Thesis-antithesis-neutrothesis, and neutrosynthesis.
In neutrosophy, <A>, <antiA>, and <neutA> combined two by two, and also all three of them together form the NeutroSynthesis. Neutrosophy establishes the universal relations between <A>, <antiA>, and <neutA>.
<A> is the thesis, <antiA> the antithesis, and <neutA> the neutrothesis (neither <A> nor <antiA>, but the neutrality in between them).
In the neutrosophic notation, <nonA> (not <A>, outside of <A>) is the union of <antiA> and <neutA>.
<neutA> may be from no middle (excluded middle), to one middle (included middle), to many finite discrete middles (finite multiple included-middles), and to an infinitude of discrete or continuous middles (infinite multiple included-middles) [for example, as in color for the last one, let's say between black and white there is an infinite spectrum of middle/intermediate colors].
2. Thesis, Antithesis, Synthesis.
The classical reasoning development about evidences, popularly known as thesis-antithesis-synthesis from dialectics, was attributed to the renowned philosopher Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel (1770-1831) and later it was used by Karl Marx (1818-1883) and Friedrich Engels (1820-1895). About thesis and antithesis have also written Immanuel Kant (1724-1804), Johann Gottlieb Fichte (1762-1814), and Thomas Schelling (born 1921). While in ancient Chinese philosophy the opposites yin [feminine, the moon] and yang [masculine, the sun] were considered complementary.
Thesis, Antithesis, Neutrothesis, Neutrosynthesis.
Neutrosophy is a generalization of dialectics (which is based on contradictions only, <A> and <antiA>), because neutrosophy is based on contradictions and on the neutralities between them (<A>, <antiA>, and <neutA>). Therefore, the dialectical triad thesis-antithesis-synthesis is extended to the neutrosophic tetrad thesis-antithesis-neutrothesis-neutrosynthesis. We do this not for the sake of generalization, but for better reflecting our world. A neutrosophic synthesis (neutrosynthesis) is more refined that the dialectical synthesis. It carries on the unification and synthesis regarding the opposites and their neutrals too.
We have extended in  the Principle of Dynamic Opposition [opposition between <A> and <antiA>] to the Principle of Dynamic Neutropposition [which means oppositions among <A>, <antiA>, and <neutA>]. Etymologically "neutropposition" means "neutrosophic opposition".
This reasoning style is not a neutrosophic scheme, but it is based on reality, because if an idea (or notion) <A> arises, then multiple versions of this idea are spread out, let's denote them by [<A>.sub.1], [<A>.sub.2], ..., [<A>.sub.m]. Afterwards, the opposites (in a smaller or higher degree) ideas are born, as reactions to <A> and its versions [<A>.sub.i]. Let's denote these versions of opposites by [<antiA>.sub.1], [<antiA>.sub.2], ..., [<antiA>.sub.n]. The neutrality <neutA> between these contradictories ideas may embrace various forms, let's denote them by [<neutA>.sub.1], [<neutA>.sub.2], ..., [<neutA>.sub.p], where m, n, p are integers greater than or equal to 1.
In general, for each <A> there may be corresponding many <antiA>'s and many <neutA>'s. Also, each <A> may be interpreted in many different versions of <A>'s too. Neutrosophic Dynamicity means the interactions among all these multi-versions of <A>'s with their multi-<antiA>'s and their multi-<neutA>'s, which will result in a new thesis, let's call it <A'> at a superior level. And a new cycle of <A'>, <antiA'>, and <neutA'> restarts its neutrosophic dynamicity.
Let's say <A> is a country that goes to war with another country, which can be named <antiA> since it is antagonistic to the first country. But many neutral countries <neutA> can interfere, either supporting or aggressing one of them, in a smaller or bigger degree. Other neutral countries <neutA> can still remain neutral in this war. Yet, there is a continuous dynamicity between the three categories (<A>, <antiA>, <neutA.), for countries changing sides (moving from a coalition to another coalition), or simply retreating from any coalition.
In our easy example, we only wanted to emphasize the fact that <neutA> plays a role in the conflict between the opposites <A> and <antiA>, role which was ignored by dialectics.
So, the dialectical synthesis is extended to a neutrosophic synthesis, called neutrosynthesis, which combines thesis, antithesis, and neutrothesis.
Suppose <A> is a philosophical school, and its opposite philosophical school is <antiA>. In the dispute between <A> and <antiA>, philosophers from the two contradictory groups may bring arguments against the other philosophical school from various neutral philosophical schools' ideas (<neutA>, which were neither for <A> nor <antiA>) as well.
Received: 12 February, 2015 Accepted: 20 Febrauary, 2015
The author would like to thanks Mr. Mumtaz Ali, from Quaid-i-Azam University, Islamabad, Pakistan, for his comments on the paper.
[1.] Florentin Smarandache, Law of Included Multiple-Middle & Principle of Dynamic Neutrosophic Opposition, EuropaNova & Educ. Publ., BrusselsColumbus (Belgium-USA), 136 p., 2014.
[2.] Florentin Smarandache, and Mumtaz Ali, Neutrosophic Triplet Groups, mss., 2013.
[3.] Fu Yuhua, Creating Generalized and Hybrid Set and Library with Neutrosophy and Quad-stage Method, mss. 2015.
University of New Mexico, 705 Gurley Ave. Gallup, NM 87301, USA, E-mail: email@example.com
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|Publication:||Neutrosophic Sets and Systems|
|Date:||Mar 1, 2015|
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