencer & L. B. Sm. and R. monticola (Mez & Sodiro) M. A. Spencer & L. B. Sm.

We requested from MO the loan of the specimen and it arrived at QCNE in 2003. We studied it and came to the same conclusion as Harry Luther: a new species.

However, more material was needed to complete the description, especially because the rosette did not show whether it is a caulescent or acaulescent plant. The needed material was obtained during a trip through Ecuador together with Dr. Eric Gouda when the species was observed in the montane forest between Sigsig and Chiguinda, in fruiting stage but with sufficient details to complete the description.

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Racinaea gentryana Manzanares & W Till, sp. nov. Type: Ecuador. Morona Santiago: crest of Cordillera del Condor, ridge top 15 km ENE of Gualaquiza, high montane forest and bromeliad sward, 03[degrees]22'S 78[degrees]20'W, 2,500 m, 26 July 1993, Alwyn Gentry 80474 (Holotype: MO). Other material examined (Paratypes). Ecuador, Morona Santiago: between Sigsig and Chiguinda, 03[degrees]11'39"S 78[degrees]46'31"W 2,951 m, 26 November 2005, Jose M. Manzanares & Eric Gouda 8170 (QCNE); Zamora Chinchipe: area of Estacion Cientifica San Francisco, Cerro del Consuelo, 03[degrees]58'S 79[degrees]04'W 3,050 m, 25 September 2005, F. A. Werner 1789 (LOJA, SEL).
   A Racinaea monticola (Mez & Sodiro) M. A. Spencer & L. B. Sm., cui
   affinis, modo vivendi terrestre, habitu caulescente, caule 15-20 cm
   longo, vaginis foliorum non pseudobulbum formantibus, laminis
   foliorum triangularibus apice attenuates, bracteis florigeris
   sepala celantibus, erectis et sepalis 5 mm longis, oblongis, apice
   rotundatis et apiculatis differt.


Plant terrestrial, 100-130 cm including the inflorescence, caulescent, stem 15-20 cm long. Leaves numerous, coriaceous, forming a dense rosette, leaf sheaths not forming a pseudobulb, the old dry leaves remaining along the stem and covering it; sheaths ca. 18 cm long, ca. 8 cm wide, elliptic, conspicuous, lepidote, brown-castaneous, erect; blades 10-11 cm long, ca. 3 cm wide, triangular, with an attenuate apex. Inflorescence 45-50 cm long, ca. 6 cm wide, 2 times branched, lax, bearing 9 to12 branches ca. 3 cm apart, with 5 to 6 spikes at the apex, ca. 1.5 cm apart, yellowish-green, cylindric, erect, slightly lepidote. Peduncle 80-90 cm long, 0.4 cm wide, erect, exceeding the leaves, slightly lepidote; peduncle bracts the lower ones foliaceous, the upper ones 4-10 cm long, 1.5-2 cm wide, elliptic, attenuate and with a recurved apex, with hyaline margins, the lower ones imbricate, the upper ones exposing the peduncle, erect, slightly lepidote, nerved; Inflorescence: primary bracts ca. 3 cm long, ca. 1 cm wide, the lower ones elliptic with an attenuate apex, the upper ones ovate with an acuminate apex, ecarinate, exceeding the stipes, shorter than the spikes, slightly lepidote, spreading, nerved; branch ca. 3 cm long, ca. 2 cm wide, spreading with secund spikes, yellowish-green, stipes ca. 1 cm long, without sterile bracts; spikes 2-3 mm long stipitate (without sterile bracts), 1.5-2.5 cm long, ca. 0.9 cm wide, sublax, complanate, with 8 to14 distichously arranged lowers ca. 2 mm apart, rachis strongly geniculate and quadrangular, slightly lepidote; floral bracts ca. 7 mm long, ca. 8 mm wide, ovate, acuminate and incurved at the apex, slightly cucullate, erect, yellowish-green, carinate near the apex, nerved, longer than the sepals, not concealing the rachis, glabrous. Flowers sessile, divergent and not secund; sepals ca. 6 mm long, ca. 4 mm wide, free, obovate, obtuse at the apex, strongly asymmetric, one side alate, not carinate, glabrous; petals ca. 7 mm long, yellow, the spreading blades showing only the apex.

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Racinaea gentryana resembles R. monticola but differs from this species by its terrestrial growth, caulescent habit with a stem 15-20 cm in lenght (vs. epiphytic and acaulescent), leaf sheaths not forming a pseudobulb (vs. leaf sheaths forming an ellipsoid pseudobulb); leaf blades triangular with an attenuate apex (vs. leaf blades oblong, abruptly acute); loral bracts concealing the sepals, erect (vs. loral bracts exposing the sepals, suberect or spreading), and sepals 5 mm long, oblong, round at the apex and apiculate (vs. sepals 6 mm long, obovate and not apiculate).

This racinaea is named in honor of Alwyn Howard Gentry (1945-1993), a renowned botanist from Missouri Botanical Garden and one of the most knowledgeable botanists of tropical America in the 20th century, who lost his life on August 3, 1993, nine days after collecting this new species. He died in an airplane crash in Ecuador while on a mission to assist in the conservation of the forests of that country.

Introduction to Racinaea goudae.

For several years this new species has been confused with many other members of Racinaea, especially with a small form of Racinaea riocreuxii (Andre) M. A. Spencer & L. B. Sm. We have studied this plant for several years and have now enough evidence that it is a new species.

Most of the material studied has been collected between Papallacta and Cuyuja, in the province of Napo situated in the mountains towards the Amazon basin. With Eric Gouda during his trip through Ecuador in 2005 we have observed a particularity of the fruits during maturity with most of them in the spikes are turning upwards, contrary to the usual downward orientation.

Racinaea goudae Manzanares & W Till, sp. nov. Type: Ecuador. Napo: Quijos, entre Papallacta y Cuyuja, 00[degrees]21'56"N 78[degrees]02'55"W 2,461 m, 17 August 2001, Jose M. Manzanares, Margaret Case, Eduardo Gutierrez, Manuel Medina & Rebeca Manzanares 7431 (Holotype: QCNE, MO).

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Other material examined (Paratypes). Ecuador, Napo: Quijos, Papallacta, 00[degrees]17'S 78[degrees]10'W, 2,400 m, October 1989, Jose M. Manzanares & K. Bracke 5298 (MO, QCNE); Quijos, Cordillera de los Guacamayos, 00[degrees]39'S 77[degrees]50'W, 2,000 m, 1992, Jose M. Manzanares 5464 (QCNE); Archidona, Sumaco Napo-Galeras National Park, volcan Sumaco, 00[degrees]36'S 77[degrees]38'W, 2,600, 16 March 1996, John L. Clark 2245 (QCNE); Tena, Cordillera de los Guacamayos, Chacana Urcu, 2,200 m, 8 June 1996, Jose M. Manzanares 5655 (QCNE); Tena, Cordillera de los Guacamayos, Chacana Urcu, 2,200 m, 8 June 1996, Jose M. Manzanares 5656 (QCNE, WU); Tena, Cordillera de los Guacamayos, Chacana Urcu, 2,200 m, 8 June 1996, Jose M. Manzanares 5657 (QCNE); Tena, Cordill era de los Guacamayos, Chacana Urcu, 2,200 m, 8 June 1996, Jose M. Manzanares 5658 (QCNE); Tena, Cordillera de los Guacamayos, sendero Huicundo Loma-Piguiyacu, 2,100 m, 8 June 1996, Jose M. Manzanares 5707 (QCNE); Cuyuja, 00[degrees]20'S 78[degrees]01'W 2,000 m, 14 Feb 1997, Jose M. Manzanares & W Till 6229 (QCNE); Quijos, Reserva Ecologica Antisana, Cordillera de los Guacamayos, entre el Rio Vinillos y El Mirador, 00[degrees]38'S 77[degrees]51'W, 2,280 m, 3-5 Jan 1999, H. Vargas & E. Narvaez 3339 (MO, QCNE); Quijos, Reserva Ecologica Antisana, Cordillera de los Guacamayos, entre El Mirador y carmno de La Virgen, 00[degrees]38'S 77[degrees]51'W, 2,300 m, 12-14 January 1999, H. Vargas & E. Narvaez 3500 (MO, QCNE); Napo: Quijos, carretera Quito-Baeza, 00[degrees]24'16"S 78[degrees]02'41"W, 2,498 m, 19 November 2005, Jose M. Manzanares & Eric Gouda 7788 (QCNE, WU, U).
   A Racinaea riocreuxii (Andre) M. A. Spencer & L. B. Sm., cui
   affinis, habitu minore inflorescentia inclusa 30-50 cm alto,
   laminis foliorum flexilibus, 1.5 cm latis, inflorescentia 20-30 cm
   longa, bracteis florigeris ovatis, acuminatis, apice incurvatis,
   carinatis et floribus non secundis differt; a Racinaea subalata
   (Andre) M. A. Spencer & L. B. Sm., cui similis, habitu minore
   inflorescentia inclusa 30-50 cm alto, vaginis foliorum brevioribus,
   laminis foliorum flexilibus, 1.5 cm latis, inflorescentia 20-30 cm
   longa, simpliciter ramose vel rariter bi-ramosa in parte inferiore,
   arcuata, sepalis ecarinatis et petalis atroluteis recedit.


Plant an epiphyte, 30-50 cm tall including the inflorescence, forming dense groups; rosette funnelform, erect, the leaf sheaths forming a subfusiform pseudobulb. Leaf sheaths 7-9 cm long, 4-5.5 cm wide, ovate, densely lepidote, brown, in the upper part with irregular red spots. Leaf blades 15-21 cm long, 1.5 cm wide, triangular, apex attenuate and incurved, light green, covered with irregular red spots, lepidote. Inflorescence 13-30 cm long, 5-6 cm wide, once branched or rarely two times branched in the lower part, lax, bearing 6 to 11 spikes 2-2.5 cm apart, yellow-green, complanate, lepidote, slightly curved, distichous, spikes slightly nodding; peduncle 15-20 cm long, ca. 0.4 mm wide, erect or slightly curved, exceeding the foliage, dark violet, lepidote; peduncle bracts not foliaceous, 4-5 cm long, 1 cm wide, elliptic, apex apiculate or attenuate, longer than the internodes, nerved, lepidote, brown, papyraceous; primary bracts 2-2.5 cm long, ca. 1.1 cm wide, ovate, the upper ones acuminate and the lower ones attenuate at the apex, exceeding the stipes of the branch or spikes, brown, lepidote, dry during anthesis; branch ca. 7 cm long, withca. 2 spikes, stipe 0.8-1.4 cm long, with 1 to 2 sterile bracts; spikes 4-5.5 cm long, 1 cm wide, their stipes 0.5-1 cm with or without sterile bracts, yellow-green, dense, distichous, complanate, with 10 to14 flowers, sometimes with sterile bracts at the apex forming a claw; rachis geniculate, quadrangular and lepidote, slightly downwardly curved; floral bracts ca. 1.1 cm long, ca. 0.9 cm wide, ovate, apiculate, with an incurved apex, cucullate, in the upper part hyaline and with slightly undulate margins, slightly lepidote, green with irregular red spots, imbricate during anthesis, carinate, nerved in the lower part, erect, covering the sepals. Flowers sessile, erect, emerging at the upper side of the spikes, not secund; sepals ca. 0.7 cm long, ca. 0.5 cm wide, free, obovate, obtuse at the apex, strongly asymmetric, ecarinate, lepidote, brown except for the translucent margins; petals yellow, ca. 1 cm long, blades forming a tube; ovary ca. 2 mm long, ca. 1.5 mm wide, round; style ca. 1 mm long, stigma ca. 1 mm long; stamens slightly longer than the stigma; filaments ca. 4 mm long; anthers ca. 2 mm long, joining together and forming a tube around the stigma. Capsules mostly turning upwards.

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According to the key of Smith & Downs (1977) this new species is related to Racinaea riocreuxii from which it can be distinguished by: smaller stature, 30-50 cm including the inflorescence (vs. 80-130 cm); leaf blades flexible and 1.5 cm wide (vs. coriaceous and 2-4 cm wide), inflorescence 20-30 cm long (vs. 35-60 cm); floral bracts ovate, acuminate and incurved at the apex, carinate (vs. suborbicular, obtuse and not incurved at the apex, ecarinate) and the not secund lowers (vs. secund lowers). When compared to R. subalata this new species can be distinguished by: smaller stature, 30-50 cm including the inflorescence (vs. 70 cm including the inflorescence); leaf sheaths 7-9 cm long (vs. 10-14 cm); leaf blades flexible and 1.5 cm wide (vs. coriaceous and 2-3 cm wide); inflorescence 13-30 cm long, once branched or rarely 2 times branched in the lower part, and slightly hanging (vs. 40-60 cm long, 2 times branched and erect); sepals ecarinate (vs. carinate), and petals deep yellow (vs. light yellow).

The general appearance is similar to Racinaea homostachya, from which can by distinguished by: leaf blades triangular, 1.5 cm wide, apex attenuate (vs. lanceolate, 3.5 cm wide, apex acuminate), primary bracts ecarinate (vs. strongly carinate), loral bracts 0.8-1.1 cm long and carinate (vs. 0.8 cm long and ecarinate), and deep yellow petals (vs. light yellow).

This Racinaea is named in honor of Eric John Gouda, a botanist at the Herbarium and curator of the Botanical Garden of the University of Utrecht (U), The Netherlands.

Introduction to Racinaea grantii

This new species was discovered during the expedition of E. Patterson, J. Raack, E. Doherty, M. Navarro and J. M. Manzanares in April 1997 in the province of Azuay, southern Ecuador. The goal of this expedition was to study the genus Puya in the South of Ecuador (provinces Azuay and Loja). The first to discover this bromeliad was Monica de Navarro, expert in orquids. Jerry Rack made a dried specimen (J. Raack 3, SEL) and sent it to H. Luther, who identified the specimen as a robust form of Racinaea euryelytra J. R. Grant due to the damage of the specimen (over dried).

The species was identified at QCNE as Racinaea quadripinnata (Mez & Sodiro) M. A. Spencer & L. B. Sm., but during the studies of the genus Racinaea it turned out to be a new entity.

Racinaea grantii Manzanares & W. Till, sp. nov. Type: Ecuador. Prov. Cuenca: Cuenca, carretera de Cuenca a Ona, km 41, 03[degrees]11'S 79[degrees]02'W, 3,150 m, 6 April 1997, Jose M. Manzanares, E. Girko, J. Raack, E. Doherty & M. Navarro 6281 (Holotype: QCNE). Other material examined (Paratypes). Ecuador, prov. Azuay (original spelling "Loja"): in Paramos (original spelling "Paraimo"), Cuenca to Loja road, 10,399 feet elev. 5 April 1997, J. Raack 3 (SEL); 36 km south of Cuenca on highway to Loja, 03[degrees]23'99"S 79[degrees]57'60"W 28 October 2002, J. R. Grant, A. Roguenant & A. RaynalRoques 02-4234 (MO).
   A Racinaea quadripinnata (Mez & Sodiro) M. A. spencer & L. B. Sm.,
   cui affinis, stipitibus ramorum 3 cm longis, bracteis florigeris
   0.8 cm longis, 0.8 cm latis, ovatis, acutis et apice incurvatis,
   percarinatis, indumento ferrugineo obtectis, corollas flavis et
   sepalis 0.7 cm longis, 0.4 cm latis, obovatis, apice rotundatis et
   apiculatis, percarinatis, abaxialiter indumento ferrugineo toto
   obtectis (vs. 0.5 cm longis, apice rotundatis, ecarinatis, glabris)
   differt.


Other material examined (Paratypes). Ecuador, prov. Azuay (original spelling "Loja"): in Paramos (original spelling 'Taraimo"), Cuenca to Loja road, 10,399 feet elev. 5 April 1997, J. Raack 3 (SEL); 36 km south of Cuenca on highway to Loja, 03[degrees]23'99"S 79[degrees]57'60"W 28 October 2002, J. R. Grant, A. Roguenant & A. Raynal Roques 02-4234 (MO).

Plant epiphytic or terrestrial, 60-80 cm tall including the inflorescence, forming dense groups, the older ones remaining in the lower part of the group. Leaves numerous, ascending, coriaceous, subglabrous, yellow-green with irregular red spots, forming a large ellipsoid pseudobulb; sheaths ca. 14 cm long, ca. 8.5 cm wide, elliptic, coriaceous, adaxially violaceous, abaxially brown, ventricous, conspicuous; blades ca. 17 cm long, ca. 5 cm wide, lingulate-triangular, attenuate at the apex, yellow-green with irregular red spots, subglabrous. Inflorescence ca. 48 cm long, ca. 10 cm wide, 2-3 times branched, lax, densely covered by a ferrugineous indument with the exception of the petals, with 10 to 14 brown, ascending, spreading, ellipsoid branches 3,5-4 cm apart and with 4-6 terminal spikes; peduncle ca. 30 cm long, ca. 0.6 cm wide, erect, exceeding the leaves, lepidote; peduncle bracts the lower ones foliaceous, 7-9 cm long, ca. 1.7 cm wide, elliptic, attenuate at the apex, longer than the internodes, imbricate, brown, erect, lepidote, nerved; primary bracts 2-8 cm long, ca. 1.2 cm wide, lanceolate, acuminate at the apex, exceeding the stipes, shorter than the branches, lepidote, papyraceous, spreading; stipe of the branches ca. 3 cm long, without sterile bracts (naked?), flat, branches 6-8 cm long, ca. 5 cm wide, spreading, ascending, dark brown axis, spikes brown cream, 2-3 basal branches with 2-3 lateral spikes, and 3-5 upper spikes, axis totally covered by a ferrugineous indument. Spikes 1-2.5 cm long, ca. 0.8 cm wide, their stipes very short, brown-cream during anthesis (brown in dried specimens), lanceolate, subdense, with 12 to 14 lowers, distichous, complanate; rachis geniculate, quadrangular and exposed, totally covered by a ferrugineous indument; floral bracts ca. 0.8 cm long, ca. 0.8 cm wide, ovate, apex acute and incurved, adaxially glabrous, abaxially covered by a ferrugineous indument, brown, not imbricate during anthesis, exposing the rachis, longer than the sepals, coriaceous, strongly carinate, nerved. Flowers sessile, not secund; sepals ca. 0.7 cm long, ca. 0.4 cm wide, obovate, apex round and apiculate, strongly carinate, free, asymmetric, coriaceous, adaxially glabrous, abaxially totally covered by a ferrugineous indument; petals yellow, ca. 1.1 cm long, blades spreading.

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The morphological characters that distinguish this new species from Racinaea quadripinnata are: stipes of the branches 3 cm long (vs. 1-1.5 cm long); floral bracts 0.8 cm long, 0.8 cm wide, ovate, acute and incurved at the apex, strongly carinate, covered by a ferrugineous indument (vs. 0.5 cm long, 0.7 mm wide, subreniform, retuse apex, occasionally slightly carinate and more frequently not carinate, lepidote), sepals 0.7 cm long, 0.4 cm wide, obovate, round and apiculate at the apex, strongly carinate, abaxially totally covered by a ferrugineous indument (vs. 0.5 cm long, round apex, ecarinate, glabrous), and yellow petals (vs. cream).

This new species also resembles the recently published Racinaea pattersoniae (Manzanares & W Till, 2007), from which it can be distinguished by the longer floral bracts (0.6 cm vs. 0.4 cm long) with an acute and incurved apex (vs. apiculate) which are longer than the sepals (vs. shorter than), and the sepals are 0.7 cm long, obovate and strongly carinate (vs. 0.4 cm long, ovate and ecarinate). In general the inflorescence is totally covered by a ferrugineous indument (vs. cinereous indument) and the plants are forming dense groups (vs. individual plants).

This Racinaea is named in honor of Jason Randall Grant, a botanist at the University of Neuchatel, Switzerland.

Illustrations by the authors.

Literature Cited

Manzanares, J. M. and W. H. Till (2007). "A New Species of Racinaea (Bromeliaceae) from the Province of Loja, in Southern Ecuador." J. BromeliadSoc. 57(5): 198-203.

Authors

Jose M. Manzanares: Herbario Nacional del Ecuador, Museo Ecuatoriano de Ciencias Naturales (QCNE), Casilla Postal 17-09-7518, Quito, Ecuador. manzanar@interactive.net.ec

Walter Till: Herbarium, Fakultatszentrum fur Biodiversitat, Universitat Wien

Rennweg 14, A-1030 Wien, Austria. walter.till@univie.ac.at
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Title Annotation:Scientific
Author:Manzanares, Jose M.; Till, Walter
Publication:Journal of the Bromeliad Society
Article Type:Report
Geographic Code:3ECUD
Date:Jul 1, 2010
Words:3058
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