# Thermophysical properties of binary mixtures of dimethylsulfoxide with 1-phenylethanone and 1,4-dimethylbenzene at various temperatures.

This research article reports the experimental results of the density, viscosity, refractive index, and speed of sound analysis of binary mixtures of dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO) + 1-phenylethanone (acetophenone) and + 1,4-dimethylbenzene (para-xylene) over the whole composition range at 313.15, 318.15, 323.15, and 328.15 K and at atmospheric pressure. The excess molar volumes ([V.sup.E]), viscosity deviations ([DELTA][eta]), excess Gibbs energy of activation ([G.sup.E]), deviations in isentropic compressibility ([K.sup.E.sub.S]), deviations in speed of sound ([u.sup.E]), and deviations in the molar refraction ([DELTA]R) were calculated from the experimental data. The computed quantities were fitted to the Redlich-Kister equation to derive the coefficients and estimate the standard error values. The viscosities have also been correlated with two, and three-parameter models, that is, Heric correlation, McAllister model, and Grunberg-Nissan correlation, respectively.1. Introduction

This paper is a continuation of our ongoing research on the solution properties. Studies of the thermodynamic properties of binary mixtures play an important role in the fundamental understanding of different molecules and the interactions prevalent in them. In the present study, data on density, viscosity, refractive index, and speed of sound of binary mixtures of dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO) + 1-phenylethanone (acetophenone) and 1,4-Dimethylbenzene (para-xylene) at 313.15, 318.15, 323.15, and 328.15 K has been measured experimentally. From these results, the excess molar volumes, viscosity deviations, deviations in molar refraction, deviations in speed of sound, and isentropic compressibility have been derived. Dimethylsulfoxide is a versatile nonaqueous dipolar aprotic solvent having wide range of applications like in veterinary medicine, dermatology, microbiology, experimental immunology, and enzyme catalyzed reactions. It can easily pass through membranes, a quality which has been verified by numerous researchers. It has the ability to penetrate through living tissues without damaging them. Therefore an anesthetic or penicillin can be carried through the skin without using a needle which makes it paramount in medicinal field. Acetophenone is the simplest aromatic ketone organic compound. It can easily dissolve in water, but, since it is denser than water, it tends to sink. Its vapor is heavier than air and when inhaled in high concentrations it can be narcotic and also mild irritant to the eyes and skin. It is mostly used to create fragrances that smell like cherry, almond, strawberry, or other fruits. Acetophenone can also be found naturally occurring in fruits such as apple and banana. Para-xylene is an aromatic hydrocarbon based on benzene with two methyl substituents, opposite to each other. It is a colorless, flammable liquid and is insoluble in water. It is used as a thinner for paint and in paints and varnishes. The study of the thermodynamic properties of DMSO + 1-phenylethanone (acetophenone) and + 1,4-dimethylbenzene (para-xylene) mixtures is of interest mainly in industrial fields where solvent mixtures could be used as selective solvents for numerous reactions. In principle, interactions between the molecules can be established from the study of the deviations from ideal behavior of physical properties such as molar volume and isentropic compressibility. The negative or positive deviations from the ideal value depend on the type and the extent of the interactions between the unlike molecules, as well as on the composition and the temperature. The variation of the isentropic compressibility is analogous of that of the excess molar volume, whereas the change of the deviation in speed of sound tends to become the inverse [1]. Physical and transport properties of liquid mixtures also affect most separation procedures, such as liquid-liquid extraction, gas absorption, and distillation [2]. The mixture DMSO-p-xylene has been earlier reported twice in literature at different temperatures [1, 3].

2. Experimental Section

2.1. Materials. The chemicals used are of analytical reagent grade. Dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO) is from Riedel, Germany; 1-phenylethanone (acetophenone) and 1,4-dimethylbenzene (para-xylene) are from S-D Fine Chemicals, Mumbai. The chemicals were purified using standard procedure [4] and were stored over molecular sieves. The purity of the chemicals was verified by comparing density, viscosity, and refractive index with the known values reported in the literature as shown in Table 1. All the compositions were prepared by using SARTORIUS balance. The possible uncertainty in the mole fraction is estimated to be less than [+ or -]1 x [10.sup.-4].

2.2. Viscosity. Kinematic viscosities were measured by using a calibrated modified Ubbelohde viscometer [5]. The calibration of viscometer was done at each temperature in order to determine the constants A and B of the following equation:

v = [eta]/[rho] = At + B/t (1)

The viscometer was kept vertically in a transparent-walled water bath with a thermal stability of [+ or -]0.05 K for about 30 minutes to attain thermal equilibrium. Flow time was measured with an electronic stop watch with precision of [+ or -]0.01 s. The corresponding uncertainty in the kinematic viscosity is [+ or -]0.001 x [10.sup.-6] [m.sup.2] [s.sup.-1]. The efflux time was repeated at least three times for each composition and the average of these readings was taken. The temperature of the bath was maintained constant with the help of a circulating type cryostat (type MK70, MLW, Germany). The dynamic viscosities were found out after the DSA analysis, that is, by dividing the above found kinematic viscosity by density. The uncertainty in the values of dynamic viscosity is within [+ or -]0.003 mPa.s.

23. Density and Speed of Sound. Density and speed of sound were measured with the help of an ANTON PAAR density meter (DSA 5000). The accuracy in the measurement of density and speed of sound is [+ or -]0.000005 g [cm.sup.-3] and [+ or -]0.5 ms-, respectively. The density meter was calibrated by using triply distilled degassed water.

2.4. Refractive Index. Refractive indices were measured for sodium D-line by ABBE-3L refractometer having Bausch and Lomb lenses. The temperature was maintained constant with the help of water bath used for the viscosity measurement. A minimum of three independent readings were taken for each composition, and the average value was considered in all the calculations. Refractive index values are accurate up to [+ or -]0.0001 units.

3. Experimental Results and Correlations

At least three independent readings of all the physical property measurements of density ([rho]), viscosity ([eta]), refractive index ([n.sub.D]), and speed of sound (u) were taken for each composition and the averages of these experimental values are presented in Tables 2 and 3 for both systems. The experimentally determined values are used for the deviation calculations.

3.1. Excess Molar Volume. Density values are used to evaluate excess molar volume by the equation

[V.sup.E] = [x.sub.1] [M.sub.1] + [x.sub.2] [M.sub.2]/[rho]-[x.sub.1] [M.sub.1]/[[rho].sub.1]-[x.sub.2] [M.sub.2]/[[rho].sub.2], (2)

where [[rho].sub.1], [[rho].sub.2] are the densities of pure components and [rho] is the density of the mixture. [M.sub.1], [M.sub.2] are the molar mass of the two components and [x.sub.1], [x.sub.2] are the mole fraction of DMSO.

Excess Gibbs' free energy of activation has been also calculated using the viscosity and density of the mixture by the equation

[MATHEMATICAL EXPRESSION NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] (3)

where R is a universal gas constant, T is the temperature of the mixture, and [eta] and [eta].sub.i] are the viscosities of the mixture and pure compound, respectively. V, [V.sub.i] refer to the molar volume of the mixture and pure components, respectively.

3.2. Viscosity Calculations. The deviation in viscosity is obtained by the following equation:

[DELTA][eta] = [eta] - [[eta].sub.1] [x.sub.1] - [[eta].sub.2] [x.sub.2], (4)

where [eta] is the viscosity of mixture and [[eta].sub.1], [[eta].sub.2] refer to the viscosities of pure components.

McAllister [6] model

[MATHEMATICAL EXPRESSION NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]. (5)

Herric [6] correlation

[MATHEMATICAL EXPRESSION NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII], (6)

and Grunberg-Nissan [7] equation

ln ([eta]) = [x.sub.1] ln ([[eta].sub.1]) + [x.sub.2] ln ([[eta].sub.2]) + [d.sub.12][x.sub.1][x.sub.2 ] (7)

have been fitted to viscosity data and it was found that both have the same standard errors at each temperature.

33. Isentropic Compressibility. The experimental results for the speed of sound of binary mixtures are listed in Tables 2 and 3. The isentropic compressibility was evaluated by using [K.sub.S] = [u.sup.-2][[rho].sup.-1] and the deviation in isentropic compressibility is calculated using the following equation:

[K.sup.E.sub.S] = [K.sub.S] - [K.sup.id.sub.S] , (8)

where [K.sup.id.sub.S] stands for isentropic compressibility for an ideal mixture calculated using Benson-Kiyohara model [8, 9]:

[MATHEMATICAL EXPRESSION NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII], (9)

where [a.sub.i] and [C.sub.p] are the thermal expansion coefficient and molar heat capacity of the ith components, respectively.

The deviation in speed of sound is given by

[DELTA]u = u - [x.sub.1][u.sub.1] - [x.sub.2] [u.sub.2]. (10)

3.4. Molar Refraction. Refractive indices have been used for the calculation of molar refraction ([R.sub.m]) that is obtained by using Lorentz-Lorenz equation [8].

Deviation in molar refraction ([DELTA]R) is calculated by the following equation:

[MATHEMATICAL EXPRESSION NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII], (11)

where [n.sub.D] refers to the refractive index, [R.sub.m] is molar refraction of the mixture, [R.sub.i] is molar refraction of the ith component, and [PHI] is ideal state volume fraction.

All the deviations ([V.sup.E] , [DELTA]R, [DELTA][eta], [DELTA]u, and [K.sup.E.sub.S]) have been fitted to Redlich-Kister polynomial regression of the type

[MATHEMATICAL EXPRESSION NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] (12)

to derive the constant [A.sub.i] using the method of the least square. Standard deviation for each case is calculated by

[MATHEMATICAL EXPRESSION NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII], (13)

where m is the number of data points and n is the number of coefficients. Derived parameters of the Redlich-Kister equation (12) and standard deviations (13) are presented in Tables 4 and 5.

4. Discussions

The excess molar volume from 313.15 to 328.15 K versus the mole fraction of both mixtures with respect to DMSO is shown in Figure 1. The molar volume of the mixtures and the viscosity data have been used for the calculation of Gibbs' free energy presented in Figure 5. The [V.sup.E] values decrease with increasing temperatures for the systems but are positive in case of DMSO-acetophenone mixture and negative for DMSO-p-xylene mixture. Treszczanowicz et al. [10] and Roux and Desnoyers [11] suggested that [V.sup.E] is the resultant contribution from several opposing effects. These effects can be primarily divided into three types, namely chemical, physical, and structural. A physical contribution, that is, specific interactions between the real species present in the mixture, contribute in negative terms to [V.sup.E]. The chemical or specific intermolecular interactions result in a volume decrease, and these include charge transfer type forces and other complex forming interactions. This effect also contributes in negative values to [V.sup.E]. The structural contributions are mostly negative and can arise from several effects, especially from changes of free volume and interstitial accommodation. In other words, structural contributions arising from geometrical fitting of one component into the other due to the differences in the free volume and molar volume between components lead to a negative contribution to [V.sup.E]. The viscosity and deviations are presented in Table 2 and plotted in Figure 2, respectively, for both systems. The viscosity deviations decrease with the increase in temperature for both systems. The negative [DELTA][eta] values are generally observed for systems where dispersion or weak dipole-dipole forces are primarily responsible for interaction between the component molecules. The viscosity data is also fitted to the two, and the three-parameter models, that is, Herric correlation, the McAllister model, and Grunberg-Nissan correlation, and the evaluated parameters are presented in Tables 6 and 7. The deviations in molar refraction for both systems are shown in Figure 3. The [DELTA]R values are positive for acetophenone system for the whole composition range which goes on increasing as the temperature of the solution increases. The [DELTA]R values are negative for para-xylene system for the whole composition range which goes on decreasing as the temperature of the solution increases. In general, the negative values of [DELTA]R suggest that we have weak interactions between the component molecules in the mixture. The results of excess isentropic compressibility ([K.sup.E.sub.S]) are also plotted in Figure 4. The deviations for DMSO-acetophenone system are initially negative and then become positive when mole fraction is around 0.5, whereas for DMSO-p-xylene system they are negative over the entire composition range. Deviation in Gibbs free energy for DMSO-acetophenone system follows an arbitrary path, going from negative to positive and vice versa twice, while for DMSO-para-xylene system the deviations are negative and increase with increasing temperature.

Symbols Used

[A.sub.1], [A.sub.2],[A.sub.3], [A.sub.4]: Parameters of Redlich-Kister equation

[A.sub.12], [A.sub.21]: Interaction coefficients of McAllister model

[[alpha].sub.12],[[??].sub.12]: Coefficients of Herric's correlation

v: Kinematic viscosity ([m.sup.2][s.sup.-1])

[rho]: Density (g [cm.sup.-3])

R: Universal gas constant (8.314 J[mol.sup.-1][K.sup.-1])

T: Absolute temperature (K)

[d.sub.12]: Grunberg-nissan parameter

[[PHI].sub.i]: Volume fraction (dimensionless).

[sigma]: Standard deviation

[alpha]: Thermal expansion coefficient ([K.sup.-1])

[eta]: Dynamic viscosity (mPa*s)

[DELTA][G.sup.E]: Excess Gibbs free energy (J[mol.sup.-1])

[V.sup.E]: Excess molar volume ([m.sup.3][mol.sup.-1])

[DELTA][K.sup.E.sub.S]: Excess isentropic compressibility ([TPa.sup.-1])

Conflict of Interests

The authors declare that there is no conflict of interests regarding the publication of this paper.

References

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[2] K. Zhang, J. Yang, X. Yu, J. Zhang, and X. Wei, "Densities and viscosities for binary mixtures of poly(ethylene glycol) 400 + dimethyl sulfoxide and poly(ethylene glycol) 600 + water at different temperatures," Journal of Chemical and Engineering Data, vol. 56, no. 7, pp. 3083-3088, 2011.

[3] A. Ali, A. K. Nain, D. Chand, and R. Ahmad, "Viscosities and refractive indices of binary mixtures of dimethyl sulphoxide with some aromatic hydrocarbons at different temperatures: an experimental and theoretical study," Journal of the Chinese Chemical Society, vol. 53, no. 3, pp. 531-543, 2006.

[4] J. A. Riddick, W. B. Bunger, and T. K. Sakano, Organic Solvents: Physical Properties and Methods of Purifications, vol. 2 of The chniques of Chemistry, John Wiley & Sons, New York, NY, USA, 1986.

[5] V. K. Rattan, S. Kapoor, and K. Tochigi, "Viscosities and densities of binary mixtures of toluene with acetic acid and propionic acid at (293.15, 303.15, 313.15, and 323.15) K," Journal of Chemical and Engineering Data, vol. 47, no. 5, pp. 1182-1184, 2002.

[6] R. A. McAllister, "The viscosity of liquid mixtures," AIChE Journal, vol. 6, pp. 427-431, 1960.

[7] L. Grunberg and A. H. Nissan, "The energies of vaporisation, viscosity and cohesion and the structure of liquids," Transactions of the Faraday Society, vol. 45, pp. 125-137, 1949.

[8] G. C. Benson and O. Kiyohara, "Evaluation of excess isentropic compressibilities and isochoric heat capacities," The Journal of Chemical Thermodynamics, vol. 11, no. 11, pp. 1061-1064, 1979.

[9] G. Douheret, M. I. Davis, I. J. Fjellanger, and H. Hoiland, "Ultrasonic speeds and volumetric properties of binary mixtures of water with poly(ethylene glycol)s at 298.15 K," Journal of the Chemical Society - Faraday Transactions, vol. 93, no. 10, pp. 1943-1949, 1997.

[10] A. J. Treszczanowicz, O. Kiyohara, and G. C. Benson, "Excess volumes for n-alkanols +n-alkanes IV. Binary mixtures of decan-1-ol +n-pentane, +n-hexane, +n-octane, +n-decane, and +n-hexadecane," The Journal of Chemical Thermodynamics, vol. 13, no. 3, pp. 253-260, 1981.

[11] A. H. Roux and J. E. Desnoyers, "Association models for alcohol-water mixtures," Journal of Proceedings of the Indian Academy of Sciences: Chemical Sciences, vol. 98, no. 5-6, pp. 435-451.

Dr. SSB University Institute of Chemical Engineering and Technology, Panjab University, Chandigarh 160014, India

Correspondence should be addressed to Harmandeep Singh Gill; harman gill@outlook.com

Received 18 September 2013; Revised 10 December 2013; Accepted 1 January 2014; Published 24 February 2014

Academic Editor: K. A. Antonopoulos

Copyright [C] 2014 H. S. Gill and V. K. Rattan. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

TABLE 1: Physical properties of the components at 298.15 K. Component [rho] ([g.cm.sup.-3]) [eta] (mPa-s) Exptl. Lit. Exptl. Lit. Acetophenone 1.0283 [1.0263.sup.17] 0.01681 [0.01681.sup.17] DMSO 1.0940 1.09537 1.9834 1.9910 p-Xylene 8.5661 [8.5662.sup.16] 0.609 [0.611.sup.16] Component [n.sub.D] Exptl. Lit. Acetophenone 1.5050 [1.5005.sup.17] DMSO 1.4798 1.4775 p-Xylene 1.4933 [1.4933.sup.16] Table 2: Refractive indices, [n.sub.D], density, [rho], speed of sound, u, and viscosity, [eta], for DMSO(l) + acetophenone(2) system at different temperatures. [x.sub.1] [n.sub.D] [rho] u ([g * cm.sup.-3]) ([m*s.sup.-1]) DMSO(1) + acetophenone(2) 313.15 K 0.00000 1.5142 1.0106 1421.81 0.17422 1.5090 1.0173 1424.53 0.31320 1.5046 1.0238 1426.25 0.43453 1.5001 1.0300 1427.15 0.54292 1.4955 1.0361 1427.99 0.63921 1.4915 1.0430 1428.88 0.72696 1.4877 1.0502 1430.33 0.80600 1.4841 1.0578 1432.57 0.87681 1.4806 1.0651 1434.55 0.94521 1.4771 1.0730 1436.77 1.00000 1.4742 1.0802 1438.85 318.15 K 0.00000 1.5102 1.0072 1403.51 0.17422 1.5055 1.0144 1406.42 0.31320 1.5011 1.0208 1408.41 0.43453 1.4967 1.0271 1409.52 0.54292 1.4921 1.0332 1410.57 0.63921 1.4880 1.0400 1411.59 0.72696 1.4843 1.0476 1413.17 0.80600 1.4807 1.0549 1415.38 0.87681 1.4772 1.0623 1417.55 0.94521 1.4735 1.0700 1419.97 1.00000 1.4703 1.0768 1422.30 323.15 K 0.00000 1.5061 0.9987 1385.35 0.17422 1.5019 1.0064 1388.33 0.31320 1.4978 1.0134 1390.60 0.43453 1.4933 1.0199 1391.91 0.54292 1.4887 1.0261 1393.10 0.63921 1.4847 1.0332 1394.32 0.72696 1.4810 1.0408 1396.05 0.80600 1.4775 1.0486 1398.30 0.87681 1.4739 1.0560 1400.55 0.94521 1.470 1.0636 1403.10 1.00000 1.4665 1.0702 1405.68 328.15 K 0.00000 1.5030 0.9856 1367.34 0.17422 1.4991 0.9944 1370.47 0.31320 1.4950 1.0024 1372.93 0.43453 1.4904 1.0095 1374.35 0.54292 1.4859 1.0168 1375.75 0.63921 1.4817 1.0245 1377.15 0.72696 1.4780 1.0331 1379.00 0.80600 1.4744 1.0417 1381.30 0.87681 1.4707 1.0498 1383.50 0.94521 1.4668 1.0583 1386.10 1.00000 1.4630 1.0655 1389.12 [x.sub.1] [eta] (mPa.s) 0.00000 1.2920 0.17422 1.3093 0.31320 1.3150 0.43453 1.3180 0.54292 1.3609 0.63921 1.4000 0.72696 1.4295 0.80600 1.4515 0.87681 1.4721 0.94521 1.4959 1.00000 1.5169 0.00000 1.1161 0.17422 1.1362 0.31320 1.1459 0.43453 1.1633 0.54292 1.2100 0.63921 1.2550 0.72696 1.2873 0.80600 1.3150 0.87681 1.3400 0.94521 1.3707 1.00000 1.3968 0.00000 1.0645 0.17422 1.0659 0.31320 1.0735 0.43453 1.0870 0.54292 1.1275 0.63921 1.1675 0.72696 1.1969 0.80600 1.2205 0.87681 1.2425 0.94521 1.2675 1.00000 1.2972 0.00000 0.9873 0.17422 0.9815 0.31320 0.9875 0.43453 1.0010 0.54292 1.0405 0.63921 1.0770 0.72696 1.1065 0.80600 1.1305 0.87681 1.1505 0.94521 1.1755 1.00000 1.2086 TABLE 3: Refractive indices, [n.sub.D], density, [rho], speed of sound, u, and viscosity, [eta], for DMSO(l) + p-xylene(2) system at different temperatures. [x.sub.1] [n.sub.D] [rho] u ([g*cm.sup.-3]) ([m*s.sup.-1]) DMSO(1) + p-xylene(2) 313.15 K 0.00000 1.4850 0.8445 1247.96 0.15820 1.4843 0.8720 1264.82 0.30056 1.4839 0.8999 1281.64 0.42694 1.4828 0.9293 1297.89 0.52448 1.4813 0.9577 1310.14 0.62739 1.4790 0.9923 1325.23 0.72506 1.4778 1.0233 1346.79 0.80799 1.4765 1.0477 1373.38 0.87462 1.4747 1.0557 1395.79 0.94123 1.4727 1.0723 1418.20 1.00000 1.4717 1.0802 1439.15 318.15 K 0.00000 1.4831 0.8395 1227.99 0.15820 1.4823 0.8665 1246.38 0.30056 1.4816 0.8942 1263.94 0.42694 1.4803 0.9233 1281.67 0.52448 1.4789 0.9517 1295.39 0.62739 1.4767 0.9870 1310.77 0.72506 1.4754 1.0183 1331.90 0.80799 1.4737 1.0417 1358.39 0.87462 1.4719 1.0497 1380.68 0.94123 1.4701 1.0668 1404.05 1.00000 1.4690 1.0768 1423.09 323.15 K 0.00000 1.4812 0.8348 1207.94 0.15820 1.4802 0.8610 1226.95 0.30056 1.4794 0.8882 1245.22 0.42694 1.4777 0.9167 1263.54 0.52448 1.4761 0.9443 1277.98 0.62739 1.4744 0.9804 1292.79 0.72506 1.4727 1.0110 1314.76 0.80799 1.4710 1.0333 1340.33 0.87462 1.4690 1.0410 1363.23 0.94123 1.4675 1.0590 1385.97 1.00000 1.4665 1.0702 1404.14 328.15 K 0.00000 1.4793 0.8298 1188.15 0.15820 1.4781 0.8553 1208.59 0.30056 1.4771 0.8823 1227.53 0.42694 1.4754 0.9106 1247.59 0.52448 1.4736 0.9377 1262.23 0.62739 1.4715 0.9733 1278.99 0.72506 1.4699 1.0045 1300.23 0.80799 1.4683 1.0261 1325.12 0.87462 1.4663 1.0341 1348.21 0.94123 1.4652 1.0530 1370.98 1.00000 1.4640 1.0655 1388.57 [x.sub.1] [eta] (mPa*s) 0.00000 0.5175 0.15820 0.5979 0.30056 0.6777 0.42694 0.7389 0.52448 0.8106 0.62739 0.8875 0.72506 0.9889 0.80799 1.0997 0.87462 1.2275 0.94123 1.3757 1.00000 1.5116 0.00000 0.4923 0.15820 0.5675 0.30056 0.6422 0.42694 0.6971 0.52448 0.7555 0.62739 0.8179 0.72506 0.9090 0.80799 1.0220 0.87462 1.1401 0.94123 1.2705 1.00000 1.3822 0.00000 0.4603 0.15820 0.5401 0.30056 0.6030 0.42694 0.6550 0.52448 0.7107 0.62739 0.7697 0.72506 0.8557 0.80799 0.9776 0.87462 1.0895 0.94123 1.1999 1.00000 1.2972 0.00000 0.4385 0.15820 0.5150 0.30056 0.5707 0.42694 0.6092 0.52448 0.6579 0.62739 0.7175 0.72506 0.7917 0.80799 0.9158 0.87462 1.0109 0.94123 1.1152 1.00000 1.1974 TABLE 4: Derived parameters of Redlich-Kister equation (12) and standard deviation (13) for various functions of the binary mixtures at different temperatures (DMSO-acetophenone). T/K [A.sub.0] [A.sub.1] [A.sup.2] [V.sup.E] ([cm.sup.3] *[mol.sup.-1]) 313.15 1.2005 0.741 -0.1784 318.15 1.0176 0.7493 -0.5481 323.15 0.7709 0.8700 -0.7689 328.15 0.6714 0.9374 -0.9528 [DELTA][eta] (mPa*s) 313.15 -0.2371 0.2135 0.2487 318.15 -0.2575 0.2259 0.1846 323.15 -0.2722 0.2375 0.0974 328.15 -0.2887 0.2407 0.0508 [K.sup.E.sub.s] ([TPa.sup.-1]) 313.15 4.8515 15.4271 -1.3121 318.15 3.5099 15.7048 -1.8315 323.15 2.0047 21.1502 -4.7008 328.15 0.0146 15.1308 -2.0538 [DELTA]R 313.15 0.06817 0.039577 -0.06186 318.15 0.102475 0.056959 -0.00441 323.15 0.147987 0.106458 0.080891 328.15 0.175329 0.134545 0.138756 [DELTA][G.sup.E] ([J*[mol.sup.-1]) 313.15 -66.3882 516.3512 492.0794 318.15 -141.309 625.565 410.846 323.1 -234.912 700.1368 230.6251 328.5 -321.946 780.1317 132.3463 T/K [A.sup.3] [sigma] 313.15 -0.6838 0.01377 318.15 -0.7711 0.01379 323.15 -1.2620 0.01527 328.15 -1.3257 0.01381 313.15 -0.4972 0.00461 318.15 -0.4935 0.00323 323.15 -0.4693 0.00309 328.15 -0.4755 0.00290 313.15 -12.5359 0.11076 318.15 -12.902 0.09236 323.15 -34.8976 0.44672 328.15 -11.8737 0.17247 313.15 -0.09945 0.006271 318.15 -0.06411 0.003073852 323.15 -0.10664 0.005976 328.15 -0.14317 0.008927 313.15 -981.8602 9.00998 318.15 -1119.199 7.38255 323.15 -1143.3850 7.33602 328.15 -1256.91 7.21134 TABLE 5: Derived parameters of Redlich-Kister equation (12) and standard deviation (13) for various functions of the binary mixtures at different temperatures (DMSO-p-xylene). T/K [A.sub.0] [A.sub.1] [A.sub.2] [V.sub.E] ([cm.sup.3] *[mol.sup.-1]) 313.15 -8.5850 -15.1234 -6.084 318.15 -8.2010 -15.9715 -5.4345 323.15 -7.7110 -16.483 -4.7908 328.15 -7.1898 -16.3123 -4.0863 [DELTA][eta] (mPa*s) 313.15 -0.9028 -0.7268 -0.2127 318.15 -0.8069 -0.7852 -0.1061 323.15 -0.7589 -0.7364 0.093 328.15 -0.7126 -0.6943 0.2137 [K.sup.E.sub.s] ([TPa.sup.-1]) 313.15 -119.0039 -64.4234 -74.9361 318.15 -137.2976 -76.3846 -70.5856 323.15 -148.0003 -81.8649 -67.7606 328.15 -166.5237 -92.1709 -61.6439 [DELTA]R 313.15 -3.25811 4.787247 -1.77213 318.15 -3.20078 4.955419 -1.49922 323.15 -3.14001 5.033874 -1.26969 328.15 -3.0793 5.147192 -1.01287 [DELTA][G.sup.E] (J*[mol.sup.-1) 313.15 -1022.2560 -1753.98 -140.348 318.15 -1013.8590 -2190.4 88.3584 323.15 -1011.6820 -2200.58 769.1765 328.15 -1113.8360 -2249.67 1294.863 T/K [A.sub.3] [sigma] 313.15 12.8652 0.15687 318.15 15.6022 0.17024 323.15 17.7396 0.19337 328.15 18.0512 0.20482 313.15 0.25 0.00553 318.15 0.5942 0.00475 323.15 0.6582 0.00619 328.15 0.6476 0.0067 313.15 -36.2431 1.03835 318.15 -21.5844 0.97745 323.15 -17.6011 0.84832 328.15 -2.9525 0.87227 313.15 -3.9986 0.226222 318.15 -4.5735 0.239049 323.15 -4.89488 0.245337 328.15 -5.28097 0.254675 313.15 1173.282 15.8755 318.15 2252.137 14.30563 323.15 2310.619 22.20041 328.15 2307221 24.1139 TABLE 6: Interaction parameters for the McAllister model (5), Herric correlation (6), and Grunberg-Nissan correlation (7) for viscosity at different temperatures (DMSO-acetophenone). McAllister model T/K [eta] [eta] [sigma](eta)/ mPa*s 313.15 1.3242 1.3473 0.00016 318.15 1.350624 1.334886 0.00025 323.15 1.377883 1.314174 0.00038 328.15 1.348994 1.240874 0.00042 Herric correlation T/K [[alpha].sub.12] [[??].sub.12] [sigma](eta)/ mPa*s 313.15 -0.02338 -0.01368 0.00016 318.15 -0.0.26 -0.01677 0.00025 323.15 -0.02874 -0.01993 0.00038 328.15 -0.03047 -0.02084 0.00042 Grunberg-Nissan correlation T/K [d.sub.12] [sigma](eta)/ mPa*s 313.15 -0.0956181 0.156414 318.15 -0.1201454 0.095161 323.15 -0.1618181 0.124392 328.15 -0.1988545 0.2077 TABLE 7: Interaction parameters for the McAllister model (5), Herric correlation (6), and Grunberg-Nissan correlation (7) for viscosity at differnt temperatures (DMSO-p-xylene). McAllister model T/K [[eta].sub.12] [[eta].sub.12] [sigma](eta)/ mPa*s 313.15 1.04511700 0.88014850 0.00304 318.15 1.03668800 0.87514410 0.00310 323.15 1.02613100 0.87012170 328.15 1.01597400 0.86517980 Herric correlation T/K [[eta].sub.12] [[??].sub.12] [sigma](eta)/ mPa*s 313.15 0.04364338 0.13563440 0.00304 318.15 0.03664824 0.13067020 0.00310 323.15 0.03026920 0.12422880 0.00325 328.15 0.02245963 0.11706220 0.00327 Grunberg-Nissan correlation [d.sub.12] [sigma](eta)/ T/K mPa*s 313.15 -0.408281 0.01591 318.15 -0.377472 0.025161 323.15 -0.320472 0.01239 328.15 -0.312945 0.02016

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Title Annotation: | Research Article |
---|---|

Author: | Gill, Harmandeep Singh; Rattan, V.k. |

Publication: | Journal of Thermodynamics |

Article Type: | Report |

Geographic Code: | 1USA |

Date: | Jan 1, 2014 |

Words: | 5058 |

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