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Therapeutic management of acute prostatitis in dogs.

Introduction

Common canine prostatic disorders include benign prostatic hypertrophy (BPH), prostatitis, prostatic abscess, prostatic cysts and prostatic adenocarcinoma. Prostatitis is probably the second most common canine prostatic disorder, and can be acute or chronic. Predisposing factors to infection include underlying prostatic disease (such as BPH, cysts, neoplasia, squamous metaplasia) as well as urethral diseases (urolithiasis, neoplasia, trauma, strictures) and urinary tract infections (UTI).

Clinical Observation

The investigations included (7) male dogs of Spitz (2), Labrador (1), Irish Setter (1), Doberman (3), breeds, aged between 4 and 15 years with a body weight of 10-30 kg. Presenting clinical signs in dogs with acute prostatitis included depression, pain on rectal palpation of prostate, fever, stranguria, pollakiuria, hematuria, tenesmus, stiff gait and edema of scrotum, prepuce or hindlimb. Prostatic wash was collected and samples were subjected for cytology and culture. Ultrasound was performed in all the dogs. Haematobiochemical and urinalysis were also carried out.

Treatment and Discussion

All dogs were treated with Intacef Tazo (a) (Ceftriaxone and Tazobactam) @ 20 mg/kg b.wt. bid i.v. for a period of two weeks. Antibiotic was chosen based on culture and sensitivity. The prostate gland represents a privileged site: the acidic pH (6.4) of prostatic fluid and the tissue's lipid membrane constitute a 'blood-prostate barrier' for most antibiotics, so penetration is poor and efficacy generally limited (Nicola, 2006). Considering that Ceftriaxone and Tazobactam was chosen for the treatment. Out of seven dogs one dog succumbed with renal failure, two dogs recovered completely and in four dogs though the clinical signs were resolved completely, the size and countour of gland were same on ultrasonography and was referred to surgery for castration.

In the present study the clinical signs resolved in all cases within two weeks of treatment. Haematological parameters varied with disease duration and severity, but neutrophilic leucocytosis was present in all the dogs which proved the existing bacterial infection. Elevated serum alkaline phosphatase was also recorded in all cases. Urinalysis demonstrated haematuria, bacteriuria, leucocytes and and increased squamous epithelial cells. Prostatic wash revealed Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus and Klebsiella sp. Escherichia coli is the most common bacterial organism identified in dogs with bacterial prostatitis, followed by Staphylococcus aureus, Klebsiella spp., Proteus mirabilis, Mycoplasma canis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Enterobacter spp., Streptococcus spp., Pasteurella spp. and Haemophilus spp. Brucella canis and anaerobic bacteria also have been reported as was the infections with fungal agents-Blastomyces dermatitidis, Cryptococcus neoformans, or Coccidioides immitis. via hematogenous spread, urethral ascent, or penetration through the scrotum with descending prostate infection from a testicular source (Klausner et al., 1995). In our study similar organisms were isolated (gram negative and positive bacteria) indicating that the dogs might have had predisposing urinary tract infection and this warranted the use of broad spectrum antibiotic. The normal prostate gland is inherently resistant to bacterial infection, with natural host defense mechanisms including genital tract mucosal defense barriers, acidity of prostatic fluid (pH 6.1 to 6.5), urethral peristalsis, mechanical flushing during urination and ejaculation, the urethral high pressure zone and zinc-associated prostatic antibacterial factor that is secreted by the gland into seminal fluid; Any underlying impairment in these defenses will thus predispose to infection, and concurrence of other prostatic disorders may alter normal defense mechanisms that prevent retrograde movement of bacteria (Nicola, 2006). Ultrasonographically, the gland was enlarged with a more complex contour and was in homogeneous in nature (hyperechoic with hypoechoic to anechoic fluid-filled cavities) (Fig. 1-3), that was difficult to differentiate from cysts except in one dog that succumbed with renal failure. This dog had a huge abscess measuring 1.3 cm x 2.1 cm. The present findings are consistent with the observations of Feeney et al. (1987). Use of antibiotics in controlling the ongoing infection and subsequent castration results in prostatic atrophy. In refractive cases, total prostatectomy is only option though the procedure is complicated but may also lead to side effects like urinary incontinence.

References

Feeney D.A., Johnston G.R., Klausner J.S., Perman V., Leininger J.R. and Tomlinson MJ. (1987). Canine prostatic disease--comparison of ultrasonographic appearance with morphologic and microbiologic findings: 30 cases (1981-1985). J Am Vet Med Assoc. 190:1027-34.

Klausner, J.S., Johnston, S.D. and Bell, F.W. (1995). Canine prostatic diseases. In: Kirk, R.W. Ed.., Current Veterinary Therapy XII. W.B. Saunders, Philadelphia, PA, pp. 1103-08.

Nicola M.A. Parry. (2006). The Canine Prostate Gland: Part 2, Inflammatory Diseases.UK Vet; Volume 11, No 8, March: 37-41.

P. Selvaraj, P.A. Enbavelan (1), A.P. Nambi and S.R. Srinivasan

Veterinary University Peripheral Hospital Tamil Nadu Veterinary and Animal Sciences University (TANUVAS) Madhavaram Milk Colony Chennai--600051 (Tamil Nadu)

(1.) Corresponding author. E-mail: enbaequine@gmail.com

(a)--Brand of Intas Animal Health, Ahmedabad
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Title Annotation:Clinical Article
Author:Selvaraj, P.; Enbavelan, P.A.; Nambi, A.P.; Srinivasan, S.R.
Publication:Intas Polivet
Article Type:Report
Date:Jan 1, 2015
Words:787
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