Therapeutic management of luteal insufficiency in repeat breeder cows.
The sub-optimal reproductive performance of dairy cattle in India is the major challenge for the present day Veterinarian. The early embryonic mortality has been attributed to a predominant cause of reproductive failure. The majority of embryonic mortality (70-80%) occurs between 8th and 16th day after insemination (Santos et al., 2004). Delayed function of Corpus Luteum (CL) either alone or in combination with lowered secretion of progesterone during the luteal phase leading to early embryonic death is one of the major causes of repeat breeding syndrome (Thatcher et al., 1994). It was observed that a large pre-ovulatory follicle might produce a large CL to secrete more progesterone leading to efficient maternal recognition of pregnancy (Binelli, et al., 2001) and increases pregnancy rate following artificial Insemination (Vasconcelos et al., 2001). Administration of Gonodotrophin releasing hormone (GnRH) prior to or at the time of LH surge was found to cause an amplified preovulatory surge of LH (Lucy and Stevenson, 1986) and increase the numbers of large luteal cells on day 10th day of cycle to increase progesterone level in circulation as well as improve pregnancy rates (Mee et al., 1993). Keeping the above mentioned facts in view, the present work was planned to evaluate the best effective treatment schedule for Buserelin acetate in suspected luteal insufficiency leading to repeat breeding in cows.
Materials and Methods
Ninety Holstein Friesian crossbred repeat breeding cows of different age, under similar managemental practices, free from gross genital abnormalities and ovulatory disturbances were included in the study. Sub-clinical endometritis was ruled out with White Side test in all the cows. The cows were randomly divided into seven groups, T (n = 14), [T.sub.2] (n = 15), [T.sub.3] (n = 12), [T.sub.4] (n = 14), [T.sub.5] (n = 14), [T.sub.6] (n = 15) and [T.sub.7] (n = 6). All the cows except those in group [T.sub.7] (control) were treated with Buserelin acetate (Gynarich (a)) @ 2.5ml (10 mcg) IM at different days of estrous cycle. Cows in Group [T.sub.1], [T.sub.2] and [T.sub.3] received single dose on day 0, 5th and day 12th day of estrous cycle, respectively. Double injections on day 0 and 5 were given to the cows in group [T.sub.4] and on 0 and 12th day to the group [T.sub.5]. The cows in group [T.sub.6] were given triple injections on 0, 5th and day 12th. All the cows were inseminated at late hours of estrus. The cows not returning to estrus were examined per rectum for pregnancy on 60 days post insemination and conception rate was worked out.
Results and Discussion
Conception rate in treated cows under group [T.sub.1], [T.sub.2], [T.sub.3], [T.sub.4], [T.sub.5], and [T.sub.6] was recorded as 42.86, 40.00, 41.67, 50.00, 64.29 and 73.33 percent, respectively against the lowest value of 16.67 percent in control animals. Highest conception rate of 73.33 per cent was recorded in cows receiving Buserelin acetate injection on day 0, 5 and 12 followed by 64.29 percent observed in cows injected on day 0 and 12 only (Table-1).
Quadri et al. (2008) and Jaswal and Singh (2010) also reported increased conception rate in repeat breeding cows with GnRH injection at different days of estrous cycle. It was reported that injections of GnRH at or near the estrus increased the proportion of large luteal cells in the CL on day 10 of cycle resulting in more peripheral progesterone concentration and increased pregnancy rates in repeat breeding cows (Mee et al., 1993). Administration of GnRH on day 5 or 6 after estrus was found to alter follicular dynamics, induce luteal tissue development and increase progesterone concentration upto day 13 resulting in better pregnancy rate (Arnett et al., 2002). Further, it was opined that GnRH might acted through antiluteolytic mechanism causing depressed secretion of [PGF.sub.2[alpha]] giving enough time for maternal recognition of pregnancy (Mann and Picton, 1995). Better percentage of pregnancy rate in all the treated groups with Buserelin acetate injections at different day of estrous cycle in the present study might be due to the production of a large CL (Binelli et al., 2001) and formation of an accessory CL by the Buserelin acetate injection on 12th day causing prolongation of life span of CL to secrete more progesterone (Macmillan et al., 1986) leading to efficient maternal recognition of pregnancy.
Highest percentage of pregnancy (73.33%) observed in the present study with Buserelin acetate injections on 0, 5th and 12th day of estrous cycle might be suggested as a good protocol for treatment of cows with repeat breeding due to luteal insufficiency.
Arnett, M., Rhinehart, J.D., Bailey, J.D., Hightstone, R.B. and Anderson, L.H. (2002). Administration of gonadotropine releasing hormone on day 5 or 6 of the estrous cycle alters follicle dynamics and increases pregnancy rates in beef cattle. J. Anim. Sci. 80: 133-34.
Jaswal, R.S. and Singh, Madhumeet (2010). Effect of administration of Buserelin Acetate on different days of estrous cycle on conception in repeat breeder dairy cows. The Blue Cross Book, 25: 48-51.
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D. K. Sarma (1), K. C. Nath (2) and D. Bhuyan (3)
Teaching Veterinary Clinical Complex
College of Veterinary Science
Assam Agricultural University
(1) Veterinary Assistant Surgeon and Corresponding Author, E-mail: email@example.com
(2) Director of Clinics
(3) Professor, Animal Reprod., Gynae. and Obstetrics.
(a) - Brand of Intas Animal Health, Ahmedabad
Table 1: Effect of Buserelin acetate on pregnancy rate in repeat breeding cows Group Day of Cows Cows Percen- injection treated pregnant tage (%) [T.sub.1] 0 14 6 42.86 [T.sub.2] 5 15 6 40.00 [T.sub.3] 12 12 5 41.67 [T.sub.4] 0 and 5 14 7 50.00 [T.sub.5] 0 and 12 14 9 64.29 [T.sub.6] 0, 5 and 12 15 11 73.33 [T.sub.7] -- 6 1 16.67
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|Title Annotation:||Clinical Article|
|Author:||Sarma, D.K.; Nath, K.C.; Bhuyan, D.|
|Date:||Jan 1, 2013|
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