Therapeutic potential of alkaloids in cough treatment.
There are two types of cough i.e. productive cough with mucus and dry cough without mucus. Importantly, both types of cough required special treatment in order to improve patient's compliance. Different therapeutic agents have been practicing to treatment cough such as codeine alone or in combination; most of these formulations are sold as over-the-counter (OTC) drugs without caring the official guidelines and are found irrational. The American College of Chest Physicians suggested various guidelines for treating acute cough having no regards for OTC products . Another irrational approach in cough formulations that enhances the risk of unwanted effects is the combination of two or more drugs in the same formulation, above and beyond having no supporting therapeutic grounds or scientific evidence . Apart from irrational use, natural therapies are found more effective and safe compare to synthetic drugs [6,7], therefore encouraging the exploration of natural treasure for the treatment cough. Natural products serving the humanity by preventing or treating different pathological conditions since time immemorial [8,9]. The safety, affordability and believe of users of such product made an impressive impact on the world trade of such product . Alkaloids represent a very important and most widely therapeutically explored biochemical class of natural compounds. More than 27,000 alkaloids have been reported with more than 4000 years old history of applications [11,12]. There are numerous plants alkaloids reported with marked antitussive and expectorant activity for the treatment of cough while list of various commercial formulation is presented in Table 1. In recent times, several more purified alkaloids and their extracts showed promising antitussive effects coupled with expectorant activity [7,13-15]. Based on the preliminary effects, further detail studies on the mechanism(s) of these finding is suggested as the cough reflex may be due to sensory limb, central control or efferent limb as indication of various pathological conditions. The cough sensitive receptors are located in the bronchial tree, particularly in the junction of the trachea which can be stimulated mechanically or chemically e.g. by inhalation of various irritants than nerve impulses activate the cough center in the brain . It is, therefore, deem necessary to explore the clinical potential of such reported compounds in term of efficacy and safety.
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Haroon Khan *
Associate Professor, Department of Pharmacy, Abdul Wali Khan University Mardan 23200 Pakistan
* Corresponding author: Haroon Khan, Associate Professor and Chairman, Department of Pharmacy, Abdul Wali Khan university Mardan 23200 Pakistan, Tel: 3329123171; E-mail: email@example.com
Received October 13, 2015; Accepted October 17, 2015; Published JOctober 24, 2015
Table 1: List of commercial alkaloids used for the treatment of cough. S. No Alkaloid Name Commercial brand (s) Codeine Antitus[TM], Codicaps[TM], Tussipax[TM] Lobeline Citotal[TM], Lobatox[TM], Refrane[TM], Stopsmoke[TM] Noscapine Bequitusin[TM], Degoran[TM], Tossamine[TM], Tussisedal[TM] Theophylline Adenovasin[TM], Aerobin[TM], Euphyllin[TM], Theochron[TM] Ephedrine Amidoyna[TM], Bronchicum[TM], Peripherin[TM], Solamin[TM]
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|Publication:||Biology and Medicine|
|Date:||Mar 1, 2016|
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