Therapeutic management of dystocia due to cervical stenosis in a cow.
Amongst all domestic animals, cattle and buffaloes are considered as species in which incidence of dystocia appears to be highest. Dystocia due to maternal factors is caused either by inadequacies of birth canal or by deficiency of expulsive force (Noakes et al., 2009). Cervical stenosis causing dystocia is seen occasionally in cow and ewe and rarely in other domestic animals (Roberts, 2004). Cervical priming refers to dilating and softening of cervix in first stage of labor as a gradual process (Jackson, 2004). Incomplete dilatation in multiparous cows may be associated with uterine inertia caused by hypocalcaemia, in animals, that respond to calcium therapy rapidly (Noakes et al., 2002). In this case report dystocia due to uterine inertia leading to cervical stenosis along with successful relieving dystocia through medical management is described.
History and Clinical Observations
A pluriparous Gir cow aged 8 years in third parity was presented with history of dystocia. General physical condition of animal was normal. The two previous parturition were also normal. On clinical examination, cow was at or near term, as denoted by mammary changes and ligamentous relaxation in pelvis. The cow was in a standing position and restlessness due to abdominal discomfort, coupled with few feeble abdominal contractions but no progress was made. Per-vaginal examination revealed completely closed cervical os. Fetal head and limbs were palpable on per-rectal examination and pedal reflexes was present. On the basis of history and clinical observation, case was diagnosed as uterine inertia leading to cervical stenosis and decided to proceed further for induced parturition.
The cow was treated with Dexamethasone @ 44mg, Cloprostenol sodium @ 526 [micro]g and Valethamate bromide @ 100mg intramuscularly. After administration of treatment, the animal was monitored at every 2 hour interval by per-vaginal examination for progress. After 12 hours, there was partial dilation of the cervical os (three finger dilation) and felt fetal reflexes, indicating live fetus. Liquefaction of cervical seal and sinking of sacrosciatic ligament was noticed. Again on second day treatment was followed by Dexamethasone @ 44mg, Inf. Mifex @ 450ml i/v once and Inf. DNS 5% (2L) was mixed with 20IU Oxytocin. After 24 hours complete dilation was achieved following treatment. The fetus was alive with anterior presentation, dorsal position and downward deviation of head between forelimbs and adjacent to sternum with bilateral shoulder flexion as posture. The posture was corrected by repelling fetus and lifting muzzle up into pelvis. A calving rope was placed around fetlock of both the limbs. Traction was applied manually with two assistants. After delivery, uterus and birth canal were checked for signs of damage and hemorrhages. The cow and calf were doing well.
Result and Discussion
Dystocia will occur when expulsive force is insufficient or when birth canal is inadequate in size and shape or when presenting diameter of fetus is greater than diameter of birth canal. Cause may be either maternal or fetal in origin. In present case, fetus was confirmed to be alive. The primary cause was diagnosed as uterine inertia leading to cervical stenosis. So delivery per-vaginum was the formost consideration. The cervical stenosis was relieved by medical management and ensuring sufficient time for dilatation of caudal reproductive tract. The use of [PGF.sub.2][alpha] along with Valethamate bromide successfully dilated cervical canal. Cervical dilation recorded after 24 hours of Valethamate bromide administration in this study might be due to its neurotropic (anticholinergic) and papaverine like action on cervical smooth muscles. This observations are correlated with some previous study (Das et al., (2008) and Prasad et al., (2011)) regarding beneficial effects of Valethamate bromide along with [PGF.sub.2][alpha] for a successful correction of dystocia due to undilatation of cervix. Glucocorticoids acted on fetoplacental unit to increase production of estradiol and [PGF.sub.2][alpha] resulting in induced parturition. Oxytocin induced myometrial contraction, provided sufficient expelling force for normal parturition. The intravenous administration of Calcium, Magnesium and DNS provide energy and muscular tonicity and contraction of smooth uterine musculature which helps to correct uterine inertia, respectively. Primary cause of present case was cervical stenosis leading to myometrial exhaustion resulted in secondary uterine inertia.
Das, G. K., Ravinder, R. D., Deori, S., Jaglan, P., Kumar. P, Gokuldas, P. P., Ahmed, S., Rafiq, H. and Uma, S. (2008). Incomplete cervical dilatation causing dystocia in a buffalo. The Indian Journal of Veterinary Research. 17: 41.
Jackson, P.G.G. (2004). Handbook of Veterinary Obstetrics. 2nd ed, Elsevier Sci Ltd., p.42-43.
Noakes, D.E., Parkinson, T.J., England, G.C.W. and Arthur, G.H. (2002). Arthurs Veterinary Reproduction and Obstetrics. 8th ed, Elsevier Sci Ltd., p. 335.
Noakes, D.E., Parkinson, T.J. and England, G.C.W. (2009). Veterinary Reproduction and Obstetrics. 9th edn, Saunders Elsevier, London, U.K., p. 210.
Prasad, J.K., Binsila, B.K., Pandey, M.A., Das, G.K. and Ghosh, S.K. (2011). Cervical stenosis due to uterine inertia leading to dystocia in a crossbred cattle. JIVA. 9: 62-63.
Roberts, S. J. (2004). Veterinary Obstetrics and Genital Diseases (Theriogenology), 2nd Edn, CBS Publishers and distributors, New Delhi, India.
S.S. Parikh (1), P.U. Gajbhiye (2), K.B. Savaliya (3) and S.N. Godasara (4)
Cattle Breeding Farm Junagadh Agricultural University (JAU) Junagadh--362001 (Gujarat).
(1.) Assistant Research Scientist and Corresponding author. E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
(2.) Research Scientist
(3.) Veterinary Officer
(4.) Assistant Research Scientist
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|Title Annotation:||Short Communication|
|Author:||Parikh, S.S.; Gajbhiye, P.U.; Savaliya, K.B.; Godasara, S.N.|
|Date:||Jul 1, 2014|
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