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Therapeutic management of luteal insufficiency in repeat breeder cows.

Introduction

The sub-optimal reproductive performance of dairy cattle in India is the major challenge for the present day Veterinarian. The early embryonic mortality has been attributed to a predominant cause of reproductive failure. The majority of embryonic mortality (70-80%) occurs between 8th and 16th day after insemination (Santos et al., 2004). Delayed function of Corpus Luteum (CL) either alone or in combination with lowered secretion of progesterone during the luteal phase leading to early embryonic death is one of the major causes of repeat breeding syndrome (Thatcher et al., 1994). It was observed that a large pre-ovulatory follicle might produce a large CL to secrete more progesterone leading to efficient maternal recognition of pregnancy (Binelli, et al., 2001) and increases pregnancy rate following artificial Insemination (Vasconcelos et al., 2001). Administration of Gonodotrophin releasing hormone (GnRH) prior to or at the time of LH surge was found to cause an amplified preovulatory surge of LH (Lucy and Stevenson, 1986) and increase the numbers of large luteal cells on day 10th day of cycle to increase progesterone level in circulation as well as improve pregnancy rates (Mee et al., 1993). Keeping the above mentioned facts in view, the present work was planned to evaluate the best effective treatment schedule for Buserelin acetate in suspected luteal insufficiency leading to repeat breeding in cows.

Materials and Methods

Ninety Holstein Friesian crossbred repeat breeding cows of different age, under similar managemental practices, free from gross genital abnormalities and ovulatory disturbances were included in the study. Sub-clinical endometritis was ruled out with White Side test in all the cows. The cows were randomly divided into seven groups, T (n = 14), [T.sub.2] (n = 15), [T.sub.3] (n = 12), [T.sub.4] (n = 14), [T.sub.5] (n = 14), [T.sub.6] (n = 15) and [T.sub.7] (n = 6). All the cows except those in group [T.sub.7] (control) were treated with Buserelin acetate (Gynarich (a)) @ 2.5ml (10 mcg) IM at different days of estrous cycle. Cows in Group [T.sub.1], [T.sub.2] and [T.sub.3] received single dose on day 0, 5th and day 12th day of estrous cycle, respectively. Double injections on day 0 and 5 were given to the cows in group [T.sub.4] and on 0 and 12th day to the group [T.sub.5]. The cows in group [T.sub.6] were given triple injections on 0, 5th and day 12th. All the cows were inseminated at late hours of estrus. The cows not returning to estrus were examined per rectum for pregnancy on 60 days post insemination and conception rate was worked out.

Results and Discussion

Conception rate in treated cows under group [T.sub.1], [T.sub.2], [T.sub.3], [T.sub.4], [T.sub.5], and [T.sub.6] was recorded as 42.86, 40.00, 41.67, 50.00, 64.29 and 73.33 percent, respectively against the lowest value of 16.67 percent in control animals. Highest conception rate of 73.33 per cent was recorded in cows receiving Buserelin acetate injection on day 0, 5 and 12 followed by 64.29 percent observed in cows injected on day 0 and 12 only (Table-1).

Quadri et al. (2008) and Jaswal and Singh (2010) also reported increased conception rate in repeat breeding cows with GnRH injection at different days of estrous cycle. It was reported that injections of GnRH at or near the estrus increased the proportion of large luteal cells in the CL on day 10 of cycle resulting in more peripheral progesterone concentration and increased pregnancy rates in repeat breeding cows (Mee et al., 1993). Administration of GnRH on day 5 or 6 after estrus was found to alter follicular dynamics, induce luteal tissue development and increase progesterone concentration upto day 13 resulting in better pregnancy rate (Arnett et al., 2002). Further, it was opined that GnRH might acted through antiluteolytic mechanism causing depressed secretion of [PGF.sub.2[alpha]] giving enough time for maternal recognition of pregnancy (Mann and Picton, 1995). Better percentage of pregnancy rate in all the treated groups with Buserelin acetate injections at different day of estrous cycle in the present study might be due to the production of a large CL (Binelli et al., 2001) and formation of an accessory CL by the Buserelin acetate injection on 12th day causing prolongation of life span of CL to secrete more progesterone (Macmillan et al., 1986) leading to efficient maternal recognition of pregnancy.

Conclusion

Highest percentage of pregnancy (73.33%) observed in the present study with Buserelin acetate injections on 0, 5th and 12th day of estrous cycle might be suggested as a good protocol for treatment of cows with repeat breeding due to luteal insufficiency.

References

Arnett, M., Rhinehart, J.D., Bailey, J.D., Hightstone, R.B. and Anderson, L.H. (2002). Administration of gonadotropine releasing hormone on day 5 or 6 of the estrous cycle alters follicle dynamics and increases pregnancy rates in beef cattle. J. Anim. Sci. 80: 133-34.

Jaswal, R.S. and Singh, Madhumeet (2010). Effect of administration of Buserelin Acetate on different days of estrous cycle on conception in repeat breeder dairy cows. The Blue Cross Book, 25: 48-51.

Lucy, M.C. and Stevenson, J.S. (1986). Gonadotropine releasing hormone at estrus: luteinizing hormone, estradiol and progesterone during the periestrual and post insemination periods in dairy cattle. Biol. Reprod. 35: 300-11.

Mann, G.E. And Picton, H.M. (1995). Ovarian and uterine effect of a single Buserelin injection on day 12 of the estrous cycle. J. Reprod. Fertil. 7: 23.

Mee, M.O., Stevenson, J. S., Alexender, B.M. and Sasser, R.G. (1993). Administration of GnRH at estrus influences pregnancy rates, serum concentrations of LH FSH, Estradiol-17, pregnancy specific protein B and progesterone, proportion of luteal cell types and in vitro production of progesterone of in dairy cows. J. Anim. Sci. 71: 185-98.

Macmillan, K.L., Taufa, V.K. and Day, A.M. (1986). Effects of an agonist of gonadotropine releasing hormone (Buserelin) in cattle. III. Pregnancy rates after post insemination injections during metoestrus or dioestrous. Anim. Reprod. Sci. 11: 1-10.

Santos, J.E., Thatcher, W.W., Chebel, R.C., Cerri, R.L. and Galvao, K.N. (2004). The effect of embryonic death rates in cattle on the efficacy of estrus synchronization programmes. Anim. Reprod. Sci. 82/83: 513-35.

Thatcher, W.W., Staple, C.R., Danet-Desnovers G., Oldick, B. and Schimitt, E.B. (1994). Embryo health and mortality in sheep and cattle. J. Anim. Sci. 72: 16.

Vasconcelos, J.L.M., Sartori, R., Oliveira, H.N., Guenther, J.G. and Wiltbank, M.C. (2001). Reduction in size of the ovulatory follicle reduces subsequent luteal size and pregnancy rate. Theriogenol. 56:307-14.

D. K. Sarma (1), K. C. Nath (2) and D. Bhuyan (3)

Teaching Veterinary Clinical Complex

College of Veterinary Science

Assam Agricultural University

Khanapara

Guwahati--781022 (Assam)

(1) Veterinary Assistant Surgeon and Corresponding Author, E-mail: drdipak77@gmail.com

(2) Director of Clinics

(3) Professor, Animal Reprod., Gynae. and Obstetrics.

(a) - Brand of Intas Animal Health, Ahmedabad
Table 1: Effect of Buserelin acetate on
pregnancy rate in repeat breeding cows

Group           Day of        Cows       Cows      Percen-
              injection     treated    pregnant      tage
                                                     (%)

[T.sub.1]         0            14          6        42.86
[T.sub.2]         5            15          6        40.00
[T.sub.3]         12           12          5        41.67
[T.sub.4]      0 and 5         14          7        50.00
[T.sub.5]      0 and 12        14          9        64.29
[T.sub.6]    0, 5 and 12       15         11        73.33
[T.sub.7]         --           6           1        16.67
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Article Details
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Title Annotation:Clinical Article
Author:Sarma, D.K.; Nath, K.C.; Bhuyan, D.
Publication:Intas Polivet
Article Type:Report
Geographic Code:9INDI
Date:Jan 1, 2013
Words:1264
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