Thermoregulation by a population of Aspidoscelis calidipes from Apatzingan, Michoacan, Mexico.
This study was conducted in Las Cabas, Apatzingan, SW Michoacan, Mexico (18[degrees]33029.6"N, 102[degrees]59027.3"W, at an altitude of 343 m). Climate of the study area is tropical with rains in summer and dry steppe. Mean annual temperature and precipitation are 39.8[degrees]C and 924 mm, respectively. Vegetation includes tropical dry forest, tropical spiny forest, and mixed forest (Instituto Nacional de Estadistica y Geografia, http//:www.inegi.gob.mx). We collected 52 lizards during 1000-1800 h in April and June 2008 and January and May 2009. Active lizards were captured by noosing and were returned to their habitat after data were collected. We measured cloacal body ([T.sub.b]), substrate ([T.sub.s] on the site where the lizard was first observed), and air ([T.sub.a] 5 cm above the ground) temperatures with a quick-reading thermometer (model 4D2672, Miller and Weber, Inc., New York; 0.0-50.0 [+ or -] 0.2[degrees]C). Care was taken to prevent temperature from being influenced by handling, and all data from lizards requiring extensive effort to capture were excluded from records of temperature. To avoid errors, we only analyzed data collected within 10 s after capture (Lee, 1979; Gillis, 1991). In addition to [T.sub.b], we recorded snout-vent length (SVL) with an electronic caliper to the nearest 0.1 mm and measured body mass with a Pesola scale (Pesola AG, Baar, Switzerland) to the nearest 0.2 g. Sex was identified by examining the sexually dimorphic pattern of color and scales.
The assumptions of normality and homogeneity of variances were met for all analyses with Shapiro-Wilk and Bartlett tests, respectively. Statistical analyses were conducted with Statistica 9 Software (StatSoft, Tulsa, Oklahoma). We calculated residual from the relationship of body temperature to SVL to produce body-temperature adjusted variables that maintained variation of extrinsic factors and minimized confounding effects of size. If we did not find a significant relationship, we used original data to make the respective statistical analyses. We performed a Mann-Whitney U test to determine whether or not there are differences in body temperature, SVL, and body mass by sex. Additionally, we performed a Spearman rank correlation ([r.sub.s]) to examine the relationship among body, air, and substrate temperatures. Significance was accepted at P < 0.05. Means are presented plus and minus standard deviation.
Aspidoscelis calidipes had a mean SVL of 58.46 [+ or -] 9.14 mm (range of 41-76 mm) and a mean weight of 4.30 [+ or -] 2.44 g (range of 1.65-12.0 g). Overall mean [T.sub.b] was 40.44 [+ or -] 2.55[degrees]C (range of 32.6-44.6[degrees]C). There was no significant relationship between SVL and body temperature of A. calidipes (y = 36.669 + 0.064 SVL, [r.sup.2] = 0.053, F = 2.814, P = 0.099). Therefore, we used original data to compare body temperature by sex. We did not find differences between sexes in SVL (U = 0.165, P = 0.868) and body mass (U = 0.566, P = 0.571). We also did not find significant differences in [T.sub.b] between sexes (U = -1.478, P = 0.139). Mean [T.sub.b] of males was 40.26 [+ or -] 2.14[degrees]C (range of 37-44.6[degrees]C), while that for females was 41.36 [+ or -] 2.72[degrees]C (range of 34.4-44.0[degrees]C). Mean air temperature in Las Canas was 37.35 [+ or -] 3.81[degrees]C with a range of 31-45[degrees]C, and mean substrate temperature was 40.13 [+ or -] 4.55[degrees]C with a range of 31-50[degrees]C. Body temperatures of A. calidipes had a significant positive relationship with air ([r.sub.s] = 0.599, P < 0.0001) and substrate temperatures ([r.sub.s] = 0.542, P < 0.0001).
Our results showed that mean [T.sub.b] of A. calidipes was highest in comparison to other species of Aspidoscelis (Table 1). This high body temperature could be related with high environmental temperatures recorded during the study period. We did not find differences in body temperature between sexes. This demonstrates that males and females thermoregulate similarly, probably due to similar microhabitats (open forest), activity periods, and feeding habits as in other diurnal lizards (Guizado-Rodriguez et al., 2011).
Body temperature in A. calidipes was affected by [T.sub.a] and [T.sub.s]. Environmental temperatures frequently affect the [T.sub.b] of species of Aspidoscelis (Vitt et al., 1993; Guizado-Rodriguez and Casas-Andreu, 2007; Navarro-Garcia et al., 2008; Woolrich-Pifia et al., 2011). However, other species of Aspidoscelis do not show a relationship between body and environmental temperatures. Preferably, the extent to which a lizard thermoregulates would be determined by comparing body temperatures with operative environmental temperatures estimated using biophysical models (Heath, 1964; Hertz, 1992). Unfortunately, the appropriate data are not always available, as in this study. Therefore, additional fieldwork supplemented by studies of physiological tolerance-limits and thermal preferences in the laboratory would be relevant to complement the information presented here. In conclusion, the high body temperature and the little recorded variation between individuals of different sex of A. calidipes suggest that this characteristic in strongly influenced by phylogeny.
We are grateful to Instituto de Biologia and Posgrado en Ciencias Biologicas of Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico. We also thank Consejo Nacional de Ciencia y Tecnologia for graduate-study scholarships to MAGR (CONACYT no. 165072). We thank C. Duifhuis-Rivera, U. O. GarciaVazquez, J. Maceda-Cruz, M. Fernandez-Aguilar, M. A. GarciaMorelos, C. A. Mendoza-Palmero, M. Ramirez-Sanchez, and G. Hernandez-Flores for their help in the field.
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Submitted 12 March 2013. Acceptance recommended by Associate Editor Felipe de Jesus Rodriguez Romero 25 May 2013.
MARTHA ANAHI GUIZADO-RODRIGUEZ, * LORENA REYES-VAQUERO, AND GUSTAVO CASAS-ANDREU
Departamento de Biologia, Universidad Autonoma Metropolitana Iztapalapa, AP 55-35, Avenida San Rafael Atlixco No. 186 Colonia Vicentina, Delegacion Iztapalapa, Moxico Distrito Federal, CP 09340 (MAGR)
Departamento de Biotecnologia, Centro de Desarrollo de Productos Bioticos, Instituto Politocnico Nacional, Carretera Yautepec-Jojutla, Km 6, Calle CEPROBI No. 8, Colonia San Isidro, Yautepec, Morelos, Moxico CP 62731 (LRV)
Departamento de Zoologia, Instituto de Biologia, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Moxico, Circuito Exterior s/n, AP 70-153, Moxico Distrito Federal 04510 (GCA)
* Correspondent: firstname.lastname@example.org
TABLE 1--Mean body temperatures (Tb) for species of Aspidoscelis. Species Tb ([degrees]C) Source A. calidipes 32.6-44.6 Present study A. ceralbensis 40.7 Soule, 1963; Brattstrom, 1965 A. communis 36.2 Casas-Andreu and Gurrola-Hidalgo, 1993 A. deppii 40.0-42.5 Kennedy, 1968; Vitt et al., 1993 A. dixoni 39.89 Walker et al., 1991 A. exsanguis 38.5-39.9 Medica, 1967; Schall, 1977; Bowker, 1993 A. flagellicauda 39.9 Stevens, 1980 A. gularis 38.2-41.0 Brattstrom, 1965; Schall, 1977; Bowker and Johnson, 1980; Paulissen et al., 1989; Paulissen, 1999 A. guttata 40.4 Kennedy, 1968 A. hyperythra 39.9 Soule, 1963; Brattstrom, 1965 A. inornata 38.6-40.2 Medica, 1967; Schall, 1977; Bowker and Johnson, 1980 A. lineatissima 31.14-38.44 Casas-Andreu and Gurrola-Hidalgo, 1993; Guizado-Rodriguez and Casas-Andreu, 2007; Navarro et al., 2008 A. neomexicana 39.0 Medica, 1967 A. parvisocia 37.16 Woolrich-Pida et al., 2011 A. sackii 38.29 Woolrich-Pida et al., 2011 A. sexlineata 36.6-41.0 Bogert, 1949; Fitch, 1958; Brattstrom, 1965; Witz, 2001 A. tesselata 40.1-42.0 Bogert, 1949; Brattstrom, 1965; Schall, 1977 A. tigris 38.9-40.4 Brattstrom, 1965; Cunningham, 1966; Medica, 1967; Pianka, 1970; Schall, 1977; Lemos-Espinal et al., 1997 A. uniparens 38.6 Bowker and Johnson, 1980 A. velox 38.7 Bowker, 1993
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|Author:||Guizado-Rodriguez, Martha Anahi; Reyes-Vaquero, Lorena; Casas-Andreu, Gustavo|
|Date:||Mar 1, 2014|
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